Artificial Intelligence FAQ: Bibliography 4/6 [Monthly posting]

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;;; ****************************************************************
;;; Answers to Questions about Artificial Intelligence *************
;;; ****************************************************************
;;; Written by Ric Crabbe, Amit Dubey, and Mark Kantrowitz
;;; ai_4.faq

This part of the AI FAQ provides a bibliography of good introductory
texts, overviews of AI and specific subfields of AI, and some
important papers in those subfields. If you feel that there is a
reference or set of references which should be added to this FAQ, or
references which should be removed, please send email to or When suggesting references
to be included in a particular subfield, only suggest the best two or
three references (or a particularly well-written overview). It is NOT
the intention of this listing to be a comprehensive AI bibliography.

Books suggested by their authors must present a strongly argued case.

Part 4 (Bibliography):
Bibliography of introductory texts, overviews and references
Addresses and phone numbers for major AI publishers

[4-0] General web repositories(was: Research Index (nee Citeceer))
[4-1] AI in general (Introductions, Overviews)
[4-2] Search and Game Playing
[4-3] Knowledge Representation
[4-4] Logic
[4-5] Planning
[4-6] Natural Language Processing (NLP)
[4-7] Speech Recognition and Synthesis
[4-8] Connectionism and Neural Nets
[4-9] Machine Learning
[4-10] Case-Based Reasoning
[4-11] Genetic Algorithms
[4-12] Production Systems, Expert Systems and Match Algorithms
[4-13] Integrated AI Architectures
[4-14] Fuzzy Logic
[4-15] Artificial Life and Cellular Automata
[4-16] Qualitative Physics and Model Based Reasoning
[4-17] Task-specific Architectures for Problem Solving
[4-18] Automated Deduction/Theorem Proving
[4-19] Probabilistic Reasoning
[4-20] Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Truth Maintenance Systems (TMS)
[4-21] Robotics and Computer Vision
[4-22] Animats and Autonomous Agents
[4-23] Distributed AI
[4-24] User/Agent Modeling
[4-25] Philosophy of AI
[4-26] Cyc
[4-27] Constraint-based Scheduling
[4-28] Music and AI
[4-29] AI and Education
[4-30] Blackboard Architectures
[4-31] Temporal Reasoning and Modal Logic
[4-32] Data Mining
[4-33] Medicine/Biology/Bioinformatics
[4-34] AI book publication announcements mailing list
[4-35] Who are the major AI publishers?
[4-36] How do I get a copy of the proceedings to conference <x>?
[4-37] How do I get a copy of <x>'s PhD dissertation?
[4-38] How do I get Tech Report X?
[4-39] Videotapes and Magazines

Search for [#] to get to question number # quickly.

Subject: [4-0] General web repositories(was: Research Index (nee Citeceer))

"ResearchIndex is a scientific literature digital library that aims to
improve the dissemination and feedback of scientific literature, and
to provide improvements in functionality, usability, availability,
cost, comprehensiveness, efficiency, and timeliness.

Rather than creating just another digital library, ResearchIndex
provides algorithms, techniques, and software that can be used in
other digital libraries. ResearchIndex indexes Postscript and PDF
research articles on the Web..."

Research index (though most people still call it citeseer) is the
currently best way to find published papers AND TRACK CITATIONS. It
is so cool, it's in the FAQ twice. (now 3 times).


All of the AI Memos and Tech Reports from the MIT AI Lab, going back
to 1959, can be found here: . Great
historical documents, plus everything new. Need Winograd's Thesis?
There it is.

Subject: [4-1] AI in general (Introductions, Overviews)

The lack of a review or the presence of a short review should not be
interpreted as indicating anything about the quality of the text.

Introductory texts:

Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig, "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern
Approach", Prentice Hall, 1994. 840 pages, $57.95. [Uses
intelligent agents as a unifying theme. Currently the most widely
used textbook. Excellent depth, incredible breadth.]

Thomas L. Dean, James Allen, John Aloimonons, "Artificial
Intelligence: Theory and Practice", Benjamin/Cummings, 1994. 680
pages, ISBN 0-8053-25476. [Lisp/Scheme/C++ code is available from]

Matthew L. Ginsberg, "Essentials of AI", Morgan Kaufmann
Publishers, 1993, ISBN 1-55860-221-6, 430 pages, $49.95.
[Topics include search, knowledge representation, logic,
assumption-based truth maintenance, nonmonotonic reasoning,
probability, frames, semantic nets, planning, learning, vision,
natural language processing, and expert systems.]

George Luger and William Stubblefield, "Artificial Intelligence:
Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving", 2nd
Edition, The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., 1993.
720 pages, ISBN 0-8053-4780-1.
[Includes algorithms implemented in Lisp and Prolog.]

D. Poole, A. Mackworth and R. Goebel, "Computational Intelligence: A
Logical Approach", Oxford University Press, 1998, 576 pages,
ISBN 0-19-510270-3. [Prolog code and other resources are available from]

Ian Pratt, "Artificial Intelligence", Macmillan, London, 1994. 280
pages, ISBN 0-333-59755-9 ($35). [In-depth introduction to several
AI topics, using inference as a central theme. As a result, omits
topics like NLP, expert systems, vision, and robotics. Hence this
book is a good themed introduction to a subset of AI, but is not
suitable for a general purpose overview of AI.]

Elaine Rich & Kevin Knight, "Artificial Intelligence", 2nd edition,
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-07-052263-4. [One of the more
popular introductory texts to AI, giving a very good general
overview of most AI topics. In some places the book sacrifices
depth for breadth, and a few more recent topics are neglected.
Nevertheless this book provides an excellent foundation in areas
central to AI. Source code is available from]

Patrick Henry Winston, "Artificial Intelligence", Third Edition,
Addison Wesley, Reading, MA, 1992, ISBN 0-201-53377-4.
[A classic early AI text. This text is very much hands-on, with
actual toy examples. Source code is in]

Overviews and References:

Gerhard Lakemeyer and Bernhard Nebel, "Exploring Artifical
Intelligence in the New Millennium", Morgan Kaufmann, 2003.
[highlights of the current state of AI as of the IJCAI2001
conference. 13 papers by distinguished researchers in their

Avron Barr and Edward A. Feigenbaum, "The Handbook of Artificial
Intelligence", volumes 1-4, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1986.

Alan Bundy, editor, "Catalogue of Artificial Intelligence
Techniques", 3rd Edition, Springer Verlag, 1990, ISBN 0-387-52959-4,
179 pages, $29.50.

Stan Gibilisco, editor, "The McGraw-Hill Illustrated Encyclopedia of
Robotics and Artificial Intelligence", Tab Books, Blue Ridge Summit,
PA, 1994. 512 pages, ISBN 0-07-023613-5 hardcover ($40), ISBN
0-07-023614-3 paper ($25). [This entry tentative -- I haven't seen a
copy of the book yet.]

Raymond Kurzweil's "The Age of Intelligent Machines", MIT Press,
1990, 565 pages, ISBN 0-262-11121-7, $39.95. [General Introduction]

Minsky, Marvin, "The Society of Mind", Simon and Schuster, New
York, 1988. 339 pages, ISBN 0-67-160740-5 ($21.95).

Shapiro, Stuart C. (ed), "Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence",
2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1992. (1st ed, 1987)

Sundermeyer, K., "Knowledge-Based Systems: Terminology and References",
Wissenschaftverlag, 1991. ISBN 3-411-14941-8

Bonnie Lynn Webber and Nils J. Nilsson, "Readings in Artificial
Intelligence", Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, 1981.

Glossaries and Dictionaries:

Colin Beardon "Artificial Intelligence Terminology: a reference guide"
John Wiley & Sons, NY, 1989, 283 pages. ISBN 0-7458-0718-6

Dennis Mercadal, "Dictionary of Artificial Intelligence", Van
Nostrand Reinhold, 1994. ISBN 0-442-00451-6, $36.95.

Online Dictionary of Computing
Contains a glossary of computer science terminology with
cross-references and links to related Internet resources.

P610.8, "Draft Standard Glossary of Artificial Intelligence Terminology"
referenced in "IEEE Std 610.12-1990, IEEE Standard Glossary of
Software Technology, December 1990".

Jerry M. Rosenberg, "Dictionary of Artificial Intelligence and
Robotics", Wiley, New York, 1986, 203 pages.

Raoul N. Smith, editor, "The Facts on File Dictionary of Artificial
Intelligence", Facts on File, New York, 1989, 211 pages.
ISBN 0-8160-1593-3.

Ellen Thro, "The Artificial Intelligence Dictionary", Microtrend Books,
San Marcos, CA, 1991, 407 pages, ISBN 0-915391-36-8.


Howard E. Shrobe, editor, "Exploring Artificial Intelligence",
Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA, 1988.
(Survey talks from the AAAI 1986 and 1987 conferences.)

Applied AI:

Hugh Cartwright <>, "Applications of Artificial
Intelligence in Chemistry" Oxford University Press, 1994. 92 pages,
ISBN 0-19-855736-1.
[An inexpensive text that is aimed at undergraduate and graduate
students in engineering, physical and life sciences who have little or
no prior knowledge of AI. It provides an overview of the use and
potential of AI methods in the sciences.]

AI for C People:

Herbert Schildt, "Artificial Intelligence Using C", McGraw-Hill,
1987. 412 pages. ISBN 0-07-881255-0.

Herbert Schildt, "Artificial Intelligence Using C++", McGraw-Hill.

Subject: [4-2] Search, Game Playing and Video Game AI


Hermann Kaindl, "Minimaxing: Theory and Practice", AI Magazine,
9(3):69-76, Fall 1988.

L. Kanal and V. Kumar, "Search in Artificial Intelligence",
Springer-Verlag, 1988.

Kirkpatrick, S. Gelatt, CD, and Vecchi, MP, "Optimization by Simulated
Annealing", Science 220(4589):671-680, 1983.

