comp.groupware FAQ: Bibliography5: Frequently Asked Questions

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Apr 22, 1997, 3:00:00 AM4/22/97

Archive-name: comp-groupware-faq/bibliography5
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Last-modified: 1995.4.4
Version: 3.2
Copyright: 1989 - 1995 (C) David S. Stodolsky, PhD

Groupware Bibliography - Part 5

Group Memory Management
From: (Nils Bundgaard)
Newsgroups: comp.groupware
Subject: Re: Group Memory, Group Memory Management
Date: 15 Sep 1994 10:42:57 GMT

Thus spake (Marcus Klosterberg):

>Hi there,

>i am looking for information, papers, books or any other kind of contributions
>about Group Memory and Group Memory Management. I need this literature for my

You might benefit from "Organizational Memory", an article by James P
Walsh and Gedrado Rivera Ungsen trying to frame this
concept. Organizations is here groups of people, possibly large and
distributed, sharing a common goal. In Academy of Management Review,
1991, Vol 16, No 1, p57-91.

Subject: Re: Group Memory, Group Memory Management
Message-ID: <>

Hoffer & Valacich, "Group Memory in Group Support Systems: A Foundation
for Design," in Jessup & Valacich (eds.) _Group Support Systems: New
Perspectives_, MacMillan, 1993, pp. 214-229.

Information & Systems Management Dept, School of Business and Management
The University of Science and Technology
Clearwater Bay, Sai Kung, HONG KONG

From: (Munir Mandviwalla)
Newsgroups: comp.groupware
Subject: Re: Group Memory, Group Memory Management
Date: 16 Sep 1994 14:24:37 GMT

Sandoe, K., Olfmanl, L. and Mandviwalla, M. Meeting in Time: Recording the
Workgroup Conversation. Proceedings of the Twelfth International
Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), 261-271, 1991.

In addition, there is a minitrack dedicated to Organizational Memory
in the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. If you have
access to the proceedings, there were a number of interesting papers
in that track last year.

GDSS cultural impacts
From: (
Newsgroups: comp.groupware
Subject: Re: GDSS cultural impacts
Date: 6 Sep 1994 13:57:52 GMT

In article <34g2oj$> (AlexiaM) writes:
>From: (AlexiaM)
>Subject: GDSS cultural impacts
>Date: 5 Sep 1994 17:32:03 -0400
>With this in mind, do you have research, articles, people to contact which
>deal with the cultural issues of GDSS?
For a discussion of and experiments involving people from the Confucian
culture, see:
1. "A Comparison of Malaysian & American Groups Using a GDSS" Aiken, et
al., Journal of Information Systems, in press.
2. "A Chinese GDSS" Aiken, et al., International Journal of Information
and Management Sciences, in press.
3. "Using GDSS to Improve Meetings: Lessons for Korean Management,"
Aiken, et al., International Journal of Management, in press.

I have other papers currently under review on GDSS/culture. Of
particular interest, I believe, is how Japanese people use a GDSS. All
experiments with the GDSS involved subjects' written native languages.
I could find no other research on Confucian groups using a GDSS.

Groupware Apps analysis & design
From: (KWLyon)
Newsgroups: comp.groupware
Subject: Re: Groupware Apps analysis & design
Date: 5 Feb 1995 22:03:01 -0500

>In article <3gg65h$>
Vacca) writes:
>>>Groupware applications are rather different from classic data
>>>management systems. They involve, among the others, things like
>>>coordination, workflow...
>In article <> I wrote:
>>I would suggest starting with the Wirfs-Brock book on object oriented
>>for learning about CRC and responsibility-driven design, then Design
>>Patterns, and then the book on ROOM, (Called "Real-Time Object-Oriented
>I should add that for designing coordination/workflow the Speech-Act
>would apply. Look for various references authored by Flores and/or
Another important way in which groupware apps differ from traditional
information system apps is that they deal with an entirely different set
of systems. By this I mean that while traditional information systems
improve our business processes, groupware improves our human collaboration

We've been doing the former for 50+ years now, and most everybody expects
to be applying computers to business systems. (By business processes, I
mean whatever processes are core to an organization; that is, that give
the org its identity. So every org has it's business processes, even if
it isn't a "business.")

But groupware addresses collaboration processes, and few organizations
focus very much attention on these processes. Obviously, these processes
are necessary to get anything done, but we dont' pay attention to them.
(Ask any human resources or organizational effectiveness person how much
line managers pay attention to them. The answer is: "Not much!")

