comp.constraints FAQ (Part 1 of 2)

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Jul 19, 1997, 3:00:00 AM7/19/97

Archive-name: constraints-faq/part1
Summary: Frequently asked questions about constraints
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Version: 97.06.08

Contributions and corrections should be sent to:

This is a list of Frequently Asked Questions (and answers) for the
area of constraints, including books, journal articles, ftp archives,
and systems & products. It is posted once a month to the newsgroups
comp.constraints, comp.answers, and news.answers.

NOTE: the Constraints Archive web pages contain far more information
than the FAQ, including pointers to other web pages and ftp sites:

This guide is regularly posted in two parts to comp.constraints. It
may also be obtained from the WWW pages, and from the archive on in the directory /pub/usenet/news.answers/constraints-faq.
You can also access the rtfm archive by mail server as well. Send an
e-mail message to with "help" and "index"
in the body on separate lines for more information.

This FAQ is Copyright David Joslin, 1996, 1997. Permission to do
reasonable things not for profit is given to anyone. Anything else,
ask me.

Contributors to this FAQ include Michael Jampel <>,
who was the original author and maintainer, and: Philippe Blache
<>, Mark Kantrowitz <>, Wm Leler
<>, Manfred Meyer <>, Milind
Tambe <>, Thomas Schiex <>, and Tad Hogg

Table of Contents:
[1-1] Introductory papers and texts
[1-2] Other related FAQs
[1-3] Acronyms
[1-4] Publications
[1-5] Bibliographies
[1-6] Journals
[1-7] Mailing lists
[1-8] Newsgroups
[1-9] Benchmarks and examples
[1-10] Constraint libraries for Lisp and C
[1-11] Constraint systems

In the second part of this FAQ:
[2-1] Conferences
[2-2] Constraint-related job openings

Search for [#] to get to topic number # quickly. In newsreaders which
support digests (such as rn), [CTRL]-G will page through the answers.


Subject: [1-1] Introductory papers and texts

V. Kumar, "Algorithms for Constraint-Satisfaction Problems: A Survey, "
AI Magazine 13(1):32-44, 1992. (A postscript version
<> is
available. It differs slightly from the published version.)

David McAllester's lecture notes on constraint satisfaction search

Constraint Logic Programming
<> by Dick
Pountain. Reproduced with permission from BYTE <>
magazine, February 1995; converted to html by Michael Jampel. (BYTE
has now put their version <>
of the article on the web.)

E. Tsang <>, "Foundations of Constraint
Satisfaction", Academic Press, 1993. ISBN 0-12-701610-4. (Out of
print, but available from the author

Also see the articles on Constraint Networks (pages 276-285) and
Constraint Satisfaction (pages 285-293) in Shapiro's Encyclopedia of
Artificial Intelligence.


Subject: [1-2] Other related FAQs

Many FAQs are posted to the news.answers newsgroup, and, if
appropriate, to comp.answers and other groups. These FAQs are archived
at <>. For example, the comp.constraints
FAQs are in the <>

These FAQs are also automatically converted to HTML (in most cases,
this just means that URLs are converted to hot links), and archived in
various places such as the News.Answers Faqs Archive
<> at Utrecht; for example, the
comp.constraints FAQ
converted to HTML format, can be found there. You can also search the
collection of FAQs. Also see Smartpages
<> and the Ohio State
maintained by Tom Fine, Infoseek <> (one of
the search options is "Usenet FAQs"), and Kent Landfield's archive

Here are the FAQs for
for AI in general
<>, for AI
programming languages
<> and for
(with some information on CLP).

The sci.op-research newsgroup has FAQs for linear and non-linear
programming <> These can be
found in ascii format, along with an index of resources for numerical
computation in C or C++ (including some for linear and non-linear
programming), in <>.


Subject: [1-3] Acronyms

This section explains what various acronyms stand for, without much
detail on any of them. You can also use the search facility
<> of the constraints
archive to find web pages on which a term occurs.

(*) Denotes techniques/heuristics for improving the efficiency of
constraint satisfaction

