FrameMaker FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 1/2

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Bob McCormick

Oct 6, 1996, 3:00:00 AM10/6/96

Archive-name: frame/faq/part1
Version: 2.9a
Last-modified: 1996/0313

FrameMaker Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) List

To skip the OFFICIAL STUFF and get to the new info and the table of
contents, search for the word: LEGEND


** What is this all about?

This article contains answers to some Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
about FrameMaker and associated products, often seen in the Usenet
newsgroup "comp.text.frame" and on the "framers" mailing list. It is
posted to help reduce volume in this newsgroup and to provide
hard-to-find information of general interest. This FAQ is in two

FrameMaker is a document publishing program, including page layout,
word processing, graphics (drawing), equations, book building, tables,
etc. It runs on many platforms, most notably Unix/X, SunView,
Macinstosh, Windows, NeXT. Associated products are FrameViewer,
FrameReader and FrameBuilder.

** Copyright & Distribution

This article, as a collection of information, is Copyright 1994 Robert
McCormick. Distribution through any means other than regular Usenet
channels must be by permission. The removal of this copyright notice
is forbidden. This FAQ may be cited as:

McCormick, Robert J. (1994) "FrameMaker FAQ (Frequently Asked
Questions)" Usenet news.answers. Available via (and
./part2). 35 pages.

Please redistribute this article to people who ask for it or people
who use FrameMaker! However, distribute the whole file, including the
copyright notices and the attributions.

** Credits

Many people all over the world have contributed to this FAQ, and have
graciously provided mail servers and FTP sites. Their names are
included with their contributions. I usually edit contributions, so
what you see here may not be the contributor's exact words.

Thanks to TCSI for providing me a job and an account from which to
maintain the FAQ. For more info about TCSI, see

** Corrections & Additions

Send corrections or new questions WITH ANSWERS to Mike Sierra at If you have a question and need an answer, post or
mail your questions to the group, collect the responses, put together
a summary answer, and then mail it to me for inclusion in the FAQ.

** Disclaimer (and Frame Technology's Address)

comp.text.frame and the framers mailing list are not officially read
or supported by Frame Technologies, Inc. To speak officially with
Frame Technologies Inc., especially to report a problem or to suggest
an enhancement, contact them at:

Frame Technology, Inc. Tel: +1 408-975-6466 (408-975-OH-NO :-)
Frame Technical Support Fax: +1 408-975-6611
333 West San Carlos Internet-USA:
San Jose, CA 95110 USA Internet-Eur:
Online BBS: +1 408-975-6729, 6730
BigMac BBS: +1 408-975-6738
Compuserve: GO DTPVEND, Section 12 - Frame Technology

FrameFacts (FAX-back system): +1 408-975-6731

For Frame Sales, use Tel: +1 800-843-7263 (800 U-4-FRAME)

Frame main number: Tel: +1-408-975-6000 Fax: +1-408-975-6799

I and the contributors do not accept any liability for the accuracy or
applicability of this information to your situation. Make a backup
copy of your file(s) before you attempt any complex procedure,
especially one done outside of the FrameMaker program. Be careful.

** Other Items

Most answers are written for FrameMaker version 3.0, 3.0.1, or 3.1,
and may not work for (or be applicable to) earlier or later versions.
There have been a lot of changes between FM3 and FM4. Certain things,
such as automatic hypertext generation, needed separate programs in
FM3, but are built into FM4. Unless otherwise noted, most answers
still show an FM3 viewpoint. As time goes on I intend to change the
answers to reflect and FM4 viewpoint, with the FM3 data shown also,
for those that have not upgraded.

Unless the posting is of local interest (like a user group meeting),
please use Distribution: world in your posts.

This article is in EMACS outline format, using the standard header
symbol "*".

FM FrameMaker
FM3 FrameMaker 3.0, 3.01, 3.0.1, etc.
FM4 FrameMaker 4.0 etc.
FTP File Transfer Program/Protocol
PS PostScript
TOC Table of Contents
XREF Cross-reference or cross-reference marker

** If you are new to Usenet, subscribe to news.announce.newusers
and read the postings there. They give you general information and
tips on making life easier for you and everybody else. Read:
"A Primer on How to Work With the Usenet Community"
"Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Usenet"
"Hints on writing style for Usenet"

** Other FAQs

To find other FAQs, subscribe to news.answers, or send e-mail:
body contains: send usenet/news.answers/index

or, use anonymous FTP:
As an example, this FAQ is stored in the directory

Copies of the news.answers FAQs in HTML format are at

** FTP (File Transfer Protocol/Program) Instructions

FTP is a way of copying files between networked computers. If you
need help in using or getting started with FTP, send e-mail:
body contains: send usenet/news.answers/ftp-list/faq

Most files available by FTP have been archived and compressed. The
unpacking programs for Unix are included on most systems. Those for
Mac and PC are available from most FTP sites; consult README files.

If you do not have access to FTP, there are other was of accessing
files, including ftp-by-mail. Send e-mail:
body contains: send usenet/news.answers/finding-sources



** Notes about this version

This will (hopefully) be my last update, before handing it over to
someone else for future enhancement. Thanks to all who contributed,
especially those who sent me updates, and waited forever for the
changes. I've added most of them to this version, but not all.

