FrameMaker FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 1/2

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Bob McCormick

Sep 5, 1996, 3:00:00 AM9/5/96

Archive-name: frame/faq/part1
Version: 2.9a
Last-modified: 1996/0313

FrameMaker Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) List

To skip the OFFICIAL STUFF and get to the new info and the table of
contents, search for the word: LEGEND


** What is this all about?

This article contains answers to some Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
about FrameMaker and associated products, often seen in the Usenet
newsgroup "comp.text.frame" and on the "framers" mailing list. It is
posted to help reduce volume in this newsgroup and to provide
hard-to-find information of general interest. This FAQ is in two

FrameMaker is a document publishing program, including page layout,
word processing, graphics (drawing), equations, book building, tables,
etc. It runs on many platforms, most notably Unix/X, SunView,
Macinstosh, Windows, NeXT. Associated products are FrameViewer,
FrameReader and FrameBuilder.

** Copyright & Distribution

This article, as a collection of information, is Copyright 1994 Robert
McCormick. Distribution through any means other than regular Usenet
channels must be by permission. The removal of this copyright notice
is forbidden. This FAQ may be cited as:

McCormick, Robert J. (1994) "FrameMaker FAQ (Frequently Asked
Questions)" Usenet news.answers. Available via (and
./part2). 35 pages.

Please redistribute this article to people who ask for it or people
who use FrameMaker! However, distribute the whole file, including the
copyright notices and the attributions.

** Credits

Many people all over the world have contributed to this FAQ, and have
graciously provided mail servers and FTP sites. Their names are
included with their contributions. I usually edit contributions, so
what you see here may not be the contributor's exact words.

Thanks to TCSI for providing me a job and an account from which to
maintain the FAQ. For more info about TCSI, see

** Corrections & Additions

Send corrections or new questions WITH ANSWERS to Mike Sierra at If you have a question and need an answer, post or
mail your questions to the group, collect the responses, put together
a summary answer, and then mail it to me for inclusion in the FAQ.

** Disclaimer (and Frame Technology's Address)

comp.text.frame and the framers mailing list are not officially read
or supported by Frame Technologies, Inc. To speak officially with
Frame Technologies Inc., especially to report a problem or to suggest
an enhancement, contact them at:

Frame Technology, Inc. Tel: +1 408-975-6466 (408-975-OH-NO :-)
Frame Technical Support Fax: +1 408-975-6611
333 West San Carlos Internet-USA:
San Jose, CA 95110 USA Internet-Eur:
Online BBS: +1 408-975-6729, 6730
BigMac BBS: +1 408-975-6738
Compuserve: GO DTPVEND, Section 12 - Frame Technology

FrameFacts (FAX-back system): +1 408-975-6731

For Frame Sales, use Tel: +1 800-843-7263 (800 U-4-FRAME)

Frame main number: Tel: +1-408-975-6000 Fax: +1-408-975-6799

I and the contributors do not accept any liability for the accuracy or
applicability of this information to your situation. Make a backup
copy of your file(s) before you attempt any complex procedure,
especially one done outside of the FrameMaker program. Be careful.

** Other Items

Most answers are written for FrameMaker version 3.0, 3.0.1, or 3.1,
and may not work for (or be applicable to) earlier or later versions.
There have been a lot of changes between FM3 and FM4. Certain things,
such as automatic hypertext generation, needed separate programs in
FM3, but are built into FM4. Unless otherwise noted, most answers
still show an FM3 viewpoint. As time goes on I intend to change the
answers to reflect and FM4 viewpoint, with the FM3 data shown also,
for those that have not upgraded.

Unless the posting is of local interest (like a user group meeting),
please use Distribution: world in your posts.

This article is in EMACS outline format, using the standard header
symbol "*".