AC -- Arc-Consistency: a method for reducing the amount of back-tracking
in CSPs
AC-n -- Different algorithms for enforcing arc consistency: AC-3, AC-4
(Mackworth), AC-5 (van Hentenryck), AC-6+, AC6++ (Bessiere and Regin),
AC-7 (Freuder). Also Hierarchical AC: HAC (Mackworth) and HAC-6 (Kokeny)
AKL -- Agent Kernel Language: object-oriented concurrent constraints
(previously called Andorra Kernel Language)
ATMS -- Assumption-Based Truth-Maintenance System
BJ -- Backjumping (*)
BM -- Backmarking (*)
BMJ -- Backmarking with backjumping (*)
CBJ -- Conflict-Directed Back-Jumping (*)
DB -- Dynamic Backtracking (*)
CC(FD) -- Concurrent Constraint Programming over Finite Domains
CCP -- Concurrent Constraint Programming
CHR -- Constraint Handling Rules (Fruehwirth)
CIP -- Constraint Imperative Programming
CLP -- Constraint Logic Programming
CLP(FD) -- Constraint Logic Programming over finite domains
CLP(R) -- Constraint Logic Programming over the domain of Real numbers
CLP(X) -- Constraint Logic Programming over some domain X
COP -- Constrained Optimization Problem
CSP -- Constraint Satisfaction Problem
DBT -- Dynamic backtracking
DCSP -- Dynamic CSP
DnAC -- Dynamic arc-consistency
DVO -- Dynamic Variable Ordering heuristic (*)
FC -- Forward-checking (*)
FF -- First Fail principle: choose the variable with the smallest
domain as the next instantiation (*)
FLA -- Full Look Ahead
FOF -- Factor Out Failure
FSL -- Full Shallow learning (*)
GBJ -- Graph based Backjumping (*)
HAC -- Hierarchical Arc Consistency. See AC-n.
HCLP -- Hierarchical CLP
IB -- Intelligent Backtracking (*)
IDA* -- Iterative Deepening A*
ILP -- Integer Linear Programming
IP -- Integer Programming
LC -- Local changes
LP -- Logic Programming or Linear Programming
MAC -- Maintaining Arc-Consistency
NC -- Node consistency (see AC). Not much used
NLP -- Non-Linear Programming. (Natural Language Processing elsewhere)
NR -- Nogood recording (*)
OR -- Operations Research. see newsgroup sci.op-research
PC -- Path-Consistency. Not much used
PCSP -- Partial CSP
PLA -- Partial Look Ahead
RFLA -- Real Full Look Ahead
SAT -- The problem of deciding if a given logical formula is SATisfiable.
TMS -- Truth-Maintenance System
TSP -- Travelling Salesman Problem; a typical very hard problem

(Thanks to Michael Jampel, Patrick Prosser, Thomas Schiex, Berthe
Choueiry, Alan Borning, Warwick Harvey, Thom Fruehwirth. Please inform
me of additions.)


Subject: [1-4] Publications

This section contains pointers to various constraints-related books,
articles, reviews, etc., as well as pointers to sites that have
collections of constraint-related publications.

Books and articles

CHIC Lessons on CLP Methodolgy (html
<>, postscript
<>) -- a paper by Andre
Chamard, Annie Fischler, Dominique-Benoit Guinaudeau and Andre Guillard

Computational Phonology: A Constraint-Based Approach
<> a book by Steven Bird,

Constraint Programming: Basics and Trends
<> edited
by Andreas Podelski
(Chatillon-sur-Seine Spring School, France, May 1994).

CHIP hints <> (Scott
Fleishman <>,

Logic Programming: Formal Methods and Practical Applications
<> edited by
C. Beierle and L. Pluemer, published by Elsevier.

Abstract <>
of "A Theoretical Evaluation of Selected Backtracking Algorithms" by
Grzegorz Kondrak, University of Alberta.

Over-Constrained Systems
<> edited
by Michael Jampel, Eugene Freuder, and Michael Maher. Springer LNCS
1106, August 1996. Contains selected papers from the Workshop on
Over-Constrained Systems at CP'95, and also reprints and background

Phase Transition Behaviour of Maintaining Arc Consistency
<> by Stuart
Grant and Barbara Smith (Leeds)

Reviews and surveys

Overview of CSP tools
<> including CHIP,
<> by Tim Duncan

CLP with Non-Linear Constraints
<>, a survey
by Olga Caprotti
<>. (This
information is also in the comp.constraints FAQ, but in a slightly
different form.)

Review <> by
Michael Jampel of A Review of Industrial Constraint Solving Tools by
Jean-Yves Cras

Sites with publications on constraints

CCL project <> Construction of
Computational Logics (located at DFKI) -- also CCL Bibliographies

CHIC project <> Constraint Handling in Industry
and Commerce (located at ECRC)

Computer Aided Design
Constraint-driven synthesis and analysis of analog and mixed-signal
integrated circuits (Berkeley).

Constraint Logic Programming ftp archive
<> (run by Brian Mayoh)

Constraints <> Journal, edited by
Eugene Freuder <>.

CMU AI Repository

DFKI Programming Systems Lab <> and DFKI
Constraints Research

ECRC ftp archive <>

Essex University ftp archive <> (CSPs,
partial constraints, constraints related to neural nets etc. Edward

ILOG Solver <> and
Schedule <>

Imperial College Logic Programming Section
<> publications ftp site

JAIR <> (Journal of
AI Research home page)

LIA <> papers and reports (Lausanne)

Logic Programming <>
(Jonathan Bowen, Oxford University)

NASA Ames Research Center
<> various papers

Ohio State CLP tech reports
<> (Spiro Michaylov)

Overview of CSP tools
<> (Tim Duncan)

Phase Transition
<> in CSPs (Tad

Phase Transition Behaviour of Maintaining Arc Consistency
<> by Stuart
Grant and Barbara Smith

ICS ISL <> Intelligent Systems Laboratory at SICS

Toronto OR <>: papers from the Laboratory
of Manufacturing Research

University of Washington ftp archive
<> (Alan Borning etc.) ---
also WWW <>

Xerox PARC ftp archive <>


Subject: [1-5] Bibliographies

Short bibliography
<> covering
some key CLP and CSP papers and books. Suggestions for updating the
list are requested; email <>.