Eagle-eyed correctors for this issue:
Alberto Aimar <>
Conrad M. Hirano <>
Daniel Kibler <>
Ethan L. Miller <>
Linda Cygan <>

** TOC Legend
+ indicates questions new to this issue;
! indicates those with significant changes since the last issue.

** Table of Contents

part1:** What is this all about?
part1:** Copyright & Distribution
part1:** Credits
part1:** Corrections & Additions
part1:** Disclaimer (and Frame Technology's Address)
part1:** Other Items
part1:** If you are new to USENET, subscribe to news.announce.newusers
part1:** Other FAQs
part1:** FTP (File Transfer Protocol/Program) Instructions

part1:** Notes about this version
part1:** Legend
part1:** Table of Contents
part1:** Future Items (contributions gladly considered)

!!!!!:** INF-1: Electronic Media (mailing lists, newsgroups, BBSs, fax)
!!!!!:** INF-2: Printed Media (books, magazines, etc.)
part1:** INF-3: User Groups

part1:** TXT-1: How can I control which master page is used when text flows off
of the current page?
part1:** TXT-2: What exactly is copied during File:Use Formats?
part1:** TXT-3: How can I delete all empty paragraphs?
part1:** TXT-4: How can I type h-bar, Planck's constant?
part1:** TXT-5: How can I adjust the size of the brackets in equations?
part1:** TXT-6: How can I underline the area between tabbed text?
+++++:** TXT-7: Can I make a series of changes to my document from a list?
+++++:** TXT-8: Can I make a series of changes to all the documents in a folder?

part1:** NUM-1: How do I set up autonumbers for Figures as "Figure 5-1"?
part1:** NUM-2: How do I place an autonumbered figure number in an anchored
frame? Why doesn't it update properly?
part1:** NUM-3: How can I get "Page 3 of 152" to work for a multi-file book?
part1:** NUM-4: I want chapter number and title on separate lines, both in TOC.
part1:** NUM-5: Can I generate a table-of-contents directly inside a file?
part1:** NUM-6: Why do some of my cross-references keep changing to point
to the wrong paragraph?
part1:** NUM-7: How can I convert x-refs automatically to hypertext links?
part1:** NUM-8: Can I set a FM variable from the command line?
part1:** NUM-9: Does FM support mail merge?
part1:** NUM-10: Is there are tool to automatically produce index entries?
part1:** NUM-11: How do I set up "dictionary-style" headers?
part1:** NUM-12: When I generate from the book, FM says "Degenerate!"
part1:** NUM-13: How can I autonumber figures that span multiple columns?
+++++:** NUM-14: How can I create an "global" index across files (without books)?
+++++:** NUM-15: Multi-line titles get messed up in List-Of-Figures or -Tables

part2:** PAG-1: Is there any easy way to move one or more pages to a different
place in the document? (Two layout models.)
part2:** PAG-2: How do I force a page break?
part2:** PAG-3: How can I change the page size of an existing document?
part2:** PAG-4: I used a rotated (landscape) page for a large figure/table,
but the figure keeps moving to a portrait page!
part2:** PAG-5: How can I get text to flow around a graphic?
part2:** PAG-6: What is the easiest way to do "this page intentionally
left blank"?
part2:** PAG-7: How can I control the spacing between the text and the top
of the text frame?
part2:** PAG-8: How can I make a table or anchored frame span two columns?
+++++:** PAG-9: How can I float a table to the top of the page, w/o blank space?

part2:* PRINTING
part2:** PRT-1: How can I print "DRAFT" on the background of every page?
part2:** PRT-2: How can I print with the "-h" switch in FM3.0/3.1?
part2:** PRT-3: How can I set the default printer name?
part2:** PRT-4: How can I print pages in pamphlet/booklet/signature order?
part2:** PRT-5: Is there a way to print certain pages or ranges from a book
or file, besides the one-range-at-a-time printing via FM?
part2:** PRT-6: How can I print double-sided on a printer that supports it?
part2:** PRT-7: Can I print FM files on a 9-bin dot-matrix printer?
part2:** PRT-8: How can I have text that is displayed, but not printed?
part2:** PRT-9: How can print to a non-PostScript printer?
+++++:** PRT-10: What kind of control do I have over documents
distributed on-line in FrameMaker binary format?

part2:** FIL-1: Where can I find a filter to convert <XXXXXX> to Frame?
part2:** FIL-2: How do I convert a Frame document from Mac to Sun? (etc.)
part2:** FIL-3: Why do my imported images show up as gray rectangles?
part2:** FIL-4: How can I automatically import a graphic file whose format is
not recognized by FM, if I can do the conversion manually?
part2:** FIL-5: How do I incorporate code fragments in a Frame doc?
!!!!!:** FIL-6: Are there any SGML converters for FM?
!!!!!:** FIL-7: I am having problems transferring PostScript in and out of FM.
part2:** FIL-8: How can I convert a group of files between FM binary and MIF?
part2:** FIL-9: How do I import ISO Latin1 (ISO-8859.1) text into FM?
part2:** FIL-10: How do I screendump a window with a menu?
part2:** FIL-11: How do I convert MATLAB output to FM?
!!!!!:** FIL-12: How do I convert FM to HTML?
part2:** FIL-13: How do I convert MS Excel charts to FM?
part2:** FIL-14: How do I get a better FM-to-Text conversion?
+++++:** FIL-15: How do I merge several PS files into a single PS file?

part2:** SGB-1: Are there any grammar checkers for FM?
part2:** SGB-2: Do you know what happens if the spell checker finds "Interleaf"
part2:** SGB-3: How can I do bibliographies in FrameMaker?
part2:** SGB-4: Can FM produce automatically numbered endnotes?
!!!!!:** SGB-5: Are there any plotting/charting packages that work with FM?
part2:** SGB-6: Is there a thesaurus that works with FM?
part2:** SGB-7: How to use configuration management tools with FM?
part2:** SGB-8: Are there any "spreadsheet" tools for FM tables?

part2:** PLT-1: Various FM on X Window questions
part2:** PLT-2: How do I open documents from the command line using an already
running FrameMaker (and thus only a single license)?
part2:** PLT-3: Where can I find keyboard shortcuts for [platform]?
part2:** PLT-4: How can I maximize battery life for FM on portables?
part2:** PLT-5: Various FM-Windows Questions
part2:** PLT-6: FrameMaker does not display black text on an external
color monitor connected to a Macintosh PowerBook.
part2:** PLT-7: What can be done to make FM run faster on Macintoshes?

part2:** TMP-1: Where can I get the FUN tape?
part2:** TMP-2: Where can I get a template for technical papers?
part2:** TMP-3: Where can I get DTD template for FrameBuilder?
part2:** TMP-4: Where can I get additional Clip Art for FM?
part2:** TMP-5: Where can I get a thesis template?