So....any application of groupware must deal with the fact that not only
do we not have much of a history of applying technology to collaboration
processes, we don't have much of a history of actually doing anything to
improve our collaboration processes in the first place.

I see this as being much more a traditional "change management" problem
than it is a technology implementation problem. I'll be giving a paper at
Groupware '95 in Boston on Monday, March 6, on how to use change
management techniques to get organizational buyin to groupware . Hope to
see some of you there!

As a resource, I'd recommend "Organizational Transitions: Managing
Complex Change" by Beckhard & Harris, published as part of the Addison
Wesley OD Series.


Kenneth W. Lyon & Associates (805) 658-7547
84 Saint Paul's Drive Fax: (805) 658-2193
Ventura, CA 93003 Internet: KWL...@AOL.COM

Virtual workgroups
Newsgroups: comp.groupware
Subject: Re: WANTED - Info on Virtual workgroups
Date: Thu, 04 Aug 94 15:30:52 PDT

I have found a good source of information is the new book Globalwork: Bridging
Distance, Culture & Time by Mary O'Hara-Devereaux & Robert Johansen,
Jossey-Bass, 1994 ISBN 1-55542-602-6.

Virtual Organizations
From: Andrew Luter <71672...@CompuServe.COM>
Newsgroups: comp.groupware
Subject: Re: REQUEST: Info on Virtual Organiza..
Date: 2 Feb 1995 14:56:38 GMT

You might want to look into the working of Chiat Day advertising.
They have rolled out the most hyped version of the virtual

There was a really great article about it in I.D. [Industrial
Design] last month...and also one in Wired a few months back
[sorry no dates]

They have taken a true look at the virtual environment both from
a hardware/software viewpoint, as well as a workspace/environment
point of view.

From: schneider@horus
Newsgroups: comp.groupware
Subject: Re: REQUEST: Info on Virtual Organizations
Date: Mon, 6 Feb 1995 11:20:59

In article <> Bruce Sorrell <> writes:

>Our organization is searching for information on the design and operation

try the classic (if you don't know already)
- William Davidow & Michael Malone: The Virtual Corporation, New York (Harper
Collins) 1992,
and the brandnew
- David Birchall & Laurence Lyons: Demystifying the Virtual Organisation,
London (Pitman) 1995.

Virtual regards,
Uli Schneider, Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme AG, Munich, Germany

Readings in Groupware and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
From: (Michael Morgan)
Subject: Baecker description

Readings in Groupware and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work:
Assisting Human-Human Collaboration

Written and Edited by Ronald M. Baecker (University of Toronto)

882 pages, 1993
ISBN 1-55860-241-0

Morgan Kaufmann Publishers
340 Pine Street, San Francisco, CA 94104, 800-745-7323

Groupware is multi-user software that supports computer supported
cooperative work (CSCW). CSCW is computer assisted cooperative
activity, such as problem solving or communication, carried out by
a group of collaborating individuals. Together, this technology
and concept promise to revolutionize the use of computers. This
book is a comprehensive introduction to this rapidly expanding

The papers in this volume represent the best of the published
literature on groupware and CSCW. They were chosen by the editor
for their breadth of coverage of the field, their clarity of
expression and presentation, their excellence in terms of technical
innovation or behavioral insight, their historical significance and
their utility as sources for further reading. Taken as a whole,
the papers and their introductions are a complete sourcebook to the

This book will be useful for computer professionals involved in the
development or purchase of groupware technology as well as
researchers and managers. It should also serve as a valuable text
for university courses on CSCW, groupware and human-computer

Expanded Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Expanded Table of Contents
I. Introduction

1. Introduction to Computer Supported Cooperative Work
Groupware: Some Issues and Experiences
Clarence Ellis, Simon Gibbs, and Gail Rein
Computer Supported Cooperative Work: Cases and Concepts
Mike Robinson
CSCW: Four Characters in Search of a Context
Liam J. Bannon and Kjeld Schmidt
Being There: The Promise of Multimedia Communications
David Brittan

2. The Adoption, Deployment, and Use of Groupware
Groupware in Practice: An Interpretation of Work Experiences
Christine V. Bullen and John L. Bennett
Building the Business Case for Group Support Technology
Brad Q. Post
Groupware and Cooperative Work: Problems and Prospects
Jonathan Grudin