CLP bibliography <> by Spiro
Michaylov <> (somewhat out of date; no entries
after 1993).

An updated CLP bibliography is maintained by Peggy Eaton

Abstract Interpretation Bibliography
(Marc-Michel Corsini)

CCL Bibliographies
<> (Constraints
in Computational Logic project)

Combinations of Constraint Solving Techniques

Constraint Programming Paper Archive: Aarhus University, Denmark, has
established an anonymous ftp archive for papers on "Constraint
Programming" at <> For further
information, contact Brian H. Mayoh <>.

ECRC tech reports are available at <> or

Fuzzy Scheduling bibliography <>
(Wolfgang Slany <>)

Glimpse server <> for general
computing bibliographic searches

Logic Programming bibliographies
<> (Ralf Scheidhauer
<>) -- can be searched

Logic Programming Conferences
<> --
excellent WWW bibliographies (Michael Ley) --- also a page of more
general bibliographies
<>, including

Theory journal <>
bibliographies, organised by David Jones
<>. Includes: FOCS: IEEE Symposium
on Foundations of Computer Science
<>, Information
and Computation <>, Journal of the ACM
<>, LICS: IEEE Symposium on Logic in
Computer Science <>, STOC: ACM
Symposium on Theory of Computing


Subject: [1-6] Journals

CONSTRAINTS is a new journal published by Kluwer. The Editor-in-Chief
is Eugene C. Freuder <>. See
<>. CONSTRAINTS will be available
both as a conventional paper journal and in electronic form. The
Instructions for Authors can be obtained from Kelly Riddle

The AI Journal <> publishes
constraint-related articles. (Note the new electronic services
available to users affiliated to institutes with a full subscription
to the paper journal. Abstracts and some papers are available on-line,
and can be searched.)

The Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research (JAIR)
<> is published
both electronically and in hard copy. Articles are announced in and published in and on the
web page.

AI Communications (4 issues/yr) "The European Journal on Artificial
Intelligence" ISSN 0921-7126, European Coordinating Committee for
Artificial Intelligence.

The Journal of Logic Programming (issued bimonthly), Elsevier
Publishing Company, ISSN 0743-1066. (CLP-related articles.)

New Generation Computing Springer-Verlag. (Prolog-related articles)

The Journal of Functional and Logic Programming (JFLP) is a new
electronic journal that covers a broad scope of topics from functional
and logic programming. It is specially concerned with the integration
of the functional and logic paradigm as well as their common
foundations. The Journal expects articles ranging from the theoretical
foundations of functional and logic programming up to the application
of such languages in the real world. The Journal is published by The
MIT Press. See <> or
<> for details.

Other links

See the journal list
at the CMU AI Repository


Subject: [1-7] Mailing lists

CCL II mailing list This is the mailing list of the Esprit (European
Union) project CCL II "Construction on Computational Logics" which
focuses in particular on symbolic constraints. To subscribe, send mail
to <>. The project's home page is
<> where you can find an archive of the
mailing list.

Constraint Logic Programming Announcements and articles to
<>. Requests to subscribe/unsubscribe to
<>. Maintained by Roland Yap

CLP(R) Users Announcements and articles to <>.
Requests to subscribe/unsubscribe to <>.
Maintained by Roland Yap <>.

Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSP) To subscribe, send e-mail to
<> in the form "SUB CSP-LIST <name>". Send
submissions to <>. List maintained by Thomas
Schiex <>.

Intelligent Decision Support System Mailing List (Not completely
relevant, but to some extent related to applications of constraints.)
To post to the list e-mail <ID...@socs.uts.EDU.AU>. Subscription
requests should be sent to <idss-r...@socs.uts.EDU.AU>.

The SCHED-L Mailing list Knowledge-based scheduling. Discussion of
scheduling techniques and manufacturing processes. Send "subscribe
sched-l {your full name}" in the body of a message to <>. Maintained by Wolfgang Slany
<>. Archives are available for the


Subject: [1-8] Newsgroups

comp.constraints,, and other AI newsgroups are archived at:

comp.lang.prolog is archived at:

Other relevant groups might include sci.op-research and comp.theory


Subject: [1-9] Benchmarks and examples

CSP Lab (in Lisp) <> created
by Patrick Prosser. There is also a Scheme version
<>. Algorithms include
bt, bm, bj, cbj, fc, fc-cbj, and mac.