FM FrameMaker
FM3 FrameMaker 3.0, 3.01, 3.0.1, etc.
FM4 FrameMaker 4.0 etc.
FTP File Transfer Program/Protocol
PS PostScript
TOC Table of Contents
XREF Cross-reference or cross-reference marker

** If you are new to Usenet, subscribe to news.announce.newusers
and read the postings there. They give you general information and
tips on making life easier for you and everybody else. Read:
"A Primer on How to Work With the Usenet Community"
"Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Usenet"
"Hints on writing style for Usenet"

** Other FAQs

To find other FAQs, subscribe to news.answers, or send e-mail:
body contains: send usenet/news.answers/index

or, use anonymous FTP:
As an example, this FAQ is stored in the directory

Copies of the news.answers FAQs in HTML format are at

** FTP (File Transfer Protocol/Program) Instructions

FTP is a way of copying files between networked computers. If you
need help in using or getting started with FTP, send e-mail:
body contains: send usenet/news.answers/ftp-list/faq

Most files available by FTP have been archived and compressed. The
unpacking programs for Unix are included on most systems. Those for
Mac and PC are available from most FTP sites; consult README files.

If you do not have access to FTP, there are other was of accessing
files, including ftp-by-mail. Send e-mail:
body contains: send usenet/news.answers/finding-sources



** Notes about this version

This will (hopefully) be my last update, before handing it over to
someone else for future enhancement. Thanks to all who contributed,
especially those who sent me updates, and waited forever for the
changes. I've added most of them to this version, but not all.

Eagle-eyed correctors for this issue:
Alberto Aimar <>
Conrad M. Hirano <>
Daniel Kibler <>
Ethan L. Miller <>
Linda Cygan <>

** TOC Legend
+ indicates questions new to this issue;
! indicates those with significant changes since the last issue.

** Table of Contents

part1:** What is this all about?
part1:** Copyright & Distribution
part1:** Credits
part1:** Corrections & Additions
part1:** Disclaimer (and Frame Technology's Address)
part1:** Other Items
part1:** If you are new to USENET, subscribe to news.announce.newusers
part1:** Other FAQs
part1:** FTP (File Transfer Protocol/Program) Instructions

part1:** Notes about this version
part1:** Legend
part1:** Table of Contents
part1:** Future Items (contributions gladly considered)

!!!!!:** INF-1: Electronic Media (mailing lists, newsgroups, BBSs, fax)
!!!!!:** INF-2: Printed Media (books, magazines, etc.)
part1:** INF-3: User Groups

part1:** TXT-1: How can I control which master page is used when text flows off
of the current page?
part1:** TXT-2: What exactly is copied during File:Use Formats?
part1:** TXT-3: How can I delete all empty paragraphs?
part1:** TXT-4: How can I type h-bar, Planck's constant?
part1:** TXT-5: How can I adjust the size of the brackets in equations?
part1:** TXT-6: How can I underline the area between tabbed text?
+++++:** TXT-7: Can I make a series of changes to my document from a list?
+++++:** TXT-8: Can I make a series of changes to all the documents in a folder?

part1:** NUM-1: How do I set up autonumbers for Figures as "Figure 5-1"?
part1:** NUM-2: How do I place an autonumbered figure number in an anchored
frame? Why doesn't it update properly?
part1:** NUM-3: How can I get "Page 3 of 152" to work for a multi-file book?
part1:** NUM-4: I want chapter number and title on separate lines, both in TOC.
part1:** NUM-5: Can I generate a table-of-contents directly inside a file?
part1:** NUM-6: Why do some of my cross-references keep changing to point
to the wrong paragraph?
part1:** NUM-7: How can I convert x-refs automatically to hypertext links?
part1:** NUM-8: Can I set a FM variable from the command line?
part1:** NUM-9: Does FM support mail merge?
part1:** NUM-10: Is there are tool to automatically produce index entries?
part1:** NUM-11: How do I set up "dictionary-style" headers?
part1:** NUM-12: When I generate from the book, FM says "Degenerate!"
part1:** NUM-13: How can I autonumber figures that span multiple columns?
+++++:** NUM-14: How can I create an "global" index across files (without books)?
+++++:** NUM-15: Multi-line titles get messed up in List-Of-Figures or -Tables