** Future Items (contributions gladly considered)


** INF-1: Electronic Media (mailing lists, newsgroups, BBSs, fax)

*** A. How to get the latest version of this FAQ

This FAQ is posted monthly to comp.text.frame, comp.answers, and
news.answers. To get the latest copy via mail server, send e-mail:
with body containing: send usenet/news.answers/frame/faq/part1
send usenet/news.answers/frame/faq/part2

An HTML version (URLs converted to links) is stored at

A full HTML version is stored at
(top-level info at
courtesy of Tim Hanlon ( and CERN. This HTML
version may not be as current as the other versions, but it is very
easy to use. The Bug List and Filters document are here in HTML also!

The FAQ is also available via

*** B. comp.text.frame Usenet newsgroup

Subscribe to the Usenet newsgroup comp.text.frame.
To find out how to read a newsgroup, ask your system administrator.

*** C. "framers" reflective mailing list

This is a reflective mailing list, which is also partially gatewayed
with comp.text.frame in one direction: from the newsgroup to the
mailing list but not vice versa. The 'cream of comp.text.frame' is
forwarded to the mailing list.

To get on the mailing list, use the automated administrator; to find
out how, send e-mail:
body contains: help

If you have trouble with the automated administrator, send email to:

There is an archive at .

*** D. Frame Technology's Bulletin Board System

Frame Technology has created a bulletin board system that can be used
to submit bug reports, leave messages, read bulletins and technical
tips, or upload/download files. See phone numbers above.

Contributor: Al at Frame Tech Support

*** E. Frame Technology's FrameFacts FAX Retrieval System

Frame Technology has created the FrameFacts FAX retrieval system.
This system is activated by your touch-tone phone, and will send
requested documents to the FAX machine of your choosing. FrameFacts
contains the latest Technical Notes and tips for all the FrameMaker
platforms and products. This system is updated weekly, as is the BBS.
You can reach FrameFacts by calling +1 408-975-6731. You may wish to
request the Index of Documents the first time you call. (This system
may only work if you are calling from USA or Canada.)

*** F. Frame Technology FTP site

Frame has added an FTP site: Items supplied by Frame
are in /pub/techsup/. The directories /pub/techsup/framers/[mac, dos,
unix, platform.ind] contain files submitted by others, such as this
FAQ, the filter document (see FIL-1), filters, etc. Most files are
compressed in some format.

You can make submissions to the site; read the file /.welcome.msg for

*** G. FUNNE FTP Archive

The FUNNE (FrameMaker's User Network of New England) anonymous FTP
archive contains information on upcoming meetings, meeting minutes and
agendas, general information regarding FUNNE, and an uploads section
for uploading helpful Frame sample templates, informational text
files, and other Frame-related utilities.

To access the FUNNE FTP archive:

*** H. Other Usenet newsgroups of interest to desktop publishing.

comp.text, comp.text.desktop, comp.text.sgml, comp.lang.postscript,
comp.sources.postscript, alt.hypertext, misc.writing

*** I: Other interesting Web pages for publishing & writing

Contributor: Graeme Forbes <>

** INF-2: Printed Media (books, magazines, etc.)

*** A. Michael Fraase. 1992. "Structured Publishing from the
Desktop: Frame Technology's FrameMaker." Business One Irwin,
Homewood, IL. 336 pp. Softbound. $24.95 ISBN 1-55623-616-6.

Contributor: Binion Amerson

*** B. Juergen Gulbins, Karl Obermayr. 1994. "Desktop Publishing mit
FrameMaker", published in German Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New
York. 800 pages; Covering FM4 on UNIX, Windows and Mac extra chapters
on typography, photosetting, installation and configuration on UNIX.

Contributor: Karl Obermayr

*** C. FrameFootnotes: The technical newsletter for FrameMaker users.
Published (quarterly?) by Frame Technical Support. Contact:
Technical Support/FrameFootnotes
Frame Technology Corporation (address above)*
(download as binary, as it is a FM file)

*** D. FrameFocus: Marketing newsletter from Frame.
Published quarterly by Frame Technologies. Contact:
Editor, FrameFocus
Frame Technology Corporation (address above)
(download as binary, as it is a FM file)

*** E. Books available through Ellipsys International Publications

The following book profiles are provided by Ellipsys International
Publications, Inc., a source of FrameMaker books for Unix, Mac, and
Windows. To obtain more information about any of the following titles,
please call toll free, or send a fax or Email. Ellipsys is a
Registered Training Company for Frame Technology Corporation.

Ellipsys International Publications, Inc. Tel: +1 619-280-8711
4679 Vista Street Sales: +1 800-944-5551
San Diego, CA 92116 USA Fax: +1 619-280-8713
CompuServe: Claire Arias,73441,1226

Title: FrameMaker 4: From Desktop to Printshop
Authors: Yvonne Johnson
Publisher: Osborne McGraw-Hill
ISBN: 0-07-881970-9
Suggested Retail Price: $29.95 Available 4/94

This colorfully-illustrated reference moves beyond the mechanics of Frame-
Maker, to emphasize the basics of good design and layout, prepress and
production. Features Windows, with numerous side notes for Mac and Unix.
Title: FrameMaker 4 for Windows: Visual QuickStart Guide
Author: Jann Tolman
Publisher: Peachpit Press
ISBN: 1-56609-097-0
Suggested Retail Price: $18.95 Available 3/94

A picture is worth a thousand words! This book's illustrated step-by-step
instructions will help you get up and running with FrameMaker 4 in no time. Written especially for those who would rather do it than read about it.
Title: Power of FrameMaker 4 for Windows
Author: David B. Doty
Publisher: MIS:Press
ISBN: 1-55828-314-5
Suggested Retail Price: $27.95 Available NOW!