CAIA-94 <>, the
workshop on Coordinated Design and Planning, March 1994, introduced the
"secretary's nightmare" scheduling problem.

OR-Library <> of test data sets
(Imperial College, J.E. Beasley)

Information on the Radio Link Frequency Assignment Problem can be found
at the TU-Delft RLFAP archive <>

The Mystery Shopper benchmark
was developed by Jimmy Ho Man Lee <> and introduced at

The Munich Rent Advisor
was written using the CHR library of Eclipse
<>, by Thom Fruehwirth

Neng-Fa Zhou <> has developed a multi-layer
channel router in CLP(FD), and hopes that the program can be used as a
good benchmark for evaluating CLP(FD) systems. The program, and a
number ofq other CLP benchmarks, are available from

Planning and Scheduling <> Benchmarks
(Barry Fox, Mark Ringer)

Scheduling Benchmarks and Resources
(A paper by Mark Drummond, NASA Ames Research Center; also a postscript

Traffic Lights
<> example
by Walter Hower <>

Travelling Salesman Problems library, maintained by Gerhard Reinelt

Zebra Puzzle <> --
in Eclipse using CLP(Finite Domains)


Subject: [1-10] Constraint libraries for Lisp and C

Patrick Prosser <> discusses various standard
algorithms in the journal Computational Intelligence vol 9(3), 1993.
Scheme versions available from Pat on request; Lisp implementations are
available from <>.

Peter Van Beek <> has written a set of libraries
for C. This package is available from
<> where you will find a README and
also csplib.tar.Z.

<> is a
constraint library for Common Lisp.

Michel Lemaitre has written a Common Lisp library dedicated to the
resolution of "Valued Constraint Satisfaction Problems" (for a
description of VCSP, see
<>). The library has been
designed with efficiency in mind. It includes Branch and Bound
extensions of the Backtrack and Forward checking algorithm as well as
the "Russian Doll Search" algorithm described in
<>, and several benchmark
problems. The library is available at


Subject: [1-11] Constraint systems

The constraints archive web page on constraint systems
<> has entries for
the following systems:

Amulet and Garnet
CLP(BNR), CLP(F), CLP(FD), CLP(R), etc.
Cooldraw, Deltablue, Skyblue, ThinglabII
ILOG Schedule, ILOG Solver
Prolog III, Prolog IV
Quantum Leap

The constraints archive search page
<> also has an
option for searching just the descriptions of systems.

See the comp.lang.prolog, comp.lang.lisp, and comp.lang.scheme
FAQs and Resource Guides for possibly more up-to-date and complete

Also see:

Overview of CSP tools
<> (Tim Duncan)

PTF: The Prime Time Freeware CD-ROM series contains various items
mentioned here including Mark Kantrowitz's AI Repository, some ICOT
material, BERTRAND, GARNET, and LIFE. Prime Time Freeware for UNIX
sells for $60 US, list, and is issued twice each year. E-mail
<> for more details.


Jul 19, 1997, 3:00:00 AM7/19/97

Archive-name: constraints-faq/part2

Summary: Frequently asked questions about constraints
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Version: 97.07.17

Contributions and corrections should be sent to:

This is part 2 of the comp.constraints FAQ. Part 1 contains
introductory information, and pointers to further information.
Part 2 contains a list of upcoming conferences, and a list of
constraint-related job openings, plus related pointers for both.

NOTE: This information is updated semi-automatically from the
web pages

This FAQ is Copyright David Joslin, 1996, 1997. Permission to do
reasonable things not for profit is given to anyone. Anything else,
ask me.

Table of Contents:

In the first part of the FAQ:

[1-1] Introductory papers and texts
[1-2] Other related FAQs
[1-3] Acronyms

[1-4] Complexity of constraint satisfaction
[1-5] Publications
[1-6] Bibliographies
[1-7] Journals
[1-8] Mailing lists
[1-9] Newsgroups
[1-10] Benchmarks and examples
[1-11] Constraint libraries for Lisp and C
[1-12] Constraint systems

In this part of the FAQ:

[2-1] Conferences
[2-2] Constraint-related job openings


Subject: [2-1] Conferences


July 8-12, 1997 -- ICLP '97 <> will
be held in Leuven, Belgium. (See entry below) A workshop on
logic-based composition of software
<> will be held following the

July 27-31, 1997 -- AAAI, Providence, Rhode Island. (See entry
below) There will be a Workshop on Constraints and Agents
<> at AAAI-97, chaired by
Eugene Freuder.

August 11-22, 1997 -- The European Summer School in Logic, Language,
and Information, ESSLLI'97 <> will
be held in Aix-en-Provence, France.

August 20-22, 1997 -- The 2nd international conference on the Practice
And Theory of Automated Timetabling
<> will be held at the
University of Toronto.