R. Korf, "Search: A survey of recent results" in Shrobe's Exploring
Artificial Intelligence, pages 197-237, August 1990.

Pearl, J. and Korf, R. E., "Search techniques", Annual Review of
Computer Science, volume 2, J.F. Traub, B.J. Grosz, B.W. Lampson and
N.J. Nilsson, editors, pages 451-467, Annual Reviews Inc., Palo
Alto, CA, 1987.

Pearl, J., "Heuristics: Intelligent Search Strategies for Computer
Problem Solving", Addison-Wesley, 1984.

Chris Thornton & Benedict du Boulay, "Artificial Intelligence
Through Search" Kluwer Academic (Paperback version Intellect Books),
Dordrecht Netherlands & Norwell, MA USA (Intellect at Oxford), 1992

Game Playing:

Richard Bartle, "Artificial Intelligence and Computer Games",
Century Communications Ltd., UK, 1985. ISBN 0-7126-0661-0.

Elwyn R. Berlekamp, John H. Conway and Richard K. Guy, "Winning Ways,
for Your Mathematical Plays", Academic Press, New York, 1982. Volume
1: Games in General (ISBN 0-12-091101-9). Volume 2: Games in
Particular (ISBN 01-12-091102-7).

Richard E. Korf, "Learning to solve problems by searching for
macro-operators", Pitman, Boston, 1985. 147 pages, ISBN 0-273-08690-1.
[Solution to Rubik's Cube, among other problems. This book is a
revision of Korf's PhD thesis at CMU.]

David Levy, "Computer Gamesmanship: Elements of Intelligent Game
Design", Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-671-49532-1.

David Levy, editor, "Computer Chess Compendium", Springer-Verlag,
1989. 440 pages, ISBN 0-387-91331-9 ($48).

Richard Bartle, "Artificial Intelligence and Computer Games",
Century Communications Ltd., UK, 1985. ISBN 0-7126-0661-0.

Video Game AI:

Steve Rabin, ed. "AI Game Programming Wisdom (with CD-ROM)",
Charles River Media, Boston, 2002 ISBN: 1584500778

Subject: [4-3] Knowledge Representation

[Several papers in "Readings in Artificial Intelligence" are relevant,
including S. Amarel "On Representations of Problems on Reasoning about
Actions" and P.J. Hayes "The Frame Problem and Related Problems in AI".]


Ronald J. Brachman, "The Future of Knowledge Representation", in
Proceedings of the Eighth National Conference on Artificial
Intelligence, 1990.

Hector J. Levesque, "Knowledge Representation and Reasoning",
Annual Review of Computer Science 1:255-287, 1986.

General Papers:

Ronald J. Brachman, " ``I lied about the trees'', or, defaults and
definitions in knowledge representation", AI Magazine 6(3):80-93, 1985.

Brachman, Ronald J. and Levesque, Hector J., editors,
"Readings in Knowledge Representation", Morgan Kaufmann
Publishers, 1985.

Brachman, Ronald J., Levesque, Hector J. and Reiter, Ray, editors,
Special Volume on Knowledge Representation, Artificial Intelligence
49(1-3), January, 1991.

Ronald J. Brachman and James G. Schmolze, "An overview of the
KL-ONE knowledge representation system", Cognitive Science,
9:171-216, 1985.

Nick Cercone and Gordon McCalla, editors, "The Knowledge Frontier:
Essays in the Representation of Knowledge", Springer-Verlag, New York,
1987. 512 pages, $40.00, ISBN 0-38796-557-2. (This is the much
revised version of a special issue of COMPUTER on KR.)

Allen Newell, "The Knowledge Level", Artificial Intelligence,
18:87-127, 1982.

Allen Newell and Herb Simon, "Computer Science as Empirical
Enquiry: Symbols and Search", Communications of the ACM,
19(3):113-126, 1976.

Bernhard Nebel and Gert Smolka, "Attributive Description Formalisms
... and the Rest of the World", in Otthein Herzog and Claus-Rainer
Rollinger, editors, Text Understanding in LILOG, Springer Verlag,
Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence #546, pages 439-452, 1991.
[Theoretical results in the area of description logics.]

Semantic Networks:

Fritz Lehmann, Editor, "Semantic Networks in Artificial Intelligence",
Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1992. (Appeared as a double special issue
of Computers and Mathematics with Applications 23(2-9), 1992.)

James G. Schmolze and William A. Woods, "The KL-ONE Family", in
F. Lehmann, editor, Semantic Networks in Artificial Intelligence,
Pergamon Press, 1992. [History of description logics (KL-ONE style

John Sowa, Editor, "Principles of Semantic Networks", Morgan Kaufmann,
San Mateo, CA, 1991.

W.A. Woods, "What's in a link: Foundations for semantic networks", In
D.G. Bobrow & A. Collins (Eds.), "Representation and Understanding",
Academic Press, New York, 1975. Reprinted in "Readings in Cognitive
Science", Collins & Smith (eds.), section 2.2.

Subject: [4-4] Logic

Logic in AI:

M.R. Genesereth and N.J. Nilsson, "Logical Foundations of Artificial
Intelligence", Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos, CA, 1987.

Constraint Logic Programming:

Pascal Van Hentenryck, "Constraint Satisfaction in Logic Programming",
MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1989, ISBN 0-262-08181-4.

Subject: [4-5] Planning

Intros, Overviews, Paper Collections:

James Allen, James Hendler and Austin Tate, editors,
"Readings in Planning", Morgan-Kaufmann Publishers, 1990. 754 pages,
ISBN 1-55860-130-9 paper ($49.95).

Georgeff, M. P., "Planning," in Annual Review of Computer Science,
Annual Reviews Inc., pages 359-400, 1987.

James Hendler, Austin Tate and Mark Drummond, "AI Planning:
Systems and Techniques", AI Magazine, May, 1990. (Review article.)

Drew McDermott, "Robot Planning", AI Magazine 13(2):55-79, Summer 1992.

William R. Swartout, "DARPA Workshop on Planning", AI Magazine,
9(2):115-131, Summer, 1988. (Survey of current work and issues in

[See also Waldinger's "Achieving several goals simultaneously", in
"Readings in Artificial Intelligence".]


Fikes, R.E. and Nilsson, N.J., "STRIPS: A new approach to the
application of theorem proving to problem solving", Artificial
Intelligence 2:189-208, 1971.


Sacerdoti, E. D., "Planning in a Hierarchy of Abstraction Spaces,"
Artificial Intelligence, 5:115-135, 1974.

Conjunctive Goals:

Chapman, D., "Planning for Conjunctive Goals", Artificial Intelligence
32:333-377, 1987.


Sacerdoti, E., "A Structure for Plans and Behavior", Artificial
Intelligence, pages 1-65, American Elsevier, New York, 1977.

Sacerdoti, E. D., "The Nonlinear Nature of Plans," Proc. of the Fourth
Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, Morgan Kaufmann, 1975, 206-214.

Reactive Planning:

Agre P.E. and Chapman, D., "Pengi: An Implementation of a Theory of
Activity", in Proceedings of the Sixth National Conference on
Artificial Intelligence, Seattle, WA, July 1987.

Georgeoff, M.P. and Lansky, A.L., "Reactive Reasoning and
Planning", in Proceedings of the Sixth National Conference on
Artificial Intelligence, Seattle, WA, pages 677-682, July 1987.

Simmons, R.G., "A theory of debugging plans and interpretations", in
Proceedings of the Seventh National Conference on Artificial
Intelligence (AAAI-88), Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Palo Alto,
CA, pages 94-99, 1988.

Case-based Planning:

Hammond, K., "Case-based Planning: Viewing Planning as a Memory Task",
Academic Press, Cambridge, MA, 1989.


R.S. Aylett and A.N. Fish and S.R. Bartrum, "Task planning in an
uncertain world", International Conference on Control 2:801-806, 1991.

Thomas Dean and R. James Firby and David Miller, "Hierarchical
Planning Involving Deadlines, Travel Time, and Resources", Computing
Intelligence 4:381-398, 1988.

Thomas Dean and Michael Wellman, "Planning and Control", Morgan
Kaufmann Publishers, 1991, 486 pages, ISBN 1-55860-209-7, $49.95.

Stefik, M.J., "Planning with Constraints", Artificial Intelligence
15:111-140 and 16:141-170, 1981.

R. Wilensky, "Meta-Planning: Representing and Using Knowledge About
Planning in Problem Solving and Natural Language Understanding",
Cognitive Science 5:197-233, 1981. Reprinted in Readings in Cognitive
Science, Collins & Smith (eds.), section 5.6.

Wilkins, D.E., "Domain-Independent Planning: Representation and Plan
Generation", Artificial Intelligence 22:269-301, 1984.

Subject: [4-6] Natural Language Processing (NLP)


Fred Jelinek, "Statistical Methods for Speech Recognition", MIT

Christopher D. Manning, Hinrich Schutze, "Foundations of
Statistical Natural Language Processing", MIT Press 1999. [A
review can be found at: ]

Eugene Charniak, Statistical Language Learning. MIT Press. 1993.

Allen, James F., "Natural Language Understanding", 2nd edition, The
Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Menlo Park, California,
(Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, Massachusetts), 1995.
625 pages, ISBN 0-8053-0335-9. Code for the book is available from

Robert C. Berwick, "Computational Linguistics", MIT Press,
Cambridge, MA, 1989, ISBN 0262-02266-4.

Brady, Michael, and Berwick, Robert C., "Computational Models
of Discourse", MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1983.

Michael A. Covington, "Natural Language Processing for Prolog
Programmers", Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1994. ISBN

Gazdar, G. and Mellish, C., "Natural Language Processing in Lisp:
An Introduction to Computational Linguistics", Addison-Wesley,
Reading, Massachusetts, 1989. (There are three different editions
of the book, one for Lisp, one for Prolog, and one for Pop-11.)