This book of 446 pages covers all bases, but zeroes in on topics of interest
to experienced users. Learn how to create and maintain complex documents,
use conditional text, generate lists, tables, anchored frames, equations,
hypertext, and more!
Title: FrameMaker 4 for Unix Solutions
Authors: Helena Fernandez Jerney & John Jerney
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0-471-59076-2
Suggested Retail Price: $29.95 Available NOW!

The ultimate trouble-shooting guide for professional technical writers using
FrameMaker 4 for Unix. This comprehensive reference of 478 pages provides
quick access to step-by-step instructions for over 200 FrameMaker 4 tasks.
Title: FrameMaker for Windows: Step-by-Step
Author: Janet Lienhard
Series: Trainers' Signature Series
Publisher: Ellipsys International Publications, Inc.
ISBN: 1-880663-41-4
Suggested Retail Price: $29.95 Available NOW!

A three-part set of workbooks for the first-time user of FrameMaker 3.
Each workbook features a step-by-step lesson, supplemented by an alpha-
betical reference of featured commands and illustrated glossary. Ideal
for in-house corporate training.
Title: Structured Publishing from the Desktop
Author: Michael Fraase
Publisher: Irwin Professional Publishing
ISBN: 1-55623-616-6
Suggested Retail Price: $30.00 Available NOW!

Featuring FrameMaker 3 for the Mac, this book provides an interesting
overview of technical communications methology, with an emphasis on the
multi-platform, workgroup publishing environment.

Contributor: Claire Arias <>

*** F. "The Frame Handbook: Building Framemaker Documents that Work"

By Linda Branagan & Micheal Sierra, pub. O'Reilly & Ass., Inc.

For me, the "Tips and Tricks" section alone is worth the price of the
book... I saved a lot of time with the explanation of automated
running tabs (or bleeding tabs). Furthermore, the Acknowlegdements
make mention our very own comp.text.frame!

Contributor: Hal Hammond <>

** INF-3: User Groups

Usually called FUN for Frame User Network. These groups meet to
discuss FM and its usage. They often include speakers from FM,
3rd-party tool suppliers, etc. (Country code for all phone numbers is

Atlanta GA USA
Dana O'Farrell 404-417-4811 Meets quarterly.
Chicago IL USA
Lester LaPierre 708-576-4445
Cleveland OH USA
Eric LaPresto 216-445-9368
Columbus OH USA
Alan Addis 614-477-3600 x2497
Peggy Sutliff " x3200
Dallas-Fort Worth TX USA
Darja Adams 214-869-0680 x2257
Dayton OH USA
Brian Bermhardt 513-257-2479
Detroit MI USA
Myron Hayden 313-459-5630
Florida USA
Kathy Garvey
Indianapolis IN USA
Brad Williamson 317-230-5564 317-471-3055
317-872-7220 x632
Los Angeles CA USA
Brian Keith 818-883-3838
Milwaukee WI USA
Luke Heffron 414-782-0007
Minneapolis MN USA
Nancee Melby 612-726-2277
New England USA
Paul Brady 508-490-5797
Phoenix AZ USA
Ken Arnold 602-862-6699
Pittsburgh PA USA
Al Mylan 412-378-4046
Mike Myers 412-374-3246
San Diego CA USA
Robert Crews 72274...@CompuServe.COM 619-281-6141
San Francisco Bay Area CA USA
Ruth LoCurto 408-765-4157

The Frame contact for user group info is Susan Barber, Atlanta office,
+1 310-643-4425, x6953.

If you want to start one of your very own FUN group, contact your
local sales representative.


** TXT-1: How can I control which master page is used when text flows off
of the current page?

When you push text out of a column with Autoconnect turned on, how
does FM choose which master page to use for the new page?

- If the number and type (letter tag) of the autoconnect flows on the
current body page exactly match the autoconnect flows on the Right
master page, then the Right master page is used.

- Otherwise, the master page for the current body page is used.

The Right master page is kind of the default master page. (Unless it
is a double-sided document, in which case there are Left and Right
defaults.) For example, if you were typing a memo, you would have (at
least) two master pages, one called "First" which contained the big
header, and one called "Right" for all of the continuation pages.

You cannot get FM to automatically go from one non-Right master to
another. For example, assume that a memo has 3 masters: Fax, First,
and Right. There is no way to start the document with only the Fax
page, and have it automatically change to First, and then to Right.
The solution is to create 3 pages, apply the appropriate masters,
connect the flows as needed, and make sure that empty pages are not
deleted (turn this off in Format->Document or add dummy text to each

Another item to note is that when changing master pages with Page
Layout, the same "union" rules apply, as done with "Use Formats." For
example, if the body page currently has one column of flow B, and you
apply a master page which has one column with flow A, you will wind up
with two text columns. You can then copy the text from the old column
to the new column (if appropriate), and then delete the old column.

** TXT-2: What exactly is copied during File:Use Formats?

Here is a description of what is copied and what actions occur during
Use Formats. (This is from the Reference Manual, but I think it bears
repeating, since it is not in the on-line help.)

P Formats
P Catalog
All paragraphs are updated with the new formats
Footnote properties (where placed, prefix, format, etc.)
Equation sizes
Document Properties: Allow Line Breaks After
Flow Properties: Feather

C Formats
C Catalog
All tagged characters are updated with the new formats

Page Layouts
Master Pages
Background and Column Layout applied to all body pages
Change Bar Properties
Document Properties: First Page Number and Page Number Style
View Options

Reference Pages
Reference Pages
Reference Frames in current doc that are not in source doc are removed!