August 23-29, 1997 -- The Fifteenth International Joint Conference on
Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI) will be held in Nagoya, Japan. (See
entry below)

August 26-29, 1997 -- Euro-Par 97 <>
will have a workshop on Symbolic Computation, for which papers on
constraint programming are invited.

September 24-26, 1997 -- The Fourth European Conference on Planning ECP
'97 <> (formerlly the
European Workshop on Planning, EWSP) will be held in Toulouse, France.

October 12-17, 1997 -- The International Logic Programming Symposium
<> ILPS'97 will be held October 12-17,
1997 at Port Jefferson, NY.

October 16-17, 1997 -- The International Workshop on Tools and
Environments for (Constraint) Logic Programming
<> will
be held in association with ILPS'97.

October 16, 1997 -- The Second International Workshop on Interval
Constraints <> will
be held in association with ILPS'97.

October 27-28, 1997 -- The International Workshop on First-Order
Theorem Proving <> (FTP97) will be
held in Schloss Hagenberg, Austria, in conjunction with CP97.

October 28-30, 1997 -- The Workshop on Planning and Scheduling for
Space <> will be held in
Oxnard, California.

October 29 - November 1, 1997 -- CP97
<> will be held in Schloss
Hagenberg, Austria. (See entry below)

November 1, 1997 -- A Workshop on Industrial Constraint-Directed
Scheduling will be held in Schloss Hagenberg, Austria, in conjunction
with CP97 <>

November 1, 1997 -- A Workshop on Constraint Reasoning on the Internet
will be held in Schloss Hagenberg, Austria, in conjunction with CP97

November 1, 1997 -- A Workshop on the Theory and Practice of Dynamic
Constraint Satisfaction
<> will be held
in Schloss Hagenberg, Austria, in conjunction with CP97

November 1, 1997 -- A Workshop on Constraints and
Bioinformatics/Biocomputing will be held in Schloss Hagenberg, Austria,
in conjunction with CP97 <>

November 4 - November 7, 1997 -- ICTAI-97
<>, the IEEE
International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence, will be
held in Newport Beach, California.

December 9-11, 1997 -- The Asian Computer Science Conference
<>, has "formal reasoning and
constraints" as one of four focus areas this year. The 1997 meeting
will be held in Kathmandu, Nepal. (An alternate site for conference
information is <>.)

March 30 - April 1, 1998 -- The 9th International Conference on
Rewriting Techniques and Applications
<> (RTA 98) will be held
in Tsukuba, Japan. (Submission deadline: September 28, 1997)

April 15-17, 1998 -- The Symposium on Combinatorial Optimization (CO98)
<>, an international biennial conference will
be hosted by the Universite Libre de Bruxelles, organized by ISRO and
SMG, Brussels.

May 15-16, 1998 -- TIME-98
<> the Fifth International
Workshop on Temporal Representation and Reasoning, will be held at
Sanibel Island, Florida, conjunction with FLAIRS-98. (See entry below)

May 17-20, 1998 -- The 11th International FLAIRS Conference
<> will be held at the
Sundial Beach Resort Sanibel Island, Florida. (See entry below)

Recurring conferences and workshops

The First International Workshop on Approximate Reasoning in Scheduling
ARS'97 <> was held in
Zurich, Switzerland in conjunction with ISFL'97 (February 12 - 14,
1997), the Second International ICSC Symposium on fuzzy logic and
applications. There is also an associated Special Issue of the
International Journal of Approximate Reasoning
<> on approximate
reasoning in scheduling.

The Asian Computer Science Conference
<>, has "formal reasoning and
constraints" as one of four focus areas this year. The 1997 meeting
will be held in Kathmandu, Nepal. (An alternate site for conference
information is <>.) The 1996
meeting <> was held in in Singapore, and
included a Constraints and Constraint Programming workshop.

AAAI <> is held
annually (most years). AAAI-97
<> will be
held in Providence, Rhode Island.

The annual Constraint <>
conference is held in conjunction with FLAIRS (see separate entry).

The CONTESSA Workshop
<> Constraint
Databases and their Applications, was held in Delphi, Greece.

CPP, Constraint Programming for Reasoning about Programming

The European Conference on AI (ECAI) is held every other year(?).
ECAI'96 <> was in

FLAIRS <> (Florida AI Research
Society) is an annual AI conference. Proceedings are available on-line
for Constraint '95 <> and
Constraint '96

The French Conference on Logic and Constraint Programming is held
annually. JFPLC'97 <> was held
in Orle'ans, France.

The International Converence on Logic Programming (ICLP) is held
annually(?). ICLP '95 <>
was held in Kanagawa, Japan. ICLP '97
<> will be held in Leuven, Belgium,
8-12 July 1997.

The International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint
Programming <> (CP) is held annually.
CP96 <> was held in Cambridge,
Mass, August 1996. CP97 <>
will be held in Schloss Hagenberg, Austria, October 29 - November 1,

The International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence is the
main international gathering of researchers in AI. Started in 1969, it
is held every two years, and is jointly sponsored by IJCAI Inc.
(IJCAII), and the national AI societies of the host countries. [IJCAI
<>] IJCAI'97 <> will be held
in Nagoya, Japan.