Grosz, Barbara J., Sparck-Jones, Karen, and Webber, Bonnie L.,
"Readings in Natural Language Processing", Morgan Kaufmann
Publishers, Los Altos, CA, 1986, 664 pages. ISBN 0-934613-11-7, $44.95.

Klaus K. Obermeier, "Natural Language Processing Technologies
in Artificial Intelligence: The Science and Industry Perspective",
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1989.

Fernando C.N. Pereira and Barbara Grosz, "Natural Language
Processing", MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1994. 531 pages, ISBN
0-262-66092-X ($35).

Schank, R. and Abelson, R. "Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding,"
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, New Jersey, 1977.

Terry Winograd, "Language as a Cognitive Process", Addison-Wesley,
Reading, MA, 1983.


David Crystal, "A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics", 3rd Edition,
Basil Blackwell Publishers, New York, 1991.


Dick Grune and Ceriel J.H. Jacobs, "Parsing Techniques -- A Practical
Guide", Ellis Horwood, Chichester, England, 1990.
320 pages, ISBN 0-13-651431-6. [Covers most parsing algorithms and
includes an extensive annotated bibliography.]
For more information, see or

Marcus, M. "A Theory of Syntactic Recognition for Natural Language,"
The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1980.

Pereira, F. and Sheiber, S. "Prolog and Natural-Language Analysis,"
Center for the Study of Language and Information, 1987.

Tomita, M. (Editor), "Current Issues in Parsing Technology",
Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, 1991.

Tomita, M., "An Efficient Context-Free Parsing Algorithm",
Computational Linguistics 13:31-46, 1987.

Statistical Parsing and Modeling:

Peter F. Brown and Stephen A. DellaPietra and Vincent
J. DellaPietra and Jennifer C. Lai and Robert L. Mercer, "An
Estimate of an Upper Bound for the Entropy of English",
Computational Linguistics, 18:1 pp31-40, 1992.

Eugene Charniak, "Statistical Language Learning", MIT Press, 1993.
[Easy-to-read text, if a bit dated.]

Eugene Charniak, "Statistical Parsing with a Context-Free Grammar
and Word Statistics", AAAI, 1997.

Stanley F. Chen and Joshua T. Goodman, "An Empirical Study of
Smoothing Techniques for Language Modeling", Proceedings of the
34th Annual Meeting of the ACL, 1996.

Michael Collins, "Three Generative, Lexicalised Models for
Statistical Parsing", Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting of the
ACL, 1997.

F. Jelinek and J. D. Lafferty and R. L. Mercer, "Basic Methods of
Probabilistic Context-Free Grammars", Computational Linguistics, 1992/

K. Lari and S.J. Young, "Applications of Stochastic Context-Free
Grammars using the Inside-Outside Algorithm", Computer Speech and
Language 5:237-257, 1991.

David Magerman, "Natural Language Parsing as Statistical Pattern
Recognition", PhD thesis, Stanford University, 1994.

M. Marcus and B. Santorini and M. Marcinkiewicz, "Building a Large
Annontated Corpus of English: the Penn Treebank", Computational
Linguistics, 19:2, 1993

Fernando Pereira and Naftali Tishby and Lillian Lee,
"Distributional Clustering of English Words", Proceedings of the
31st Annual Meeting of the ACL, 1993.

Wright, J., "LR Parsing of Probabilistic Grammars with Input
Uncertainty for Speech Recognition", Computer Speech and Language
4:297-323, 1990.

Zhi Biao Wu, Loke Soo Hsu, and Chew Lim Tan, "A Survey of Statistical
Approaches to Natural Language Processing", Technical report TRA4/92,
Department of Information Systems and Computer Science, National
University of Singapore, 1992

Natural Language Understanding:

Bertram C. Bruce, "Case systems for natural language", Artificial
Intelligence 6:327-360, 1975.

E. Charniak, "Passing Markers: A Theory of Contextual Influence in
Language Comprehension", Cognitive Science, 7:171-190, 1983.

Cohen, P. R., Morgan, J. and Pollack, M., editors, "Intentions in
Communication", MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1990.

Dyer, M. "In-Depth Understanding: A Computer Model of Integrated
Processing for Narrative Comprehension," MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1983.

Grosz, Barbara J. and Sidner, Candace L., "Attention, Intention, and
the Structure of Discourse", Computational Linguistics 12(3):175-204, 1986.

Aravind Joshi, Bonnie Webber and Ivan Sag, "Elements of Discourse
Understanding", Cambridge University Press, New York, 1981.

Yorick Wilks, "A Preferential, Pattern-Seeking, Semantics For
Natural Language Inference", Artificial Intelligence, 6:53-74, 1975.

Natural Language Interfaces:

Raymond C. Perrault and Barbara J. Grosz, "Natural Language
Interfaces", Annual Review of Computer Science, volume 1, J.F. Traub,
editor, pages 435-452, Annual Reviews Inc., Palo Alto, CA, 1986.

Natural Language Generation:

McKeown, Kathleen R. and Swartout, William R., "Language
Generation and Explanation", in Zock, M. and Sabah, G.,
editors, Advances in Natural Language Generation, Volume 1, Pages
1-51, Ablex Publishing Company, Norwood, NJ, 1988. (Overview of
the state of the art in natural language generation.)

There are several books published as a result of the international
workshops on natural language generation.

Machine Translation:

Bonnie J. Dorr, "Machine Translation: A View from the Lexicon" MIT
Press, Cambridge, MA 1993. 408 pages, ISBN 0-262-04138-3 ($45).

Kenneth Goodman and Sergei Nirenburg., editors, "The KBMT Project: A
Case Study in Knowledge-Based Machine Translation", Morgan Kaufmann
Publishers, San Mateo, CA, 1991. 331 pages, ISBN 1-558-60129-5, $34.95.

W. John Hutchins and Harold L. Somers, "An Introduction to Machine
Translation", Academic Press, San Diego, 1992. 362 pages, ISBN

A review of MT systems on the market appeared in BYTE 18(1), January 1993.
(can anyone give me a proper citation for this?)


Vivian J. Cook, "Chomsky's Universal Grammar: An Introduction", Basil
Blackwell Publisher, New York, 1988, 201 pages.

Victoria Fromkin and Robert Rodman, "An Introduction to Language",
Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 4th edition, 1988, 474 pages.

Ralph Grishman, "Computational Linguistics: An Introduction",
Cambridge University Press, New York, 1986, 193 pages. [Mainly parsing.]

Liliane M.V. Haegeman, "Introduction to Government and Binding
Theory", Basil Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, 1991, 618 pages.

Michael A. K. Halliday, "An Introduction to Functional Grammar",
Edward Arnold, London, 1985.

Geoffrey C. Horrocks, "Generative Grammar", Longman, London, 1987,
339 pages.

Andrew Radford, "Transformational Grammar: A First Course", Cambridge
University Press, New York, 1988, 625 pages.

Subject: [4-7] Speech Recognition and Synthesis

Speech Recognition and Synthesis:

John Allen, Sharon Hunnicut and Dennis H. Klatt, "From Text to Speech:
The MITalk System", Cambridge University Press, 1987. [Synthesis,
precursor of DECtalk.]

Frank Fallside and William A. Woods (editors), "Computer Speech Processing"
Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1985.

X. D. Huang, Y. Ariki and M. A. Jack, "Hidden Markov Models for Speech
Recognition", Edinburgh University Press, 1990. [Analysis]

A. Nejat Ince (editor), "Digital Speech Processing: Speech Coding,
Synthesis, and Recognition", Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston,
1992. [Analysis and Synthesis]

Dennis H. Klatt, "Review of Text-To-Speech Conversion for English",
Journal of the Acoustic Society of America (JASA), 82(3):737-793,
September 1987. [Synthesis. Seminal article; biased toward formant

Kai-Fu Lee, "Automatic Speech Recognition: The Development of the
SPHINX System", Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA, 1989. [Analysis]

S. E. Levinson, L. R. Rabiner and M. M. Sondhi, "An Introduction to the
Application of the Theory of Probabilistic Functions of a Markov Process
to Automatic Speech Recognition" in Bell Syst. Tech. Journal
62(4):1035-1074, April 1983. [Analysis]

R. P. Lippmann, "Review of Neural Networks for Speech Recognition",
Neural Computation, 1(1):1-38, 1989. [Analysis]

Martin, P., et. al., SpeechActs: A Spoken Language Framework. IEEE
Computer, 29(7), 1996.

Douglas O'Shaughnessy, "Speech Communication: Human and Machine"
Addison-Wesley, MA, 1987. [Analysis and Synthesis]

Lawrence R. Rabiner and Ronald W. Schafer, "Digital Processing of
Speech Signals", Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1978.
[Analysis and Synthesis]

Lawrence R. Rabiner and Biing-Hwang Juang, "Fundamentals of Speech
Recognition", Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1993.
ISBN 0-13-015157-2. [Analysis]

Ronald W. Schafer and John D. Markel (editors), "Speech Analysis",
IEEE Press, New York, 1979. [Analysis]

Alex Waibel and Kai-Fu Lee (editors), "Readings in Speech Recognition"
Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA, 1990, 680 pages.
ISBN 1-55860-124-4, $49.95. [Analysis]

Alex Waibel, "Prosody and Speech Recognition", Morgan Kaufmann
Publishers, San Mateo, CA, 1988. [Analysis]

Speaker Recognition:

B. S. Atal, "Automatic recognition of speakers from their voices",
Proc. IEEE, 64:460-475, April 1976.

G.R. Doddington, "Speaker recognition -- identifying people by their
voices", Proc. IEEE, 73:1651-1664, March 1985.