Variable Definitions

Cross Reference Formats
Cross Reference Formats
Updates internal cross-references (x-refs)

Table Formats
Table Format Catalog
Ruling Style Catalog
Update all tables

Conditional Text
Conditional Tags
Show/Hide Settings
Use Format Overrides

If you are going to apply P Formats, than you should also apply C
Formats. Otherwise, text tagged with C formats will still be tagged
correctly, but will be displayed with the default P format.

** TXT-3: How can I delete all empty paragraphs?

If you're trying to delete extra paragraph marks (obligatory in good
formatting), you may have noticed that you can't search for two
paragraph marks (\p\p) and replace with one paragraph mark (\p)
without losing the formatting of one of the paragraphs on either side
of that string.

The solution is to search, with wildcards, for a beginning of a line
followed by the end of a line (^$), and replace with a null string.

Contributor: Mike Sierra <>

** TXT-4: How can I type h-bar, Planck's constant?

This is not easy. There are a couple of methods described in a long

** TXT-5: How can I adjust the size of the brackets in equations?

In math mode I write an expression such as (1/x) and automatically get
large brackets on the screen:

/ 1 \
| - |
\ x /

But when I print, I get only small brackets:

( - )

Solution: Put a superscript on the numberator (1) and a subscript on
the denominator (x). Make them both white (as opposed to the standard
black). Adjust the spacing of the super and subscripts to adjust the
bracket size. What you get looks like:


but the a and b won't print. Instead of using white text, you can use
another color if you wish and then suppress printing of that color.

Contributors: Phil Endecott <>
Bob Collins <>

** TXT-6: How can I underline the area between tabbed text?

I now get: First part Second part
---------- -----------

but I want: First part Second part

In the Paragraph Format: Tabs: Properties: Leader, place a hard space
(meta space) at the appropriate tabs. These will be underlined too.

Contributor: Wim van Gijsel <>

** TXT-7: Can I make a series of changes to my document from a list?

Tempo II Plus 3.0 comes with a Find/Replace macro that assigns a list
of from/to changes to Temnpo variables. Tempo then enters them into
the application's change dialog box, waiting for each change to
complete in the target document before making the next. The macro is
designed to work within Microsoft Word but can be modified to work in
any program that has a find/change dialog box. Tempo is published by
Affinity Microsystems Ltd.

Affinity MicroSystems Ltd. Tel: +1 800-367-6700, +1 303-442-4840
Email: Fax: +1 303-442-4999

Contributor: Rick <>

** TXT-8: Can I make a series of changes to all the documents in a folder?

Tempo II Plus 3.0 comes with a "batch-process" routine that applies
the Tempo macro you create to every file in a folder. The macro can
also be set to perform differently based on some charactistic of the
document, such as a portion of its name, some text in the file or even
an image within the document. Tempo is published by Affinity
Microsystems Ltd.

Affinity MicroSystems Ltd. Tel: +1 800-367-6700, +1 303-442-4840
Email: Fax: +1 303-442-4999

Contributor: Rick <>


** NUM-1: How do I set up autonumbers for Figures as "Figure 5-1"?

First, FM organizes paragraph number into multiple series, each series
indicated by a character followed by a colon (H:). There is also a
series with no indicator.

Second, the default behavior is that when a position is ommitted from
an autonumber format, its value is reset to zero. (See below for a
way to include a position in a format without printing it.)

In autonumbering, if you include "< >" in the number, this means
"don't display and don't reset the number in this position." Note the
space between the angle brackets.

Use one number series for both headers and figure numbers. The
positions of the numbers in the series are as follows:

<level1> <figure> <table> <example> <level2> <level3> <level4> <level5>

The resultant autonumbers are:

Head1 H:<n+>
Figure H:<n>-<n+>< >< >< >< >< >< >
Table H:<n>-< ><n+>< >< >< >< >< >
Example H:<n>-< >< ><n+>< >< >< >< >
Head2 H:<n>< >< >< >.<n+>
Head3 H:<n>< >< >< >.<n>.<n+>
Head4 H:<n>< >< >< >.<n>.<n>.<n+>
Head5 H:<n>< >< >< >.<n>.<n>.<n>.<n+>

Contributor: Alan Koch <>

** NUM-2: How do I place an autonumbered figure number in an anchored
frame? Why doesn't it update properly?

There are three ways to place figure numbers so that they are
automatically updated. They each have advantages and disadvantages.
Note that you cannot use a "text line" (the A tool) for the figure
number, because text lines cannot be autonumbered, since they are not
real paragraphs in a text column.

*** A. In-Frame

The figure number is contained in a text column which is inside the
anchored frame.

+ Can use "floating" figures, because the title is inside the floating

- Text column must be properly placed (see below).
- Cannot be used if you want other autonumbered text cols in frame.

If you use this method, the text column with the figure number must be
the first text column in the drawing order. To ensure this, select the
column and do Graphics->Back.

*** B. Out-of-Frame

The figure number is outside the frame, usually in the paragrah that
contains the anchor or the paragraph after the anchor paragraph. Use
Keep With Next and Keep With Previous in Format Paragraph to keep
things together.

+ Don't have to worry about text column in frame.
+ Can have an autonumbered text column in frame.

- Cannot use floating figures.

*** C. Frame in One-cell Table

Create a one-cell table, put the anchored frame in the cell, and place
the figure title in the table title column.

+ Can use all the formatting features of tables:
Title above or below
Controlled spacing between title and figure
Controlled ruling (could use top and bottom rule lines)
+ Don't have to worry about placement of text column in frame.
+ Can easily place 2 (or more) figures side-by-side in a column.
(If using more than one row, use the Table Format:Basic:Numbering
property to set row-first or column-first numbering.)
- Yet another layer of nesting (table contains frame which contains

Note that this method provides an easy way to do side-by-side figures
(or other groupings), but you must then place the figure title inside
the table cell. Figure number ordering can be set from Table Format.