II. Behavioural Foundations and Enabling Technologies

3. Human Behaviour in Groups and Organizations
Groups and Human Behavior (excerpt) from Groups: Interaction
and Performance
Joseph E. McGrath
Time, Interaction, and Performance
Joseph E. McGrath
How to Run a Meeting
Antony Jay
The Group Facilitator: A CSCW Perspective
Stephen Viller
Visual Communication and Social Interaction from The Social
Psychology of Telecommunications
John Short, Ederyn Williams, and Bruce Christie
A Typology of Tasks (excerpt) from Groups: Interaction and
Joseph E. McGrath
Communication Modes and Task Performance from The Social
Psychology of Telecommunications
John Short, Ederyn Williams, and Bruce Christie
A Typology of Organizational Structure
Henry Mintzberg

4. Groupware Design and Evaluation Methodologies
Designing for Cooperation Q Cooperating in Design
Morten Kyng
Methods for the Study of Groups (excerpt) from Groups:
Interaction and Performance
Joseph E. McGrath
Understanding Practice: Video as a Medium for Reflection and
Lucy A. Suchman and Randall H. Trigg
Ethnographic Workflow Analysis: Specifications for Design
Danielle Fafchamps
Grounding in Communication
Herbert H. Clark and Susan E. Brennan

5. Case Studies of Cooperative Work
How People Write Together
Ilona R. Posner and Ronald M. Baecker
Findings from Observational Studies of Collaborative Work
John C. Tang
Twinkling Lights and Nested Loops: Distributed Problem Solving
and Spreadsheet Development
Bonnie A. Nardi and James R. Miller
Analyzing Distributed Cognition in Software Teams: A Case
Study of Team Programming During Perfective Software
Nick V. Flor and Edwin L. Hutchins
Informal Communication in Organizations: Form, Function, and
Robert E. Kraut, Robert S. Fish, Robert W. Root, and
Barbara L. Chalfonte
Cooperative Support for Computer Work: A Social Perspective on
the Empowering of End Users
Andrew Clement

6. Enabling Technologies and Theories
Vinton G. Cerf
Advances in Interactive Digital Multimedia Systems
Edward A. Fox
Sound Support for Collaboration
Bill Gaver
Hypertext: An Introduction and Survey (excerpts)
Jeff Conklin
What is Coordination Theory and How Can It Help Design
Cooperative Work Systems
Thomas W. Malone and Kevin Crowston
CSCW and Distributed Systems: The Problem of Control
Tom Rodden and Gordon Blair

III. Asynchronous Groupware

7. Electronic Mail and Computer Conferencing
A Lesson in Electronic Mail from Connections
Robert F. Sproull
Computer-Mediated Communication Requirements for Group Support
Murray Turoff
Increasing Personal Connections from Connections
Lee S. Sproull and Sara Kiesler
Electronic Groups at Work
Thomas Finholt and Lee S. Sproull
Work Group Structures and Computer Support: A Field Experiment
J.D. Eveland and Tora K. Bikson

8. Structured Messages, Agents, and Workflows
The Information Lens: An Intelligent System for Information
Sharing and Coordination
Thomas W. Malone, Kenneth R. Grant, Kum-Yew Lai, Ramana
Rao, and David A. Rosenblitt
Object Lens: A Spreadsheet for Cooperative Work
Kum-Yew Lai, Thomas W. Malone, and Ken-Chiang Yu
Power, Ease of Use and Cooperative Work in a Practical
Multimedia Message System
Nathaniel S. Borenstein and Chris A. Thyberg
Active Mail: A Framework for Integrated Groupware Applications
Yaron Goldberg, Marilyn Safran, William Silverman, and
Ehud Shapiro
Computer Systems and the Design of Organizational Interaction
Fernando Flores, Michael Graves, Brad Hartfield, and
Terry Winograd
Electronic Group Calendaring: Experiences and Expectations
Beth M. Lange

9. Cooperative Hypertext and Organizational Memory
Hypertext and Collaborative Work: The Example of Intermedia
George P. Landow
Higher Levels of Agency for Children in Knowledge Building: A
Challenge for the Design of New Knowledge Media
Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter
Issues in the Design of Computer Support for Co-authoring and
Christine M. Neuwirth, David S. Kaufer, Ravinder
Chandhok, and James H. Morris
Building an Electronic Community System
Bruce R. Schatz
Capturing Organizational Memory
E. Jeffrey Conklin
Report on a Development Project Use of an Issue-Based
Information System
K.C. Burgess Yakemovic and E. Jeffrey Conklin