A. E. Rosenberg, "Automatic speaker verification: A review",
Proc. IEEE, 64:475-487, April 1976.

A.E. Rosenberg and F.K. Soong, "Recent research in automatic speaker
recognition," in S. Furui and M. Sondhi, editors, Advances in Speech
Sigmal Processing, 1991.

Subject: [4-8] Connectionism and Neural Nets

See the faq at:
It is more up to date and more complete.

Introductions and Overviews:

Andy Clark, "Associative Engines: Connectionism, Concepts, and
Representational Change", MIT Press, Cambridge, MA 1993. 252 pages,
ISBN 0-262-03210-4.

Judith Dayhoff, "Neural Network Architectures: An Introduction", Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1990, 259 pages, ISBN 0-442-20744-1.

Scott Fahlman and Geoffrey Hinton, "Connectionist Architectures for
Artificial Intelligence", IEEE Computer 20(1):100-109, January 1987.

Fausett, L. V., "Fundamentals of Neural Networks: Architectures,
Algorithms, and Applications", Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1994.
ISBN 0-13-334186-0.

Freeman, James A., and Skapura, David M., "Neural Networks:
Algorithms, Applications and Programming Techniques", Addison Wesley,
Reading, MA, 1991. 401 pages, ISBN 0-201-51376-5.

Simon S. Haykin, "Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation",
Macmillan, New York, 1994. 696 pages, ISBN 0-02352-761-7.

Hecht-Nielsen, Robert, "Neurocomputing", Addison-Wesley, 1990, 433 pages.
ISBN 0-201-09355-3.

John Hertz, Anders Krogh, and Richard G. Palmer, "Introduction to
the Theory of Neural Computation", Addison-Wesley, 1991. 327 pages,
ISBN 0-201-51560-1. [Heavy on the math.]

Geoffrey E. Hinton, "Connectionist Learning Procedures",
Artificial Intelligence 40(1-3):185-234, 1989. Reprinted in
J. Carbonell, editor, "Machine Learning: Paradigms and Methods",
MIT Press, 1990. Also appears as Technical Report CMU-CS-87-115
(version 2), Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, December 1987.

Kevin Knight, "A gentle introduction to subsymbolic
computation: Connectionism for the AI researcher". Technical Report
CMU-CS-89-150, Carnegie Mellon University, School of Computer Science,
Pittsburgh, PA, May 30, 1989.

Murray Smith, "Neural Networks For Statistical Modeling", Van
Nostrand Reinhold, 1993. ISBN 0-442-01310-8 ($40). [Good explanations of

Wasserman, Phillip D., "Neural Computing: Theory and Practice",
Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1989. 230 pages, ISBN 0-442-20743-3.

Rumelhart, D.E, and McClelland, J.L., editors, "Parallel Distributed
Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition" (Vol. 1:
Foundations; Vol. 2: Psychological and Biological Models), Cambridge,
MA: MIT Press, 1986. (See also McClelland, J.L. and D.E. Rumelhart,
"Explorations in Parallel Distributed Processing, A Handbook of Models,
Programs, and Exercises", MIT Press, Cambridge, 1988, 344 pages, for
a companion volume with some code.]

Connectionist Language Processing:

See the special issue of _Connection Science_, Volume 2 Numbers 1-2, 1990.
Also the Hinton collection "Connectionist Symbol Processing", above.

Ronan G. Reilly and Noel E. Sharkey, editors, "Connectionist
approaches to natural language processing", Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates, 1992. 472 pages, ISBN 0-863-77179-3. [Paper collection.]

Connectionist Cognitive Science:

Barnden, J.A., and Pollack, J.B., "Advances in Connectionist and Neural
Computation Theory Vol. 1: High-Level Connectionist Models", Ablex, 1991.

McCloskey, M., "Networks and theories: The place of connectionism in
cognitive science", Psychological Science 2:387-395, 1991.

Quinlan, P., "Connectionism and Psychology: A Psychological Perspective on
New Connectionist Research", University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Waltz, D., and Feldman, J.A., editors, "Connectionist Models and their
Implications: Readings from _Cognitive Science_", Ablex, 1988.

Philosophical Foundations:

Clark, A., "Microcognition: Philosophy, Cognitive Science, and Parallel
Distributed Processing", MIT Press, 1989.

Pinker, S., and Mehler, J, editors, "Connections and Symbols", MIT Press,
1988. [Was Cognition special issue Volume 28, 1988]

Subject: [4-9] Machine Learning


Tom Mitchell, "Machine Learning", McGraw Hill, 1997.

Christopher Bishop, "Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition", Oxford
University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-19-853849-9 Hardback, ISBN 0-19-853864-2

J. G. Carbonell, editor, "Machine Learning: Paradigms and Methods", MIT
Press, Cambridge, MA 1990.

Alan Hutchinson, "Algorithmic Learning", Oxford University Press,
Oxford, England, 1994. 434 pages, ISBN 0-19-853848-0 paper (27.50
Sterling), ISBN 0-19-853766-2 hardcover (55.00 Sterling). Corrections and
additions are available by anonymous ftp from []

Tom Mitchell, Jaime G. Carbonell, and Ryszard S. Michalski,
"Machine Learning: A guide to current research", Kluwer Academic
Publishers, Boston, 1986. [A bit out of date.]

Jude W. Shavlik and Thomas D. Dietterich, editors, "Readings in
Machine Learning", Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1990, 853 pages.
ISBN 1-55860-143-0, $49.95.

Reinforcement Learning
Sutton, R.S. and Barto, A.G. (1998) Reinforcement Learning: An
introduction. MIT Press, Cambridge Mass.

Tesauro, G (1992) Practical issues in temporal difference
learning. Machine Learning, 8(3-4):257-277.

Lee, K.-F., and Mahajan S. (1988) A pattern classification approach to
evaluation function learning. Artificial Intelligence, 36(1):1-26

Support Vector Machines
N. Cristianini and J. Shawe-Taylor, "An Introduction To Support
Vector Machines", Cambridge University Press,
2000. (

Decision Trees:

Quinlan, J. Ross, "Induction of Decision Trees", Machine Learning
1(1):81-106, 1986.

Quinlan, J. Ross, "C4.5: Programs for Machine Learning", Morgan Kaufmann
Publishers, 1992. ISBN 1-55860-238-0. $44.95 US, $49.45 International.
For a slight additional charge ($25), the book comes with software (ISBN
1-55860-240-2). For software only, (ISBN 1-55860-239-9) $34.95 US,
$38.45 International.

Probabilistic Clustering:

Fisher, D.H., "Knowledge Acquisition Via Incremental Conceptual
Clustering", Machine Learning 2:139-172, 1987. (Probabilistic
clustering methods.)

Clancey, W.J., "Classification Problem Solving", Proceedings of the
National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 49-55, Los Altos, CA,
Morgan Kaufmann. 1984.

Version Spaces:

Tom M. Mitchell, "Generalization as Search", Artificial Intelligence
18:203-226, 1982.

Machine Discovery:

Langley, P., and Zytkow, J. M., "Data-driven approaches to empirical
discovery", Artificial Intelligence 40:283-312, 1989.

Langley, P., Simon, H.A., Bradshaw, G.L., and Zytkow, J.M.,
"Scientific Discovery: Computational Explorations of the Creative
Processes", MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1987.

Langley, P., Simon, H.A. and Bradshaw, G.L., "Heuristics for
Empirical Discovery", in L. Bolc, editor, Computational Models
of Learning, Springer-Verlag, 1987. Also appears as CMU CS
Tech Report CMU-CS-84-14.


Laird J.E., Rosenbloom, P.S. and Newell, A., "Chunking in SOAR: The
Anatomy of a General Learning Mechanism", Machine Learning
1:1-46, 1986.

Explanation-Based Learning:

Mitchell, Tom M., Keller, R. M., and Kedar-Cabelli, S. T.,
"Explanation-based learning: A unified view", Machine Learning
1:47-80, 1986.

Derivational Analogy:

Carbonell, J. G., "Derivational analogy: A theory of
reconstructive problem solving and expertise acquisition." In R.S.
Michalski, Jaime G. Carbonell, and Tom M. Mitchell, editors, Machine
Learning: An Artificial Intelligence Approach, Morgan Kaufmann
Publishers, San Mateo, CA, 1986.

Theoretical Results:

Haussler, D., "Quantifying Inductive Bias: AI Learning
Algorithms and Valiant's Learning Framework", Artificial Intelligence,
36:177-221, 1988.

Leslie G. Valiant, "A theory of the learnable", Communications
of the ACM, 27(11):1134--1142, 1984.

Subject: [4-10] Case-Based Reasoning

Brigitte Bartsch-Speroel, Hans-Dieter Burkhard, Stefan Wess (Eds.):
Case-Based Reasoning Technology: From Foundations to Applications.
Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 1400, Springer Verlag, 1998 -

Ian Watson: Applying Case-Based Reasoning: Techniques for Enterprise
Systems, Morgan Kaufman 1997 (for an industry view)

Leake, D., Ed., "Case-Based Reasoning: Experiences, Lessons, and
Future Directions", AAAI Press/MIT Press, 1996.

Janet Kolodner, "Case-Based Reasoning", Morgan Kaufmann
Publishers, San Mateo, CA, 1993, 612 pages, ISBN 1-55860-237-2,

Janet L. Kolodner, editor, "Special issue on Case-Based Reasoning",
Machine Learning 10(3), 1993.

Roger C. Schank and C. Riesbeck, "Inside Case-Based Reasoning",
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, 1989.

Roger C. Schank, Alex Kass, and Christopher K. Riesbeck, "Inside
Case-Based Explanation", Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1994. 416
pages, ISBN 0-8058-1029-3.

Craig Stanfill and David Waltz, "Toward Memory-Based
Reasoning", Communications of the ACM, 29(12):1213-1228,
December 1986. (Memory-based reasoning.)