Contributor: Harro Kremer <>

** NUM-3: How can I get "Page 3 of 152" to work for a multi-file book?

If you place text such as "Page <Current Page #> of <Page Count>"
(where <xxx> signifies a variable) in the footer, you will get the
expected results for a single-file document, but not for a multi-file
book. The solution is replace the variable <Page Count> with a
cross-reference to a paragraph on the last page of the last file in
the book. The format of the cross-reference should be <$pagenum>.
Make sure that you perform "File Generate/Update Files" from the book
before you print, to update all cross-references.

** NUM-4: I want chapter number and title on separate lines, both in TOC.

At the beginning of each chapter I want:

Chapter <n>

Title of Chapter Goes Here

This requires two paragraphs, one for the number and one for the
title. However, in the TOC I want:

Chapter <n> Title of Chapter Goes Here...............<pagenum>

Solution: Use different paragraph tags for your Chapter number and
Title (e.g. ChapNum & ChapTitle). In your TOC Setup, gather only
ChapTitle. In the TOC document itself, modify the Paragraph Format
for ChapTitleTOC to set Numbering Properties to:
Chapter <n+>.\t
This will reproduce or mimic the chapter numbering, instead of pulling
it from the chapter file. You may have to use a separate series (H:,
C:) or use Book: File: Setup File to reset the numbering
appropriately. On the TOC Reference page, set the entry for
ChapTitleTOC to:

Contributors: Steve Harding <>
Rob Weinberg

** NUM-5: Can I generate a table-of-contents directly inside a file?

Sort of, by using Cross-References instead of the Generate facility.

At the front of your document, start setting up cross references to
all the paragraphs you want to appear in the TOC. You can experiment with
all the flexibility offered by X-Ref formats and autonumbers.

Every time you add a new section to your document, you must manually
add a corresponding cross reference in your TOC, but from then on it's
self-maintaining. To update the TOC, just do Special :
Cross-Reference : Update : Internal. If you delete a section and
forget to delete the cross reference in the TOC, no problem! You use
the standard methods to search- and-destroy (or fix) unresolved cross
references. After the update, visually inspect the TOC to look for
missing numbers, which may indicate sections that did not get

This isn't as automated as the Generate method, but it has the major
bonus of giving you the "Go To" hyperlink on the Cross Reference
dialogue box. When you want to go to a section, you just double-click
on the cross reference in the TOC, hit "Go To" in the dialogue box,
and there you are! Very popular if you have various people reviewing
a document on-line.

Contributor: Ken d'Albenas <>

** NUM-6: Why do some of my cross-references keep changing to point
to the wrong paragraph?

*** SITUATION: We have a document with many figures (or tables or
equations). Each figure is cross-referenced in the body text.

*** SYMPTOM: Some cross-references seem to be "unstable". For example,
when one places a cross-reference to 'Figure 3' in the text, the
number is correctly displayed ('Figure 3'). Later on, when the
cross-references are updated, the cross-reference suddenly changes,
e.g. to 'Figure 1'.

(Manually changing the cross-reference back to 'Figure 3' (Special
Cross-Reference, Replace) restored the correct number (3), but when
the 'Update' was performed again, the number again reverted to 1!)

*** CAUSE: The problem is caused by the use of the copy/paste functions to
duplicate a block of text that contains an X-Ref (aka Cross-Ref)
marker. First, here is some background on cross-reference markers.

FM puts an X-Ref marker at the beginning of a paragraph when one first
sets a cross-reference to that paragraph. Normally, users don't have
to bother about such X-Ref markers. The marker symbol ('T') is
visible if you have View Text Symbols turned on.

Each marker has a marker number and a descriptive text, such as
<MText `15755: Figure: Figure 1 Caption one'>

(The Paragraph tag and text are set in the marker when the marker is
first created, and they are not updated when the paragraph changes.
When a cross-reference is updated, the actual paragraph text is used.)

The marker number is crucial; it identifies the source of the
cross-reference (i.e., the paragraph to which one refers), therefore
it seems essential that each such number be UNIQUE in a document! FM
generates a new, unique number whenever you add a new cross-reference

*** THE SOURCE OF THE PROBLEM: However, if you copy a block of text that
contains an X-Ref marker, such as a figure caption, and then paste it
into another location (e.g., to create a new, similar figure), you end
up with TWO identical X-Ref markers, with the same marker number.

If you insert a reference to this new caption, it will show correctly
in the list box and on-screen, and will read the correct paragraph
text or number. However, whenever you Update your cross-references,
the destination cross-reference will look for the X-Ref marker with
the particular number, and it will find the first instance of a marker
with that number. This will cause the cross-reference to be
incorrect, as it will refer to the originally copied paragraph.

*** DIAGNOSIS: Is there a simple method to see if an existing document
contains the problem described above? There are two methods.

Method 1: Choose File Generate, choose 'Alphabetical Marker List',
include X-Ref (or Cross-Ref) type markers. This will produce a list of
all X-Ref markers, sorted by marker number. Visually inspect the
generated file: the presence of two or more (consecutive) lines with
the same marker number indicates the presence of the problem. The
marker texts may be different.

Method 2: Save the document as MIF, for example 'report.mif', then
issue the following Unix command:
grep MText report.mif | sort > report.lst
This searches for all markers in the document and sorts them by
number. Visually inspect the list of markers: the presence of two or
more (consecutive) lines with the same marker number indicates the
presence of the problem. The marker texts may be different.