IV. Synchronous Groupware

10. Desktop Conferencing
WYSIWIS Revised: Early Experiences with Multiuser Interfaces
Mark Stefik, Daniel G. Bobrow, Gregg Foster, Stan
Lanning, and Deborah G. Tatar
Design for Conversation: Lessons from Cognoter
Deborah G. Tatar, Gregg Foster, and Daniel G. Bobrow
Issues and Experiences Designing and Implementing Two Group
Drawing Tools
Saul Greenberg, Mark Roseman, Dave Webster, and Ralph
Designing Group-enabled Applications: A Spreadsheet Example
Irene Greif

11. System and Language Support for Desktop Conferencing
MMConf: An Infrastructure for Building Shared Multimedia
Terrence Crowley, Paul Milazzo, Ellie Baker, Harry
Forsdick, and Raymond Tomlinson
Replicated Architectures for Shared Window Systems: A Critique
J. Chris Lauwers, Thomas A. Joseph, Keith A. Lantz, and
Allyn L. Romanow
Collaboration Awareness in Support of Collaboration
Transparency: Requirements for the Next Generation of
Shared Window Systems
J. Chris Lauwers and Keith A. Lantz
Languages for the Construction of Multi-User Multi-Media
Synchronous (MUMMS) Applications
Ralph D. Hill
Primitives for Programming Multi-User Interfaces
Prasun Dewan and Rajiv Chaudhary

12. Electronic Meeting and Decision Rooms
Observation of Executives Using a Computer Supported Meeting
Marilyn M. Mantei
Liveboard: A Large Interactive Display Supporting Group
Meetings, Presentations and Remote Collaboration
Scott Elrod, Richard Bruce, Rich Gold, David Goldberg,
Frank Halasz, William Janssen, David Lee, Kim McCall,
Elin Pederson, Ken Pier, John Tang, and Brent Welch
Electronic Meeting Systems to Support Group Work
Jay F. Nunamaker, Alan R. Dennis, Joseph S. Valacich,
Douglas R. Vogel, and Joey F. George
Experiences at IBM with Group Support Systems: A Field Study
Jay F. Nunamaker, Douglas R. Vogel, Alan Heminger, Ben
Martz, Ron Grohowski, and Chris McGoff
The Impact of Technological Support on Groups: An Assessment
of the Empirical Research
Alain Pinsonneault and Kenneth L. Kraemer

13. Media Spaces
Videoplace (excerpt) from Artificial Reality II
Myron Krueger
The Media Space: A Research Project into the Use of Video as a
Design Medium (excerpts)
Steve Harrison and Scott Minneman
Experiences in an Exploratory Distributed Organization
Mark Abel
Experiences in the Use of a Media Space
Marilyn M. Mantei, Ronald M. Baecker, Abigail J. Sellen,
William A.S. Buxton, Thomas Milligan, and Barry Wellman
Portholes: Supporting Awareness in a Distributed Work Group
Paul Dourish and Sara Bly
Telepresence: Integrating Shared Task and Person Spaces
William A.S. Buxton
Design of TeamWorkstation: A Realtime Shared Workspace Fusing
Desktops and Computer Screens
Hiroshi Ishii and Masaaki Ohkubo
ClearBoard: A Seamless Medium for Shared Drawing and
Conversation with Eye Contact
Hiroshi Ishii and Minoru Kobayashi
Disembodied Conduct: Communication through Video in a Multi-
Media Office Environment
Christian Heath and Paul Luff
Beyond Being There
Jim Hollan and Scott Stornetta

V. Summary and Conclusions

14. The Future of Groupware for CSCW


Michael B. Morgan
Morgan Kaufmann Publishers
340 Pine Street
San Francisco, CA 94104

Voice: 415)392-2665 ext. 305
Fax: 415)982-2665

Meeting Space
From: (Chris Hand)
Subject: Meeting Space (comp.groupware FAQ)
Date: Thu, 6 Apr 1995 22:20:07 +0200 (BST)

Interview with
Jon Callas (of WorldBenders) which also covers MeetingSpace:

C Hand, ``Meet me in Cyberspace''. Computer-Mediated Communication
Magazine, Volume 1 Number 5, September 1994.



David S. Stodolsky Euromath Center University of Copenhagen Tel.: +45 38 33 03 30 Fax: +45 38 33 88 80 (C)

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