Subject: [4-11] Genetic Algorithms

For an extended bibliography, see the FAQ posting for


L. B. Booker, D.E. Goldberg and J.H. Holland, "Classifier Systems and
Genetic Algorithms", Artificial Intelligence 40(1-3):235-282,
September 1989.

David E. Goldberg, "Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and
Machine Learning", Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1989, 412 pages.
ISBN 0-201-15767-5.

Davis, Lawrence (editor), "Handbook of Genetic Algorithms", Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991, ISBN 0-442-00173-8.

D.B. Fogel, "An Introduction to Simulated Evolutionary Optimization",
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks 5(1):3-14, 1994.
[Survey of evolutionary computation, including genetic
algorithms, evolution strategies and evolutionary programming.]

M. Srinivas and Lalit M. Patnaik, "Genetic Algorithms: A Survey",
IEEE Computer 27(6):17-26, July 1994.

Jose L. Ribeiro Filho, Philip C. Treleaven, and Cesare Alippi,
"Genetic-Algorithm Programming Environments", IEEE Computer
27(6):28-43, July 1994.

See also [4-15] Artificial Life and Cellular Automata.

Subject: [4-12] Production Systems, Expert Systems and Match Algorithms

See the Expert System Shells FAQ.

Subject: [4-13] Integrated AI Architectures

Kurt VanLehn, editor, "Architectures for Intelligence",
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, 1991.


John E. Laird, Allen Newell, and Paul S. Rosenbloom, "SOAR: An
Architecture for General Intelligence", Artificial
Intelligence, 33(1):1-64, 1987.

Paul S. Rosenbloom, John E. Laird, and Allen Newell, editors, "The
SOAR Papers", MIT Press, 1993. 1,510 pages in 2 volumes,
ISBN 0-262-68071-8 paper ($65).


Steven Minton, Jaime G. Carbonell, Craig A. Knoblock,
Daniel R. Kuokka, Oren Etzioni, and Yolanda Gil.
"Explanation-based learning: A problem solving perspective".
Technical Report CMU-CS-89-103, Carnegie Mellon University,
School of Computer Science, Pittsburgh, PA, 1989.


Tom M. Mitchell, J. Allen, P. Chalasani, J. Cheng, Oren Etzioni,
Marc Ringuette, and Jeffrey Schlimmer, "THEO: A Framework for
Self-Improving Systems", in Kurt VanLehn, editor, Architectures for
Intelligence, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, 1991.

Subsumption Architectures:

Brooks, R., "A Robust Layered Control System for a Mobile Robot",
IEEE Journal of Robotics and Automation, RA-2, pages 14-23, April 1986.

Subject: [4-14] Fuzzy Logic


Earl Cox, "The Fuzzy Systems Handbook: A Practitioner's Guide to
Building, Using, and Maintaining Fuzzy Systems", Academic Press,
Boston, MA 1994. 615 pages, ISBN 0-12-194270-8 ($49.95). [Includes
disk with ANSI C++ source code.]

Klir, George J. and Folger, Tina A., "Fuzzy Sets, Uncertainty, and
Information", Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1988, 355 pages.
ISBN 0-13-345984-5

Kosko, B., "Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems", Prentice Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1992.

Zimmermann, Hans J., "Fuzzy Set Theory and its Applications",
Boston, MA, Kluwer-Nijhoff Publishing, 1985. [Discusses fuzzy set
theory but not much about fuzzy control.]

Earl Cox, "The Fuzzy Systems Handbook: A Practitioner's Guide to
Building, Using, and Maintaining Fuzzy Systems", Academic Press,
Boston, MA 1994. 615 pages, ISBN 0-12-194270-8 ($49.95). [Includes
disk with ANSI C++ source code.]


Didier Dubois, Henri Prade, and Ronald R. Yager, editors,
"Readings in Fuzzy Sets for Intelligent Systems", Morgan Kaufmann
Publishers, 1993. 916 pages, ISBN 1-55860-257-7 paper ($49.95).

R. Yager and L. Zadeh, editors, "An Introduction to Fuzzy Logic:
Applications in Intelligent Systems" Kluwer, 1992. $90. [Collection of
papers about fuzzy applications.]


Zadeh, L.A., "Fuzzy Sets," Information and Control, 8, 338-353, 1965.

Brubaker, D.I., "Fuzzy-logic Basics: Intuitive Rules Replace
Complex Math," EDN, June 18, 1992.

Schwartz, D.G. and Klir, G.J., "Fuzzy Logic Flowers in Japan,"
IEEE Spectrum, July 1992.

Subject: [4-15] Artificial Life and Cellular Automata

The best source for information is the proceedings of the Artificial
Life conferences. The proceedings were edited by Christopher G.
Langton and published by Addison-Wesley.

Langton, Chris G., editor, "Artificial Life" (Proceedings of the First
International Conference '87), Addison-Wesley, 1989. ISBN 0-201-09356-1.

Langton, C.G., Taylor, C., Farmer, J.D., and Rasmussen, S., editors,
"Artificial Life II", Addison-Wesley, 1991. ISBN 0-201-52751-2.

Langton, C.G., editor, "Artificial Life III", Addison-Wesley, 1994.
ISBN 0-201-62494-X.

Artificial Life:

Levy, S., "Artificial Life", Pantheon, New York, 1992. ISBN 0-679-40774-X.
[An excellent popularization]

Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz and Aristid Lindenmayer, "The Algorithmic
Beauty of Plants", Springer-Verlag, 1990. 228 pages, ISBN
0-387-97297-8 hardcover ($40).

See also [4-11] Genetic Algorithms.

Subject: [4-16] Qualitative Physics and Model Based Reasoning

QP Theory:
Forbus, K. D., Qualitative Process Theory, Artificial Intelligence,
24:85-168, 1984.

Kuipers, B., Qualitative Reasoning with Causal Models in
Diagnosis of Complex Systems, In D. S. Weld & J. deKleer, editors,
Readings in Qualitative Reasoning about Physical Systems,
pages 257-274, chapter 10, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1989.

MBR-based Diagnosis:
Davis, R., Diagnostic Reasoning Based on Structure and Behavior,
Artificial Intelligence, 24:347-410, 1984.

Function-based MBR:
Sticklen, J., Chandrasekaran, B., & Bond, W.
Distributed Causal Reasoning. Knowledge Acquisition, 1:139-162, 1989.

Subject: [4-17] Task-specific Architectures for Problem Solving

Generic Tasks:
Chandrasekaran, B., Towards a Functional Architecture for
Intelligence Based on Generic Information Processing Tasks, In
IJCAI-87, pages 1183-1192, Milan, 1987.

Components of Expertise:
Steels, L., The Components of Expertise. AI Magazine, Summer, 1990.

Breuker, J., & Wielinga, B., Models of Expertise in Knowledge
Acquisition, in G. Guida & C. Tasso, editors, Topics in
Expert Systems Design: Methodologies and Tools, Amsterdam:
North Holland Publishing Company, 1989.

Role-limiting Methods:
McDermott, J., Preliminary Steps Toward a Taxonomy of
Problem-Solving Methods, in S. Marcus, editor, Automating
Knowledge Acquisition for Expert Systems, pages 225-255,
Boston: Kluver Academic Publishers, 1988.

Subject: [4-18] Automated Deduction/Theorem Proving

Alan Bundy, "The Computer Modelling of Mathematical Reasoning",
Academic Press, 1983. [Contains Prolog code for a simple
resolution-based theorem prover.]

C. Chang and R.C. Lee, "Symbolic Logic and Mechanical Theorem
Proving", Academic Press, 1973.

David Duffy, "Principles of Automated Theorem Proving", John
Wiley and Sons, 1991.

Larry Wos and Ross Overbeek and Ewing Lusk and Jim Boyle,
"Automated Reasoning. Introduction and Applications", Second Edition,
McGraw-Hill, 1992.

Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Automated
Deduction (CADE-11), D. Kapur (editor), Saratoga Springs, NY, USA,
June 15-18, 1992, Lecture Notes in AI 607, Springer-Verlag, 1992, 793
pages. ISBN 0-387-55602-8 and 3-540-55602-8.
[The CADE proceedings have a systems abstracts section with short
descriptions of implemented systems, many of which are available
by anonymous ftp.]

Subject: [4-19] Probabilistic Reasoning

R.O. Duda, P.E. Hart, and N.J. Nilsson, "Subjective Bayesian Methods
for Rule-Based Inference Systems", In Proceedings of the 1976 National
Computer Conference, pages 1075-1082, AFIPS, 1976.

Neapolitan, Richard E., "Probabilistic Reasoning in Expert Systems:
Theory and Algorithms", John Wiley and Sons, 1990. [Practical guide
to implementation.]

Oliver, Robert M., and Smith, James Q., editors, "Influence Diagrams,
Belief Nets and Decision Analysis", John Wiley and Sons, 1990.

Pearl, Judea, "Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems:
Networks of Plausible Inference", Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo,
California, 1988. [Theoretical framework for Bayesian networks]

Shafer, Glenn, and Pearl, Judea, "Readings in Uncertain Reasoning",
Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, California, 1990. 768 pages,
ISBN 1-55860-125-2 paper ($49.95).

Charniak, Eugene, "Bayesian Networks without tears", AI Magazine
12(4):50-63, Winter 1991. [Intro to Bayesian networks for beginners]

Abduction & Uncertainty:

Charniak, E., "Motivation analysis, abductive unification, and
nonmonotonic equality", Artifical Intelligence 34:275-95.

Hobbs, J., et al., "Interpretation as abduction", SRI AI TR #499.

Kass, A., "Adaptation-based explanation", 11th IJCAI, pages 141-47.

Current Research:

Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence [2|3|4|5], North-Holland.