part2:** PAG-1: Is there any easy way to move one or more pages to a different
place in the document? (Two layout models.)
part2:** PAG-2: How do I force a page break?
part2:** PAG-3: How can I change the page size of an existing document?
part2:** PAG-4: I used a rotated (landscape) page for a large figure/table,
but the figure keeps moving to a portrait page!
part2:** PAG-5: How can I get text to flow around a graphic?
part2:** PAG-6: What is the easiest way to do "this page intentionally
left blank"?
part2:** PAG-7: How can I control the spacing between the text and the top
of the text frame?
part2:** PAG-8: How can I make a table or anchored frame span two columns?
+++++:** PAG-9: How can I float a table to the top of the page, w/o blank space?

part2:* PRINTING
part2:** PRT-1: How can I print "DRAFT" on the background of every page?
part2:** PRT-2: How can I print with the "-h" switch in FM3.0/3.1?
part2:** PRT-3: How can I set the default printer name?
part2:** PRT-4: How can I print pages in pamphlet/booklet/signature order?
part2:** PRT-5: Is there a way to print certain pages or ranges from a book
or file, besides the one-range-at-a-time printing via FM?
part2:** PRT-6: How can I print double-sided on a printer that supports it?
part2:** PRT-7: Can I print FM files on a 9-bin dot-matrix printer?
part2:** PRT-8: How can I have text that is displayed, but not printed?
part2:** PRT-9: How can print to a non-PostScript printer?
+++++:** PRT-10: What kind of control do I have over documents
distributed on-line in FrameMaker binary format?

part2:** FIL-1: Where can I find a filter to convert <XXXXXX> to Frame?
part2:** FIL-2: How do I convert a Frame document from Mac to Sun? (etc.)
part2:** FIL-3: Why do my imported images show up as gray rectangles?
part2:** FIL-4: How can I automatically import a graphic file whose format is
not recognized by FM, if I can do the conversion manually?
part2:** FIL-5: How do I incorporate code fragments in a Frame doc?
!!!!!:** FIL-6: Are there any SGML converters for FM?
!!!!!:** FIL-7: I am having problems transferring PostScript in and out of FM.
part2:** FIL-8: How can I convert a group of files between FM binary and MIF?
part2:** FIL-9: How do I import ISO Latin1 (ISO-8859.1) text into FM?
part2:** FIL-10: How do I screendump a window with a menu?
part2:** FIL-11: How do I convert MATLAB output to FM?
!!!!!:** FIL-12: How do I convert FM to HTML?
part2:** FIL-13: How do I convert MS Excel charts to FM?
part2:** FIL-14: How do I get a better FM-to-Text conversion?
+++++:** FIL-15: How do I merge several PS files into a single PS file?

part2:** SGB-1: Are there any grammar checkers for FM?
part2:** SGB-2: Do you know what happens if the spell checker finds "Interleaf"
part2:** SGB-3: How can I do bibliographies in FrameMaker?
part2:** SGB-4: Can FM produce automatically numbered endnotes?
!!!!!:** SGB-5: Are there any plotting/charting packages that work with FM?
part2:** SGB-6: Is there a thesaurus that works with FM?
part2:** SGB-7: How to use configuration management tools with FM?
part2:** SGB-8: Are there any "spreadsheet" tools for FM tables?

part2:** PLT-1: Various FM on X Window questions
part2:** PLT-2: How do I open documents from the command line using an already
running FrameMaker (and thus only a single license)?
part2:** PLT-3: Where can I find keyboard shortcuts for [platform]?
part2:** PLT-4: How can I maximize battery life for FM on portables?
part2:** PLT-5: Various FM-Windows Questions
part2:** PLT-6: FrameMaker does not display black text on an external
color monitor connected to a Macintosh PowerBook.
part2:** PLT-7: What can be done to make FM run faster on Macintoshes?

part2:** TMP-1: Where can I get the FUN tape?
part2:** TMP-2: Where can I get a template for technical papers?
part2:** TMP-3: Where can I get DTD template for FrameBuilder?
part2:** TMP-4: Where can I get additional Clip Art for FM?
part2:** TMP-5: Where can I get a thesis template?