The Joint International Conference and Symposium on Logic Programming
(?). JICSLP'96 <> was held
in Bonn.

The International Workshop on Logic Program Synthesis and
Transformation <> (LOPSTR)
is an annual workshop.

The Practical Application of Constraint Technology Conferences
<> (PACT) are held annually.
"Supported by the Prolog Management Group and CompulogNet, the PACT
Conferences demonstrate the application of Constraints and Constraint
Logic Programming to industrial problems." PACT'96
<> and PACT'97
<> were both held in London.

The Practical Application of Prolog Conferences
<> (PAP) are held annually.
"Supported by The Prolog Management Group and Compulog Net, the
Practical Application of Prolog Conferences are the world's leading
showcase for Prolog applications and systems."

The International Joint Conference on the Theory and Practice of
Software Development (TAPSOFT) is held annually. TAPSOFT'97
<> will be held in Lille, April 14-18

The TIME International Workshop
<> is held annually in
conjunction with FLAIRS (see separate entry).

The Uncertainty in AI <> (UAI) conference is held
annually. UAI-96 <> was held in Portland,

The International Workshop on Functional and Logic Programming
<> was held in
Schwarzenberg (Black Forest) in January, 1997.

General info

For information on Prolog-related conferences, see the Prolog Home Page

Past conferences

Archives of papers, bibliographies, and descriptions of past
conferences can be found in Peggy Eaton's archive


Subject: [2-2] Constraint-related jobs

This page contains announcements of constraints-related jobs. Send
contributions and corrections to <>. (I
usually don't have any way of knowing when a position has been filled,
so I would especially appreciate being notified if any of these entries
are obsolete.)

Pointers to other job listings (not specifically constraint-related)
are included at the end of this page.


Ascent Technology <>, in Cambridge,
MA, has several positions open. "We develop and market powerful,
distributed software solutions to difficult resource-planning and
real-time resource-allocation, situation-assessment, and
resource-management problems in the areas of Transportation and
Logistics, Defense, and Finance."


The Artificial Intelligence Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory
(JPL), California Institute of Technology are seeking candidates at the
BA/BS, MA/MS and PhD level to work on fundamental research problems in
pplanning, scheduling, and operations research leading to unique
software applications in spacecraft autonomy, scientific data analysis,
and mission operations automation.

Problem areas in spacecraft autonomy target mission planning and
resource management. Ongoing applications include automated planning
of image analysis for the Galileo mission to Jupiter, automated
procedure generation for the Deep Space Network track planning, and
ground planning to support mission operations for several flight
projects. For a further description of ongoing work, interested
parties are directed to the summary article in AI Magazine Vol. 18, No.
1, Spring 1997.

To apply, send a resume and other supporting materials via e-mail to:
<> or by mail to: Dr. Steve Chien Jet Propulsion
Laboratory, MS 525-3660 California Institute of Technology Pasadena,
California 91109-8099

[24 June 97]


IC-Parc <> has recently secured funding
for 4 new positions, which it proposes to fill as soon as possible. All
the positions lie in the area of constraint programming and its
application to large scale industrial problems. The main focus is on
resource management and planning. The industrial sectors are
construction, retailing, telecommunications and oil.

Candidates should have a solid background in one or more of the
paradigms covered by constraint programming, e.g. constraint logic
programming, stochastic algorithms, mathematical programming. They
should also have some experience of solving large combinatorial
optimisation problems. The programming environment currently used in
IC-Parc, both for research and for applications development, is the
ECLiPSe platform.

For instructions on applying, see

[8 June 97]


ILOG Singapore is looking for dynamic and young consultants (1 to 5
years experience) to join its fast growing Consulting group in
Singapore. We are looling for customer oriented applicants with strong
interest in solving complex real-life resource
allocation/scheduling/optimisation problems.

The candidates should have knowledge and/or experience in any of the
following areas : Linear and Integer Programming, Heuristics, Search
techniques, Constraint Programming, Interior Point Methods, etc. In
addition, a good working knowledge in C or preferably C++ will be
required. The position will be based in Singapore and will require
some traveling in Korea, Japan or Australia. A good command of English
is mandatory.

Please send your resume to: Gosselin Vincent Director Of Consulting
Ilog Singapore 73, science park drive email: Fax:
65-773 0439

[8 June 97]


ILOG <> has two openings in their Optimization
Technology group in Gentilly, France. The first position deals with
parallelism. The ideal candidate will have a strong background in
Parallel software implementation (knowledge of MPI is a plus), as well
as notions of combinatorial optimization, with a PhD or equivalent.

The second position deals with the design and enhancement of a general
purpose library for expressing optimization problems. The ideal
candidate will have a strong background in Constraint Programming or
Operations Research with a PhD or equivalent.