Proceedings of the Nth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial
Intelligence, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

See also:

[4-9], Machine learning.

Subject: [4-20] Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Truth Maintenance Systems (TMS)

Matthew L. Ginsberg, "Readings in Nonmonotonic Reasoning",
Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, 1987.

Reiter, Ray, "Nonmonotonic Reasoning", Annual Review of Computer
Science, 2:147-186, 1987. (Appears in Ginsberg.)

Doyle, J., "Truth Maintenance Systems", Artificial Intelligence,
12(3):231-272, 1979.

Reiter, Raymond and de Kleer, Johan, "Foundations of Assumption-Based
Truth Maintenance Systems: Preliminary Report", Proceedings of AAAI-87,
pages 183-188.

J.P. Martins, "The Truth, The Whole Truth And Nothing But the Truth:
An Indexed Bibliography to the Literature of TMS's", AI Magazine
(Special Issue), AAAI, 1990.

De Kleer, J., "An assumption-based TMS", Artificial Intelligence
28:127-162, 1986.
De Kleer, J., "Extending the ATMS", Artificial Intelligence
28:163-196, 1986.
De Kleer, J., "Problem Solving with the ATMS", Artificial Intelligence
28:197-224, 1986.

De Kleer, J., "A comparison of ATMS and CSP techniques", IJCAI 1989,
pages 290-296.

Kenneth D. Forbus and Johan de Kleer, "Building Problem Solvers",
MIT Press, Cambridge, MA 1994, 700 pages, $50. ISBN 0-262-06157-0.
[Good textbook.]

Proceedings of AAAI 1988.

Alex Kean and George Tsiknis, "Assumption based Reasoning and Clause
Management Systems", Computational Intelligence 8(1):1-24, 1992.

Alex Kean and George Tsiknis, "Clause Management Systems (CMS)",
Computational Intelligence 9(1):11-40, 1993.

Martins, Joao, & Shapiro, Stuart C., "A Model for Belief Revision,"
Artificial Intelligence 35:25-79 1988.

Martins & Reinfrank (eds), "Truth Maintenance Systems", published
by Springer Verlag in their 'Lecture Notes in Computer Science'
series, 1991.

Reinfrank, M., Dressler, O. and Brewka, G., On the Relation
Between Truth Maintenance and Autoepistemic Logic, IJCAI 1989.

Selman, B. and Levesque, H.J., "Abductive and Default Reasoning: A
Computational Core", Proceedings of AAAI-90.

Subject: [4-21] Robotics and Computer Vision

Introductions (Robotics):

Robin Murphy, "Introduction to AI Robotics", MIT Press, 2000.

Gregory Dudek, Michael Jenkin, "Computational Principles of Mobile
Robotics", Cambridge University Press, 2000.

John J. Craig, "Introduction to Robotics", Addison-Wesley,
Reading, MA, 1989.

Joseph L. Jones, and Anita M. Flynn, "Mobile Robots: Inspiration to
Implementation", A.K. Peters, Publisher, Wellesley, MA, 1993. 349
pages, $39.95. ISBN 1-56881-011-3.

[Two papers in the Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence are relevant:
Path planning and obstacle avoidance, pages 708-715
Mobile robots, pages 957-961]

Introductions (Vision):

David Marr, "Vision: a computational investigation into the human
representation and processing of visual information", W.H. Freeman,
San Francisco, CA, 1982. [The classic text, still good.]

Berthold K.P. Horn, "Robot Vision", MIT Press and McGraw-Hill,
Cambridge, MA, 1986. 509 pages. ISBN 0-2620-815-98 (MIT Press),
0-0703-034-95 (McGraw-Hill).

Vicki Bruce and Patrick R. Green, "Visual Perception: Physiology,
Psychology and Ecology", 2nd Edition, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,
Hillsdale, NJ, 1990. ISBN 0-86377-146-7.

Martin D. Levine, "Vision in Man and Machine", McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985.

Roger Watt, "Visual Processing: computational, psychophysical, and
cognitive research", Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, 1988,
152 pages.

Harry Wechsler, "Computation Vision", Academic Press, Boston, MA,
1990, 558 pages.

E. Bruce Goldstein, "Sensation and Perception", 3rd edition,
Wadsworth, Belmont CA, 1989, 598 pages, ISBN 0-534-09672-7. [Emphasis
on the physiological aspects of visual perception.]

Linda G. Shapiro and Azriel Rosenfeld, "Computer Vision and Image
Processing", Academic Press, Boston, MA 1992, 623 pages.

[One paper in the Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence is relevant:
Sensors, pages 1031-1036]

Surveys (Vision):

Michael I. Jordan (editor), "Learning in Graphical Models", MIT Press,
1998, 648 pages, ISBN 0-262-60032-3.

J. Michael Brady, "Computational approaches to image understanding",
ACM Computing Surveys 14(1):3-71, March 1982. (Survey of methods in
computer vision.)

Paper Collections:

Martin A. Fischler and Oscar Firschein, editors, "Readings in
Computer Vision", Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, 1987.

Michael S. Landy and Anthony J. Movshon, "Computational Models of
Visual Processing", MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1991, 394 pages.
[Collection of research papers.]


The 6.270 Robot Builder's Guide, by Fred Martin. Available by
anonymous ftp from [] []
This directory contains "The 6.270 Robot Builder's Guide", the
course notes to the 1992 MIT LEGO Robot Design Competition. For
more information, contact Fred Martin <>.

Subject: [4-22] Animats and Autonomous Agents:

Pfeifer and Scheier, "Understanding Intelligence", MIT Press, 2000.

R. Beer, "Intelligence as Adaptive Behavior. An Experiment in
Computational Neuroethology", Academic Press, San Diego, 1990.
ISBN: 0-12-084730-2

V. Braitenberg, "Vehicles: Experiments in Synthetic
Psychology". MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. 1984. ISBN 0-262-02208-7

Rodney A. Brooks, "A Robust Layered Control System for a Mobile
Robot", IEEE Journal of Robotics and Automation, 2:14-23, 1986.

Rodney A. Brooks, "A Robot that Walks: Emergent Behaviour from a
Carefully Evolved Network", Neural Computation, 1(2), 1989.

W. Lim and J. Eilbert, "Plan-behaviour interaction in autonomous
navigation", Proceedings of the SPIE, 1388:464-475, 1991.

Pattie Maes and Rodney A. Brooks, "Learning to Coordinate Behaviours",
Proceedings of AAAI-90, 1990.

Pattie Maes, "Designing Autonomous Agents: Theory and Practice from
Biology to Engineering and Back", MIT Press, 1991.

T. Tyrrell, "The Use of Hierarchies for Action Selection", From
animals to animats2: Proceedings of the Second International
Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, 1993.

T. Tyrrell, "Computational Mechanism for Action Selection", PhD
Thesis University of Edinburgh, 1993.

Animals to Animats Conferences:

Jean-Arcady Meyer and Stewart W. Wilson, "From Animals to Animats:
Proceedings of the First International Conference on Simulation of
Adaptive Behavior (1990, Paris, France)", MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1991.
551 pages, $55, ISBN 0-262-63138-5.

Jean-Arcady Meyer, Herbert L. Roitblat, and Stewart W. Wilson,
editors, "From Animals to Animats: Proceedings of the Second
International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior", MIT
Press, Cambridge, MA, 1993. 523 pages, $55, ISBN 0-262-63149-0.

Francisco J. Varela and Paul Bourgine, editors, "Toward a Practice of
Autonomous Systems: Proceedings of the First European Conference on
Artificial Life", Complex Adaptive Systems Series, MIT Press,
Cambridge, MA, 1992. 515 pages, $55.00, ISBN 0-262-72019-1.

Subject: [4-23] Distributed AI

Annotated Bibliography:

B. Chaib-draa, R. Mandiau, and P. Millot, "Distributed Artificial
Intelligence, An Annotated Bibliography", SIGART Bulletin
3(3):20-37, August 1992.


Alan H. Bond and Les Gasser, "Readings in Distributed
Artificial Intelligence", Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, 1988.

Les Gasser and Michael N. Huhns, eds., "Distributed
Artificial Intelligence, Volume II", Morgan Kaufmann, 1989.

Michael N. Huhns, ed., "Distributed Artificial
Intelligence", Morgan Kaufmann, 1987.

M. Wooldridge and N. R. Jennings, eds., "Intelligent Agents",
Springer-Verlag, 1995. (Lecture Notes in AI Vol 890)

(Special Issue on Distributed AI) IEEE Transactions on
Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan 1981.

(Special Issue on Distributed AI---10 years later) IEEE
Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 21,
No. 6, Nov/Dec 1991.

Decentralized Artificial Intelligence, Y. Demazeau ed. 1990,
Decentralized AI 2, Demazeau, Y. & Muller, J-P, eds. 1991,
Decentralized AI 3, Werner & Demazeau eds. 1992,
all published by Elsevier Science Publishers .

(Special Issue on Intelligent and Cooperative Problem Solving)
International Journal of Intelligent & Cooperative Information
Systems, Vol. 1, No. 2, June 1992.

(Special Issue on Distributed AI) Group Decision and
Negotiation, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1993.

(Special Issue on Mathematical and Computational Models of
Organizations: Models and Characteristics of Agent Behavior)
International Journal of Intelligent Systems in Accounting,
Finance, and Management, Vol 2., No. 4, December 1993.

(Special issue on Intelligent Agents and Multi-Agent Systems)
Journal of Applied Artificial Intelligence,
9(4) July/August 1995 (part I), and 10(1), January/February 1995
(part 2).

Subject: [4-24] User/Agent Modeling

Afzal Ballim and Yorick Wilks, "Artifical Believers", Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, 1991. ISBN 0-8058-0453-6.
Contains a 92 page background section on belief modeling in AI,
Philosophy, NLP and Linguistics.