** Future Items (contributions gladly considered)


** INF-1: Electronic Media (mailing lists, newsgroups, BBSs, fax)

*** A. How to get the latest version of this FAQ

This FAQ is posted monthly to comp.text.frame, comp.answers, and
news.answers. To get the latest copy via mail server, send e-mail:
with body containing: send usenet/news.answers/frame/faq/part1
send usenet/news.answers/frame/faq/part2

An HTML version (URLs converted to links) is stored at

A full HTML version is stored at
(top-level info at
courtesy of Tim Hanlon ( and CERN. This HTML
version may not be as current as the other versions, but it is very
easy to use. The Bug List and Filters document are here in HTML also!

The FAQ is also available via

*** B. comp.text.frame Usenet newsgroup

Subscribe to the Usenet newsgroup comp.text.frame.
To find out how to read a newsgroup, ask your system administrator.

*** C. "framers" reflective mailing list

This is a reflective mailing list, which is also partially gatewayed
with comp.text.frame in one direction: from the newsgroup to the
mailing list but not vice versa. The 'cream of comp.text.frame' is
forwarded to the mailing list.

To get on the mailing list, use the automated administrator; to find
out how, send e-mail:
body contains: help

If you have trouble with the automated administrator, send email to:

There is an archive at .

*** D. Frame Technology's Bulletin Board System

Frame Technology has created a bulletin board system that can be used
to submit bug reports, leave messages, read bulletins and technical
tips, or upload/download files. See phone numbers above.

Contributor: Al at Frame Tech Support

*** E. Frame Technology's FrameFacts FAX Retrieval System

Frame Technology has created the FrameFacts FAX retrieval system.
This system is activated by your touch-tone phone, and will send
requested documents to the FAX machine of your choosing. FrameFacts
contains the latest Technical Notes and tips for all the FrameMaker
platforms and products. This system is updated weekly, as is the BBS.
You can reach FrameFacts by calling +1 408-975-6731. You may wish to
request the Index of Documents the first time you call. (This system
may only work if you are calling from USA or Canada.)

*** F. Frame Technology FTP site

Frame has added an FTP site: Items supplied by Frame
are in /pub/techsup/. The directories /pub/techsup/framers/[mac, dos,
unix, platform.ind] contain files submitted by others, such as this
FAQ, the filter document (see FIL-1), filters, etc. Most files are
compressed in some format.

You can make submissions to the site; read the file /.welcome.msg for

*** G. FUNNE FTP Archive

The FUNNE (FrameMaker's User Network of New England) anonymous FTP
archive contains information on upcoming meetings, meeting minutes and
agendas, general information regarding FUNNE, and an uploads section
for uploading helpful Frame sample templates, informational text
files, and other Frame-related utilities.

To access the FUNNE FTP archive:

*** H. Other Usenet newsgroups of interest to desktop publishing.

comp.text, comp.text.desktop, comp.text.sgml, comp.lang.postscript,
comp.sources.postscript, alt.hypertext, misc.writing

*** I: Other interesting Web pages for publishing & writing

Contributor: Graeme Forbes <>

** INF-2: Printed Media (books, magazines, etc.)

*** A. Michael Fraase. 1992. "Structured Publishing from the
Desktop: Frame Technology's FrameMaker." Business One Irwin,
Homewood, IL. 336 pp. Softbound. $24.95 ISBN 1-55623-616-6.