*** THERAPY: Is it possible to fix the problem? Yes. It is a tedious
manual process, but it works reliably.

First, find and delete all duplicated X-Ref markers. Open the Special
Marker dialog. Use Edit Find/Search to search for "Marker of Type:
X-Ref" or "Marker of Type: Cross-Ref". (Look in the Marker Type list
in the Marker dialog to find the exact spelling.) Once it has found a
marker, examine the marker number in the Marker Text box in the Marker
dialog. If this marker is one of the ones with duplicated numbers,
delete it. (The marker should be already highlighted by the search,
so just give the document window the focus and hit <backspace> or
<delete>.) Repeat until all markers that had the duplicated numbers
have been deleted. You must delete ALL instances of markers with
duplicated numbers, even the original marker which formerly was

Second, update all cross-references (File Generate-Update from the
book, or Special Cross-References, Update from a single document.)
All of the references to the deleted markers will become "unresolved
cross-references". Search for these using Edit Find/Search, searching
for "Unresolved Cross-Reference". Double-click to bring up the
Cross-Reference dialog, and replace the cross-reference with the
correct paragraph. Repeat for each unresolved reference.

Third, update all cross-references again, and check for incorrect
references. You should also regenerate the marker list and check it
again for duplicates, in case you missed one.

*** PREVENTION (short term): You can prevent this in the future by noting
whenever you duplicate text containing markers. Turn on View Text
Symbols to see the markers. Note whenever you copy and paste text
containing a marker. If you duplicate text with a marker, if it is an
X-Ref marker, delete it! (This may also apply to other types of

When you are ready to publish a document, if there is a possibility of
duplicated markers, generate the marker list and check it for

*** PREVENTION (long term): Frame has been asked to update the Paste
function to check for markers in the pasted text, and ask the user
what should be done about the pasted markers (delete them, renumber
them, or leave them alone).

Contributor: Folco Casadei <>

** NUM-7: How can I convert x-refs automatically to hypertext links?

*** A. Automatic in FM4

[stated in press release; not sure of exact operation of this -Bob]

*** B. HyperGen <Unix & Windows>

Working from a book file, HyperGen automatically links the TOC, list
of figures and tables, index, and cross-references. User-defined
target strings can be used to make custom links inside or outside the
current book.

HyperGen is fully documented and warranted, and comes with pointers on
designing and integrating navigational aids. Samples of navigational
aids are included.

For more information on either version contact:

Frank Stearns Associates
Tel: +1 360-892-3970

** NUM-8: Can I set a FM variable from the command line?

There is a Unix shell script which can set a variable in a FrameMaker
.doc file:

Contributor: Michael Greenberg <>

** NUM-9: Does FM support mail merge?

*** A. fmmerge

This is included on the FUN tape; see question TMP-1 in part 2 of this

*** B. ixos - FrameMerger

Produces mail merge with FM and relational databases. ixos is a
German company. Not certain if this product is still available.

** NUM-10: Is there are tool to automatically produce index entries?

*** A. FM4 - Built-in Feature

FM4 can automatically generate hypertext links from generated
documents (e.g., table of contents, list of figures, index) to the
location in the source document.

*** B. fmixgen

"fmixgen" takes a concordance file and marks your document.

It cannot handle a word that wraps from one line to the next
(hyphenated), due to the way MIF files are structured. As a
work-around, you can turn off hyphenation while you index.

The code cannot be compiled with gcc, acc -O or cc -O (Sun
SPARCstation SunOS). It must be acc -g or cc -g.


Contributor: Vidiot <br...@ftms.UUCP>

*** C. IXgen

[Editor's Note: The following is a cut-down version of the IXgen data
sheet. See the vendor for the full data sheet, which contains System
Requirements, Licensing, Pricing, Warranty, and Other Products.]

IXgen is a suite of power utilities for creating and maintaining
indexes in a fraction of the time this task takes using the marker
window interface. And there's a bonus. IXgen -- with all its power
features -- can work on any marker type, not just index markers. IXgen
doubles as a full- featured marker manager.

The IXgen Toolset

>> Marker Expand/Collapse -- expand markers into the main text flow so
that markers can be created or edited in context. You can see
immediately how an index relates to the surrounding text without using
the marker window. This is also extremely useful when making
translations or changing nomenclature. When done, collapse the marker
text back into markers.

>> Gen Editable Index/Apply Edited Index -- generate a sorted list of
index entries. Then make index edits in the context of a sorted list.
When done, reflect those changes back to the source markers. Make all
your marker updates in one central place without moving among the
various source files.

>> Markers from Tags -- build new markers from the paratext of
selected tags. Use this feature to generate a starting base of index

>> Permute Markers -- permute existing markers into new markers. This
is an excellent second step to "Markers from Tags".

>> Capitalization -- specify capitalization rules for each level of an
index entry. IXgen will adjust marker capitalization as needed. You
can now quickly unify variant capitalization.

>> Unify Levels -- convert duplicate portions of index strings into
first level entries, then make subordinate entries from the remaining
index entry string.

>> Markers from Keyword List -- Supply IXgen with a list of keywords.
When the keyword (or keyphrase) is found, a new marker is inserted.

You can use these tools in any sequence or any combination. Use
"Markers from Tags" or "Markers from Keyword List" to generate an
initial raw index. Use "Permute Markers" to derive additional variants
from that list. Use "Capitalization" to correct capitalization
discrepancies as needed. Use "Gen Editable Index/Apply Edited Index"
to fine-tune the index.

Processing Notes

By default, IXgen processes index markers. But IXgen can work with
*any* marker type, including the user-definable markers.

IXgen does *not* put anything "new" or "special" in your FrameMaker
documents which might make them incompatible with regular FrameMaker.
IXgen merely provides a convenient and powerful interface to the
FrameMaker marker system. IXgen uses the existing marker system when
processing markers.

IXgen works on all files in a book, a single file, or a highlighted
area within a single file.

Contact: Frank Stearns Associates Toll free in USA: 800-567-6421
17201 SE 38th Circle Outside USA: 360-892-3970
Camas, WA 98607 (USA) Fax: 360-253-1498

** NUM-11: How do I set up "dictionary-style" headers?

To set up headers that reflect the first and last paragraphs of a
certain type on a page, you need to use two of the Running H/F
variables on a master page. For example, if the paragraph is interest
is tagged "Heading", you could use the following variables:

Running H/F 1 <$paratext[Heading]>
Running H/F 2 <$paratext[+,Heading]>

Running H/F 1 will give you the first paragraph, and Running H/F 2 will give
you the last paragraph with the tag "Heading" on the page.