Kobsa, A. & Wahlster, W. (1989) "User Models in Dialog Systems."
Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.

Rapaport, William J., "Belief Representation Systems", in S. C.
Shapiro (ed.), Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, 2nd edition
John Wiley, New York, pages 98-110, 1992.

See also the journal User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction in
part 3 of the AI FAQ.

Subject: [4-25] Philosophy of AI

Margaret A. Boden, editor, "The Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence",
Oxford University Press, New York, 1990, 452 pages.

Margaret A. Boden, "Artificial Intelligence and Natural Man",
Harvester Press and Basic Books, 1977. 2nd edition, MIT Press, 1986.

Leslie Burkholder, editor, "Philosophy and the Computer", Westview
Press, Boulder, CO, 1992.

Robert Cummins and John Pollock, editors, "Philosophy and AI: Essays
at the Interface", MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1991.

Daniel C. Dennett, "Consciousness explained", 1st edition, Little,
Brown and Company, Boston, 1991, 511 pages, $27.95.

Daniel C. Dennett, "Brainstorms", Harvester Press, 1978.

Hubert L. Dreyfus, "What computers can't do: a critique of artificial
reason", Harper and Row, Publishers, New York, 1972. ISBN 0-06011082-1

James H. Fetzer, editor, "Aspects of Artificial Intelligence",
Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Holland, 1988.

John Haugeland, "Artificial Intelligence: The very idea", MIT Press,
Cambridge, MA, 1985, 287 pages.

John Haugeland, editor, "Mind Design: Philosophy, Psychology,
Artificial Intelligence", MIT Press, Cambridge, MA 1981, 368 pages.

Douglas R. Hofstadter and Daniel C. Dennett, "The Mind's I:
Fantasies and Reflections on Self and Soul", Basic Books, New
York, 1981, 501 pages, $15.50.

Douglas R. Hofstadter, "Godel Escher Bach: Eternal Golden Braid",
Harvester Press, and Penguin books, 1979.

Kirsh, D., editor, "Foundations of Artificial Intelligence, Special
issues of Artificial Intelligence", The MIT Press, 1991. Reprinted
from Artificial Intelligence 47(1--3), 1991.

D. McDermott, "Artificial Intelligence Meets Natural Stupidity," in
Mind Design: Philosophy, Psychology, Artificial Intelligence, J.
Haugeland, editor, chapter 5, pp. 143-160, MIT Press, 1981.

Hans Moravec, "Mind Children: The future of robot and human intelligence",
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1988, 214 pages.

Roger Penrose, "The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning computers,
minds, and the laws of physics", Oxford University Press, New York,
1989, 466 pages, $30. [A summary appears in The Behavioral and Brain
Sciences, 13(4):643-705, 1990, accompanied by an extended set of
commentaries and a reply by Penrose. See also Aaron Sloman, "The
emperor's real mind: Review of Roger Penrose's `The Emperor's New
Mind: Concerning computers minds and the laws of physics'",
Artificial Intelligence 56:355-396, 1992.]

John R Searle, `Minds Brains and Programs' in The Behavioral and
Brain Sciences, 3(3), 1980. [This article presents Searle's
"chinese room" argument. There's also an extended set of
commentaries and reply by Searle.]

H.A. Simon, "Sciences of the Artificial", 2nd Edition, MIT Press, 1981.

A.M. Turing, "Computing Machinery And Intelligence," Mind, vol. LIX,
no. 236, 1950. Reprinted in "Computers and Thought", Feigenbaum &
Feldman (eds.), 1963. Also reprinted in "The Mind's I", Hofstadter &
Dennett (eds.). Also reprinted in "Readings in Cognitive Science",
Collins & Smith (eds.), section 1.1.

In addition to the references cited above, there is also a fair amount
of philosophical discussion in R.J. Brachman and H.J. Levesque,
editors, "Readings in Knowledge Representation", Morgan Kaufmann, 1985.

Subject: [4-26] Cyc.

Cyc is a project begun MCC and spun off into its own company, with the
aim to build an enCYClopedic database and reasoning engine for common
sense knowledge. There is now an open source version of Cyc. See
section 6 of the FAQ.

Lenat, D. B. "Cyc: A Large-Scale Investment in Knowledge
Infrastructure." Communications of the ACM 38, no. 11 (1995)

Lenat, D. B. "Steps to Sharing Knowledge." In Toward Very Large
Knowledge Bases, edited by N.J.I. Mars. IOS Press, 1995.

R.V. Guha and Douglas B. Lenat, "Enabling agents to work together",
CACM 37(7):127-142, 1994.

"CYC", AI Magazine 1986, 7(1), 1986.

"Cyc: A Mid-Term Report," AI Magazine, 11(3):32-59, Fall 1990.

"Cyc: Toward Programs With Common Sense," CACM, 33(8):30-49,
August 1990.

"Knowledge and Natural Language Processing," CACM, Aug 1990.

"When will machines learn?," Machine Learning, 4(3-4):255-257,
December 1989.

Douglas B. Lenat and R.V. Guha, "Building Large Knowledge-Based
Systems", Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1990. ISBN 0-201-51752-3.

For a critique of Cyc, see Stefik and Smoliar, "The Commonsense
Reviews", Artificial Intelligence 61(1):37-40 1993.

Subject: [4-27] Constraint-based Scheduling

Operations Research books:

Kenneth R. Baker, "Introduction to Sequencing and Scheduling",
John Wiley and Sons, 1974.

Jacques Carlier and Philippe Chretienne, "Problemes d'ordonnancement:
Modelisation / Complexite / Algorithmes", Masson, 1988.

Edward G. Coffman Jr., editor, "Computers and Job-Shop Scheduling
Theory", John Wiley and Sons, 1976.

Review articles:

Stephen C. Graves, "A Review of Production Scheduling",
Operations Research, 29(4):646-675, 1981.

Karl G. Kempf, "Manufacturing Planning and Scheduling: Where We Are
and Where We Need To Be", Proceedings of the IEEE International
Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications, Miami, Florida, 1989.

Karl Kempf, Claude Le Pape, Stephen F. Smith and Barry R. Fox, "Issues
in the Design of AI-Based Schedulers: A Workshop Report", AI Magazine,
11(5):37-46, 1991.

Karl Kempf, Bruce Russell, Sanjiv Sidhu and Stu Barrett, "AI-Based
Schedulers in Manufacturing Practice: Report of a Panel Discussion",
AI Magazine, 11(5):46-55, 1991.

Mitchell S. Steffen, "A Survey of Artificial Intelligence-Based
Scheduling Systems", Proceedings of the Fall Industrial Engineering
Conference, Boston, MA, 1986.


S.H. Clearwater, B.A. Huberman, and T. Hogg, "Cooperative solution of
constraint satisfaction problems", Science 254(5035):1181-1183,
November 22, 1991.

Mark S. Fox and Norman Sadeh, "Why is scheduling difficult? A CSP
perspective." In Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Artificial
Intelligence (ECAI-90), pages 754-767, 1990.

P. J. M. Val Laarhoven, E. H. L. Aarts, and J. K. Lenstra, "Job shop
scheduling by simulated annealing", Operations Research 40(1):113-125,
January-February 1992.

Subject: [4-28] Music and AI

Mira Balaban, Kemal Ebcioglu, and Otto Laske, editors, "Understanding
Music with AI: Perspectives on Music Cognition", MIT Press, Cambridge,
MA, 1992. 512 pages, ISBN 0-262-52170-9, $39.95.

David Cope, "Computers and Musical Style", A-R Editions, Madison, WS,
1991. 246 pages, ISBN 0-895-79256-7.
[Music composition by computer using ATNs.]

Minds and Machines 2(4) November 1992 was devoted to music and cognition,
and there were some relevant book reviews in 3(1) February 1993.

Subject: [4-29] AI and Education

Jill H. Larkin and Ruth W. Chabay, "Computer-assisted instruction
and intelligent tutoring systems: Shared goals and complementary
approaches", Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, 1992, 280 pages.
ISBN 0-80580-233-9.

Etienne Wenger, "Artificial Intelligence and Tuturing Systems",
Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos, CA, 1987.

Subject: [4-30] Blackboard Architectures

Daniel D. Corkill, "Blackboard Systems", AI Expert 6(9):40-47,
September 1991. [An unabridged copy of this paper can be found

Ian D. Craig, "Blackboard Systems", Ablex, Norwood, NJ, 1994.
240 pages, ISBN 1-56750-029-3 paper ($24.50).
[Tutorial introduction/text.]

Robert S. Engelmore and Anthony Morgan, editors, "Blackboard
Systems", Addison-Wesley, 1988.
[Contains all classic papers on blackboard systems up to around
1986; some papers were revised for this book.]

V. Jagannathan, Rajendra Dodhiawala, and Lawrence S. Baum, editors,
"Blackboard Architectures and Applications", Academic Press, 1989
[Research efforts from 1986 to 1988.]

Penny Nii, "Blackboard Systems", AI Magazine 7(3), 1986.

Subject: [4-31] Temporal Reasoning and Modal Logic

Mehmet A. Orgun, "Temporal and Modal Logic Programming: An Annotated
Bibliography", SIGART Bulletin 5(3):52-59, July 1994.

Subject: [4-32] Data Mining


Cios, K.J., Pedrycz, W., and Swiniarski, R.W., "Data Mining
Methods for Knowledge Discovery", Kluwer Academic Publishers,
1998. ISBN: 0792382528

Article Collections:

International Journal of Intelligent Systems 7(7), September 1992.

IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 5(6), December 1993.

Gregory Piatetsky-Shapiro and William J. Frawley, editors, "Knowledge
Discovery in Databases", MIT Press, 1991.