Contributor: Binion Amerson

*** B. Juergen Gulbins, Karl Obermayr. 1994. "Desktop Publishing mit
FrameMaker", published in German Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New
York. 800 pages; Covering FM4 on UNIX, Windows and Mac extra chapters
on typography, photosetting, installation and configuration on UNIX.

Contributor: Karl Obermayr

*** C. FrameFootnotes: The technical newsletter for FrameMaker users.
Published (quarterly?) by Frame Technical Support. Contact:
Technical Support/FrameFootnotes
Frame Technology Corporation (address above)*
(download as binary, as it is a FM file)

*** D. FrameFocus: Marketing newsletter from Frame.
Published quarterly by Frame Technologies. Contact:
Editor, FrameFocus
Frame Technology Corporation (address above)
(download as binary, as it is a FM file)

*** E. Books available through Ellipsys International Publications

The following book profiles are provided by Ellipsys International
Publications, Inc., a source of FrameMaker books for Unix, Mac, and
Windows. To obtain more information about any of the following titles,
please call toll free, or send a fax or Email. Ellipsys is a
Registered Training Company for Frame Technology Corporation.

Ellipsys International Publications, Inc. Tel: +1 619-280-8711
4679 Vista Street Sales: +1 800-944-5551
San Diego, CA 92116 USA Fax: +1 619-280-8713
CompuServe: Claire Arias,73441,1226

Title: FrameMaker 4: From Desktop to Printshop
Authors: Yvonne Johnson
Publisher: Osborne McGraw-Hill
ISBN: 0-07-881970-9
Suggested Retail Price: $29.95 Available 4/94

This colorfully-illustrated reference moves beyond the mechanics of Frame-
Maker, to emphasize the basics of good design and layout, prepress and
production. Features Windows, with numerous side notes for Mac and Unix.
Title: FrameMaker 4 for Windows: Visual QuickStart Guide
Author: Jann Tolman
Publisher: Peachpit Press
ISBN: 1-56609-097-0
Suggested Retail Price: $18.95 Available 3/94

A picture is worth a thousand words! This book's illustrated step-by-step
instructions will help you get up and running with FrameMaker 4 in no time. Written especially for those who would rather do it than read about it.
Title: Power of FrameMaker 4 for Windows
Author: David B. Doty
Publisher: MIS:Press
ISBN: 1-55828-314-5
Suggested Retail Price: $27.95 Available NOW!

This book of 446 pages covers all bases, but zeroes in on topics of interest
to experienced users. Learn how to create and maintain complex documents,
use conditional text, generate lists, tables, anchored frames, equations,
hypertext, and more!
Title: FrameMaker 4 for Unix Solutions
Authors: Helena Fernandez Jerney & John Jerney
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0-471-59076-2
Suggested Retail Price: $29.95 Available NOW!

The ultimate trouble-shooting guide for professional technical writers using
FrameMaker 4 for Unix. This comprehensive reference of 478 pages provides
quick access to step-by-step instructions for over 200 FrameMaker 4 tasks.
Title: FrameMaker for Windows: Step-by-Step
Author: Janet Lienhard
Series: Trainers' Signature Series
Publisher: Ellipsys International Publications, Inc.
ISBN: 1-880663-41-4
Suggested Retail Price: $29.95 Available NOW!

A three-part set of workbooks for the first-time user of FrameMaker 3.
Each workbook features a step-by-step lesson, supplemented by an alpha-
betical reference of featured commands and illustrated glossary. Ideal
for in-house corporate training.
Title: Structured Publishing from the Desktop
Author: Michael Fraase
Publisher: Irwin Professional Publishing
ISBN: 1-55623-616-6
Suggested Retail Price: $30.00 Available NOW!

Featuring FrameMaker 3 for the Mac, this book provides an interesting
overview of technical communications methology, with an emphasis on the
multi-platform, workgroup publishing environment.