Note that this gives you the text of the entire paragraph, so if you use this
in a generated index file, you will wind up with the index entry AND the page
number in the header.

Contributor: L. Daniel York <>

NUM-12: When I generate from the book, FM says "Degenerate!"

*** A. Save the Book File

Frame published a tech tip about the "Degenerate!" message, saying
that the way to clear it up is to save the book file, then regenerate
again. This usually works. If it doesn't see B.

*** B. Reset Autoconnect on the Master Page Text Columns

If the software keeps on calling you a degenerate even after saving
the book file, you should take a look at the generated files (like
Table of Contents, List of Figures, Index). See if there has been a
huge increase in the number of pages - like, you expect your TOC to be
4 or 5 pages long, and now it's grown to 20 or 30, with more than one
text column superimposed on some body pages.

How did you get into this fix? You probably pasted a text column onto
a master page. There's a bug either in the documentation or the
software. When you copy a column that has a flow tag and Autoconnect
ON, and then paste it, the pasted column has Autoconnect OFF! You
don't realize this, because the flow tag is retained, and the master
page _appears_ to do its job of providing a text column for body
pages. However, you must turn Autoconnect back on manually with the
Format -> Flow menu. To fix the problem:

- Turn Autoconnect ON in all flow-tagged text columns on master pages.
- Delete all the body pages.
- Regenerate. The name-calling will stop.

(For those of you who are wondering, "degenerate" is also an insult,
meaning "utterly corrupt in nature or behavior".)

Contributor: Ken d'Albenas <>

** NUM-13: How can I autonumber figures that span multiple columns?

Assume a two column document that includes some figures which flow in
one column, and others which span both columns. Is there any way to
include autonumbered captions which include both figure types?

The figures in the text flow are easy to autonumber in an anchored
frame, but to allow text to flow around figures which span multiple
columns, they must either be in a separate flow, or be drawn outside
the column flow. Neither of these solutions allow continuous
autonumbering with the figures within the text flow. But there is a

For the non-anchored figures:
1. Create an anchored frame in the margin.
2. Put a text column in the frame.
3. Put the figure number in the text column.
4. Apply a Character format to make it invisible (4pt White text).
5. In the actual figure, put a small text column for the caption.
6. Cross-reference to the invisible one to get the correct number.

Contributor: Alan S. Koch <>

** NUM-14: How can I create an "global" index across files (without books)?

Using FM3 on unix, I made a set of scripts which create a Global Index
for as many manuals as you want. As we have some problems generating
large documents, putting all manuals in one bookfile is no option for
us (generating this would take longer than doing it all by hand).

The scripts assume an special index for each manual with abbreviation
for the page numbers. The scripts (unix awk, sed and sort) combine the
indices to a global (text) index. Some global search and replace in FM
completes the Global Index.

It works good for me, is quicker (half a day instead of about a week
of cutting and pasting) but has some drawbacks:
- It sorts differently than frame does,
- It uses unix,
- It is tested only with Frame3.0 (I modify it if we get FM4).

I will send it to anyone who is interested (and maybe solve some of
the drawbacks :-) ). The package has currently the shape if a Frame
document (being the manual) with the scripts as appendices.

Contributor: Fred Jan Kraan <>

** NUM-15: Multi-line titles get messed up in List-Of-Figures or -Tables

Procedure to make a Table Of Contents in which paragraphs may extend
over more than one line and where the pagenumbers are right of the TOC
text. (Should work for List Of Figures and List Of Tables also.)

Setting up the Table of Contents

1- in the main document :
- File: Generate/Book: Table of Contents
- Generate
- move the appropriate paragraphs to : Include Paragraphs Tagged:
- Generate

2- go to the *TOC.doc document :
- go to the Reference page and the flow : Table of Contents
- make the TOC paragraphs as desired (f.e. Indents and Tabs)
but have in any case the string "qq<$pagenum>" in them.
(Example : "<$paranum> 'tab' <$paratext>qq<$pagenum>")
- in the Paragraph Catalog : delete all paragraphs without 'TOC'
in the tagname
- in the Paragraph Designer : go to Properties: Pagination
Commands: Set Window to As Is
Format: Side Head
Alignment: Last Baseline
Commands: Global Update Options
select Pagination Properties Only
select All Paragraphs
- set cursor in any TOC paragraph
- click Layout and set the Width and Gap as desired
- click Set

Making the Table of Contents

1- go to the main document
- File: Generate/Book: Table of Contents: Generate

2- go to the *TOC.doc document on a Body page
- Edit: Find: Text: and type 'qq'
Change: To Text: and type '\pqq'
click Find, Change All and OK
- set cursor in a paragraph containing 'qq'
- in Paragraph Designer:
Paragraph Tag: pagenrT (example)
Properties: Basic: Alignment: Right
Apply (and Create)
Properties: Pagination: Format: Normal
Update All
- Edit: Copy Special: Paragraph Format
- go to Find window
Find: Text: and type 'qq'
Change: By Pasting
click Find, Change All and OK
Change: To Text: (blank)
click Find, Change All and OK

Note : keep the Table of Contents in a separate flow from any other
text flow because of the Side Head properties.

Some user configurations

1- distance of page numbers to table text
- first set the text width with
Paragraph Designer: Properties: Pagination: Layout: Width:
- then in the paragraph pagenrT adjust the
Paragraph Designer: Properties: Basic: Indents: Right:

Contributor: Wim van Gijsel <>

end of part 1 of 2

Bob McCormick email:
TCSI, Berkeley, California USA vox: +1 510-649-3881 fax: +1 510-649-3600

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