Subject: [4-33] Medicine/Biology/Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics : The Machine Learning Approach (Adaptive Computation and
Machine Learning) by Pierre Baldi, Soren Brunak
360 pages (February 13, 1998), MIT Press; ISBN: 026202442X

Computational Methods in Molecular Biology by Steven L. Salzberg
(Editor), David B. Searls (Editor), Simon Kasif (Editor) (January
1999) Elsevier Science; ISBN: 0444502041

Subject: [4-34] AI book publication announcements mailing list

The AI BOOK ANNOUNCEMENTS mailing list exists to inform the AI
community about the publication of new AI-related books.

This list hasn't been active since 1995.

Subject: [4-35] Who are the major AI publishers?

Ablex Publishing Corporation
355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, NJ 07648-2090
Fax: 201-767-6717

Academic Press
1250 Sixth Avenue, San Diego, CA 92101
Orders: 800-321-5068
Fax: 619-699-6715

AP Professional (imprint of Academic Press)
Marketing: 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495
Orders: 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32821-9816
Tel: 1-800-3131-APP (1-405-345-2525)
Fax: 1-800-336-7377

Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.
Route 128, 1 Jacob Way, Reading, MA 01867
800-447-2226 (617-944-3700)
Fax: 617-944-8243 617-944-7273
E-mail: (must register with Book Express via paper mail first)

Benjamin Cummings Publishing Company
2727 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025
390 Bridge Parkway, Redwood City, CA 94065
800-552-2499, 415-594-4400
Orders: Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., Reading, MA 01867,
800-447-2226, fax 800-333-3328
Canadian Orders: Addison-Wesley Publishers Ltd., PO Box 580, 26 Prince
Andrew Place, Don Mills Ontario, CANADA M3C 2T8
416-447-5101, fax 416-443-0948
International Orders: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, International
Publishing Group, Jacob Way, Reading, MA 01867
617-944-3700, fax 617-944-0826
Information/Examination Copies: 800-950-2665

Blackwell Scientific Publications, Inc.
3 Cambridge Center, Suite 208, Cambridge, MA 02142
Fax: 617-225-0412
Osney Mead, PO Box 88, Oxford, 0X2 0EL, UK 0865-240201

Cambridge University Press
40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10022
Orders: 800-221-4512, 212-924-3900, 800-872-7423

Chapman & Hall
One Penn Plaza, 41st Floor, New York, NY 10119
Tel: 1-800-634-7064 (212-244-6412)
Fax: 1-800-248-4724 (212-268-9964)
In the UK call 0264-342923 or fax 0264-364418.
Overseas call 44-264-342830 or fax 44-264-342761.

Columbia University Press
562 West 113th Street, New York, NY 10025

Computer Science Press, Inc.
41 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010-3546

Computing Reviews
11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036

Cornell University Press
Box 250, 124 Roberts Place, Ithica, NY 14851

Digital Press
225 Wildwood Street
Woburn, MA 01801 USA
Tel: 800-366-2665 (USA) or 617-928-2527
Fax: 800-446-6520 (USA) or 617-933-6333

Elsevier Science Publishing
655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10017
PO Box 211, Amsterdam, 1000 AE, The Netherlands
Fax: 020-580-3769

Harvard University Press
79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138

Houghton Miflin Company
One Memorial Drive, Cambridge, MA 02142
One Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02108

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158

Kluwer Academic Publishers
101 Philip Drive, Norwell, MA 02061.
PO Box 358, Accord Station, Hingham, MA 02018-0358.
Fax: 617-871-6528
Ftp-server: (See journals/ and books/ subdirectories.)
The Kluwer ftp server offers the complete table of contents for
Kluwer's EE & CS journals, the Aims & Scope, Instruction for Authors,
Ordering information, and LaTeX style files. This service can also be
reached using gopher.
Outside US:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, PO Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, The Netherlands
Tel: +31-78-524400
Fax: +31-78-183273

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
365 Broadway, Hillsdale, NJ 07642
800-926-6579, (201-666-4110)
Fax: 201-666-2394

Little Brown & Company
34 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02108
Fax: 617-227-4633

Macmillan Publishing
866 Third Avenue, Third Floor, New York, NY 10022
800-257-5755 (212-702-2000)

McGraw Hill Book Company
1221 Avenue of the Americas, 43rd Floor, New York, NY 10020
800-442-9685 (212-512-2000)

MIT Press
55 Hayward Street, Cambridge, MA 02139-1399
Customer Service: 617-625-8481
Orders: 800-356-0343 (617-625-8569)
Fax: 617-625-6660/9080
E-mail (orders):
E-mail (inquiries):
Online catalogs: telnet and look under
Around MIT \ Offices & Services \ MIT Press
or use the gopher server,
In Europe, contact MIT Press, 14 Bloomsbury Square, London WC1A
2LP England, phone 071-404-0712, fax 071-404-0610 or via e-mail In Australia, contact Astam Books, 57-61
John Street, Leichhardt, NSW 2040 Australia, phone 02-566-4400, fax

Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc.
340 Pine Street, Sixth Floor, San Francisco, CA 94104 USA
Orders: 800-745-7323 (415-392-2665)
Fax: 415-982-BOOK (= 415-982-2665)
Their "Readings in X" series is a good source of information
on various AI topics. (Many of them are listed below.)
In Europe: Direct Distribution, 27 Church Road, Hove, East Sussex, BN3 2FA, UK
Tel (+44 273) 748427, Fax (+44 273) 722180

Oxford University Press
200 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016

Pergamon Press
395 Saw Mill River Road, Elmsford, NY 10523
800-257-5755 (914-592-7700)

Prentice Hall Inc.
College Division, 440 Sylvan Avenue, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632
Orders: 800-223-1360 (fax to 800-495-6991) 800-526-0485
Fax: 201-461-4573

Princeton University Press
41 William Street, Princeton, NJ 08540

Random House Publishing
201 East 50th Street, New York, NY 10022

Springer Verlag
175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010
800-SPRINGER/800-777-4643 (201-348-4033)
Fax: 201-348-4505

University Microfilms International
300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106
Copies of PhD theses off of microfilm.

University of Chicago Press
5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637
800-621-2736 (312-702-7700)

Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc.
115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003
Orders: 1-800-544-0550 or fax 606-525-7778

W. H. Freeman & Company
41 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010
Fax: 212-689-2383

W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010
800-233-4830 (212-354-5500)

Subject: [4-36] How do I get a copy of the proceedings to conference <x>?

First, ask your librarian for help. If your local library doesn't have it,
they may be able to get it on interlibrary loan.

If you want to buy your own copy, first check with the organization
that ran the conference. See part 3 of the AI FAQ for a list of many
of the AI organizations that sponsor conferences.

If they can't help you, contact the Institute for Scientific Information
(ISI), and look up the proceedings in their Index to Scientific and
Technical Proceedings (ISTP volumes). You can contact the ISI at

Institute for Scientific Information, Inc.
3501 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Phone: 215-386-0100
Fax: 215-386-6362

Another source for proceedings author and subject indexes is:

Directory of Published Proceedings.
Series SEMT: Science/Engineering/Medicine/Technology.
Published monthly with annual cumulations by InterDok, Harrison, NY.
ISSN 0012-3293.

Subject: [4-37] How do I get a copy of <x>'s PhD dissertation?

Most dissertations from US universities are available from

University Microfilms International, Inc.
300 North Zeeb Road
Ann Arbor, MI 48106
Phone: 800-521-0600 (313-761-4700)
800-343-5299 (in Canada)

They will print a copy of the dissertation from microfilm and bind it
in paperbound or cloth for a reasonable fee.

Subject: [4-38] How do I get Tech Report X?

The easiest and cheapest way to get a copy of a tech report, paper, or
thesis is to send email to the author. Most researchers will be happy
to drop a copy of the report to you in the mail, or give you a pointer
to an online copy. In some cases they may direct you to a central
technical report coordinator for their department (see [6-2]), and
getting a copy may involve a nominal fee.

Scientific DataLink publishes AIDA (AI Database of Abstracts), a
CD-ROM of abstracts from AI technical reports on a subscription basis
with a new CD every 6 months. For more information, write to
Scientific DataLink, 270 Lafayette Street, Suite 704, New York, NY
10012, call 1-800-735-8655 or fax 212-966-3417. Ask

Subject: [4-39] Videotapes and Magazines


The 4th episode of the PBS series "The Machine That Changed the World" is
a good introduction to AI. It is available for $90 from Films for the
Humanities, 1-800-257-5126.

Morgan Kaufmann also has a good set of tapes of AI-related lectures, but
it runs on the expensive side.

University Video Communications sells a few AI-related videotapes,
including Allen Newell's "Desires & Diversions". For more
information, write to UVC, PO Box 5129, Stanford, CA 94309, call
415-813-0506, fax 415-813-0315, or email

AI-related magazines include:

Miller Freeman, Inc., 600 Harrison Street, San Francisco, CA 94107.
Subscriptions: 1-800-274-2534 (303-447-9330) or
$42/year (12 issues), $6 extra in Canada and Mexico,
$15 extra (surface mail) or $40 (air mail) for overseas.
Canadian GST# 124513185. For back-issues, call 1-800-444-4881.
Submissions: Larry O'Brien, Editor in Chief, <>
[AI Expert has ceased publication with the July 1995 issue.]

PC AI (ISSN 0894-0711)
3310 West Bell Road, Suite 119, Phoenix, AZ 85023.
Subscriptions: 602-971-1869, fax 602-971-2321.
$28/year (6 issues); $54 for two years; $78 for three years.
$9 extra in Canada and Mexico, $25 extra (air mail) for all
other countries.

Both magazines are excellent sources of commercial product reviews
and frequently publish "Product Guides/Showcases" that list many of the
commercial products available in a particular area of AI, such as
expert systems, neural nets, natural language processing, and so on.

BYTE Magazine does occasional features on AI topics. Program
listings for those articles are available by anonymous ftp from

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