To apply, please send a cover letter and resume by regular or
electronic mail to Patrick Albert (, Chief Technology
Officer of ILOG (with a cc to

[8 June 97]


Applications are invited for research positions at both post-doctorate
and also post-graduate level in the field of Computational Logic at the
department of Computer Science, City University. Areas of particular
research interest within this field are:

concurrent and distributed systems: specification and construction
agent based computing logic programming, constraint programming
[sequential or concurrent] tools and environments to support the design
and construction of systems program analysis, synthesis and
transformation design of logic programming languages logic-based formal
description techniques the application of computational logic to

Individuals would be funded by the European Community under Marie Curie
Fellowships provided by the Training and Mobility of Researchers (TMR)
scheme of the Framework 4 programme for a maximum of 36 months
(post-grad) or 24 months (post-doc).

For further information see

[21 May 97]


At the Programming Research Group of the University of Amsterdam
(Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics, Physics and Astronomy/ Department
of Computer Science) a position is available for a JUNIOR RESEARCHER
(Assistent in Opleiding -- AIO) in the area of constraint programming.

We are currently developing a programming notation better suited for
this programming style and investigate new ways of expressing its basic
ingredients. This area is both of practical and theoretical nature.
Therefore the candidates should have either experience in programming
languages and compiler writing or a good background in uses of
mathematical logic in Computer Science.

Requirements: For this position a completed academic degree
(masters/doctoraal level) in computer science, artificial
intelliggence, or mathematics is a prerequisite. Tasks: Performing
research in the above mentioned area with as aim writing scientific
publications and completing a dissertation. Some assistance with the
courses that are being given by the Programming Research Group.

Further information on this area: prof. dr. K. Apt (phone:
(+31)20-5924135; e-mail: <>). Applications should be sent by
e-mail to: dr. M. van den Brand (phone: (+31)20-5257593; fax:
(+31)20-5257490; <>). Deadline for application: May
30 1997



A Chandler, Arizona company has an opening for someone with experience
using "ILOG Server constraint propagation tool." Contact Bridget Bruch
at Technisource <> a recruiter in Phoenix,
Arizona, and mention reference number AZ10041.

Phone 602-730-6600 / 800-826-6922

Fax 602-730-7907


[14 Apr 97]


A Bay Area startup is looking for a hardware verification tool
developer to work on automated functional test generation from formal
specifications. The applicant should have a Ph.D. or equivalent
experience in Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, or Math.
Related experience might include functional and/or timing simulation,
formal verification, tool development for logic verification, logic
design, simulators; synthesizers, ATPG, compiler writing, or
constraints-solving systems.

Contact: Sharron Lawson Technical Recruiter ConneXion FAX 415.326.4501 [, 4/11/97]


The Enterprise Integration Laboratory at the University of Toronto is
seeking a research scientist for a 1-year contract (with strong
possibility of renewal) working in the Intelligent Scheduling Research
Group (ISRG). ISRG is a joint project of the Enterprise Integration
Laboratory and Numetrix, Ltd., a leader in the supply chain management
software industry.

The focus of the group is the exploration and application of
constraint-directed scheduling technologies to industrial scheduling,
distribution, and supply chain coordination problems. We have
developed, NumODO, a constraint-directed scheduler with the ability to
emulate a variety of state-of-the-art scheduling algorithms. NumODO
combines generative scheduling and iterative improvement under the
unifying concepts of constraints, textures, and heuristic and implied
commitments and allows direct comparison of competing techniques.

This announcement (with links to more information about EIL and ISRG)
can be found at



The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne Artificial
Intelligence Laboratory (Prof. B. Faltings) is looking for Research
Assistants/Ph.D. Students with interest in one of the following
technologies: constraint programming/constraint satisfaction, spatial
reasoning, case-based reasoning, model-based and qualitative reasoning

with applications in engineering design, product configuration, and
telecommunications. Contact: Prof. Boi Faltings Artificial
Intelligence Laboratory LIA(DI), EPFL IN-Ecublens 1015 Lausanne,
Switzerland [posted to csp-list, 7 Dec 96]
[reposted 10 April 97]


Infinity Technology Group Pty Ltd <> is
recruiting on behalf of an Australian based client. We have three
vacancies for C and C++ constraint based A/Ps based in Sydney and
Melbourne Australia. Our client is a very respected developer of
scheduling software and wishes to add three experienced people to their
team to work on new and existing projects. Strong academic history and
at least one year of commercial experience is expected.

Applicants should respond to Rod Farrell at
Please attach your CV in text or MSWord 6 format.



Location: INRIA - Rocquencourt - France Employment
Type: Short term assignment Duration: 2 years with
the possibility of extension Starting date: As soon as

Design and implementation of declarative interfaces for constraint
solving (CLP framework - Concurrent Constraints) and applications.

Application must be sent to: Bruno Le Dantec
INRIA-Rocquencourt BP 105, F-78153 Le Chesnay Cedex, France Tel: +33 1
39635035 Fax: +33 1 39635888

The full announcement for this opening can be found at
<>. More information about
INRIA-Rocquencourt and the DiSCiPl project can be found at:
<> and <>

[posted 4/3/97]


The KRAFT project is an exciting new project in Constraint Knowledge
Fusion from distributed sources involving Aberdeen, Cardiff and
Liverpool universities and BT, and coordinated by Professor P.M.D. Gray
at Aberdeen University (see EPSRC IMPACT newsletter December 96). Full
details are available via URL <> (see
also EPSRC IMPACT newsletter December).

A vacancy has arisen at Aberdeen, and we are looking for a RESEARCH
FELLOW (1A post at upto 29 age point) for two full years, starting
around 1st JUNE 1997 (but could be later). The candidate must have a
Ph.D. in Computing or AI (or be writing up), and have published
research papers.

If you are attracted by this project and think you have the
capabilities for this post please email or Fax your CV to by 31 MARCH. You will then be sent formal
application papers.


Solution Dynamics, Inc. (SDI) has full time positions available for
Senior Programmers and Technical Project Leaders working from various
sites around the country. Initial training and company indoctrination
will take place at our New Jersey offices. SDI is a leader in the use
of C++, object-oriented technologies to develop solutions to
constrained problems such as scheduling, configuration, routing,
resource allocation and planning.

Our staff has a background in artificial intelligence and mathematical
modeling as well as strong system development experience using OOD
methodologies and C++. They interface directly with customers to
define functional requirements, design system architecture and support
system development efforts. They usually work in small teams of one to
five people.

email:; telephone:
(908)725-5445; fax: (908)231-0444;


The Dept. of Computation, University of Manchester - Institute of
Science and Technology (UMIST), has an opening for a post-doc in the
area of spatial and temporal databases under the project CHOROCHRONOS.
The position is available for 12-18 months, but shorter appointments
will also be considered. As part of this appointment, successful
candidates can spend 6 months at INRIA, Rocquencourt working with Dr.
Stephane Grumbach.

CHOROCHRONOS is a 3-year research program funded by the European
Commission under the Training and Mobility for Researchers program.
A major goal of Training and Mobility for Researchers (TMR) networks
is to provide an excellent environment for the training of
young researchers. For more information about CHOROCHRONOS, please see
<>. See also
<> for previous papers in this area
by Manolis Koubarakis.

To apply, e-mail a recent CV (including list of publications and
references) to Dr. Manolis Koubarakis (


Knowledge Engineering Pte Ltd, <>, has openings
for project managers and software engineers. "Recepient of the Best
Application Award (Artificial Intelligence - 1995) in the First
International Users' Conference in ILOG SOLVER & ILOG SCHEDULE in
Paris. Knowledge Engineering Pte Ltd, a premier software development
company, specializes in the application of object-oriented
technologies, Artificial Intelligence, computer graphics, wireless
communications and RDBMS to real-world problems. We develop generic
software products, undertake turnkey projects and consultancy for
clients primarily in the transportation, manufacturing and
communication-services sectors. The systems we have developed make
innovative use of state-of-the-art technologies, including graphics
capabilities, search and constraint-based optimization and other AI
techniques, wireless communications and client-server and intranet

Knowledge Engineering Pte Ltd, Changi Airport P.O. Box 8001, Singapore
918199. fax: (65) 543 2109 [comp.constraints, 1 Feb 1997]


ILOG <> has openings for senior consultants. "Ilog
markets sophisticated C++ and Java software components for data
visualization and resource optimization to Global 2000 companies and
ISVs to build strategic core business applications in diverse fields
including telecommunications, manufacturing, aerospace, and finance. As
an Ilog consultant, you will work directly with customers to ensure
their success in deploying Ilog products in their applications.
Consultants work with clients both at customer sites and in our offices
at all stages of application development, including:

* Working with clients to fully understand application requirements *
Evaluating product suitability for particular applications * Writing
technical specifications for applications * Planning the development
process * Modeling business application objects using Ilog class
libraries * Writing and debugging application code * Knowledge transfer
of application to customer * Providing feedback to development teams

In addition, Ilog consultants may give training courses and provide
second-level customer support." [comp.constraints, 1/31/96]


Older job listings are here

Other links

The Computing Research Association's list of CS jobs
<> has mostly academic positions, and a mailing

Computists International <> is an
organization run by Ken Laws, who puts out several mailing lists. One
jobs mailing list is free, another requires membership but is archived
on the web page after a one-month delay.

The AI Jobs mailing list
is maintained by Mark Kantrowitz. Also see the Lisp, Prolog, AI
postdoc and AI predoc mailing lists

Patrick Tufts at Brandeis maintains a page of CS Academic Jobs
<>, and a number
of related pointers.

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