Contributor: Claire Arias <>

*** F. "The Frame Handbook: Building Framemaker Documents that Work"

By Linda Branagan & Micheal Sierra, pub. O'Reilly & Ass., Inc.

For me, the "Tips and Tricks" section alone is worth the price of the
book... I saved a lot of time with the explanation of automated
running tabs (or bleeding tabs). Furthermore, the Acknowlegdements
make mention our very own comp.text.frame!

Contributor: Hal Hammond <>

** INF-3: User Groups

Usually called FUN for Frame User Network. These groups meet to
discuss FM and its usage. They often include speakers from FM,
3rd-party tool suppliers, etc. (Country code for all phone numbers is

Atlanta GA USA
Dana O'Farrell 404-417-4811 Meets quarterly.
Chicago IL USA
Lester LaPierre 708-576-4445
Cleveland OH USA
Eric LaPresto 216-445-9368
Columbus OH USA
Alan Addis 614-477-3600 x2497
Peggy Sutliff " x3200
Dallas-Fort Worth TX USA
Darja Adams 214-869-0680 x2257
Dayton OH USA
Brian Bermhardt 513-257-2479
Detroit MI USA
Myron Hayden 313-459-5630
Florida USA
Kathy Garvey
Indianapolis IN USA
Brad Williamson 317-230-5564 317-471-3055
317-872-7220 x632
Los Angeles CA USA
Brian Keith 818-883-3838
Milwaukee WI USA
Luke Heffron 414-782-0007
Minneapolis MN USA
Nancee Melby 612-726-2277
New England USA
Paul Brady 508-490-5797
Phoenix AZ USA
Ken Arnold 602-862-6699
Pittsburgh PA USA
Al Mylan 412-378-4046
Mike Myers 412-374-3246
San Diego CA USA
Robert Crews 72274...@CompuServe.COM 619-281-6141
San Francisco Bay Area CA USA
Ruth LoCurto 408-765-4157

The Frame contact for user group info is Susan Barber, Atlanta office,
+1 310-643-4425, x6953.

If you want to start one of your very own FUN group, contact your
local sales representative.


** TXT-1: How can I control which master page is used when text flows off
of the current page?

When you push text out of a column with Autoconnect turned on, how
does FM choose which master page to use for the new page?

- If the number and type (letter tag) of the autoconnect flows on the
current body page exactly match the autoconnect flows on the Right
master page, then the Right master page is used.

- Otherwise, the master page for the current body page is used.

The Right master page is kind of the default master page. (Unless it
is a double-sided document, in which case there are Left and Right
defaults.) For example, if you were typing a memo, you would have (at
least) two master pages, one called "First" which contained the big
header, and one called "Right" for all of the continuation pages.

You cannot get FM to automatically go from one non-Right master to
another. For example, assume that a memo has 3 masters: Fax, First,
and Right. There is no way to start the document with only the Fax
page, and have it automatically change to First, and then to Right.
The solution is to create 3 pages, apply the appropriate masters,
connect the flows as needed, and make sure that empty pages are not
deleted (turn this off in Format->Document or add dummy text to each

Another item to note is that when changing master pages with Page
Layout, the same "union" rules apply, as done with "Use Formats." For
example, if the body page currently has one column of flow B, and you
apply a master page which has one column with flow A, you will wind up
with two text columns. You can then copy the text from the old column
to the new column (if appropriate), and then delete the old column.

** TXT-2: What exactly is copied during File:Use Formats?

Here is a description of what is copied and what actions occur during
Use Formats. (This is from the Reference Manual, but I think it bears
repeating, since it is not in the on-line help.)

P Formats
P Catalog
All paragraphs are updated with the new formats
Footnote properties (where placed, prefix, format, etc.)
Equation sizes
Document Properties: Allow Line Breaks After
Flow Properties: Feather

C Formats
C Catalog
All tagged characters are updated with the new formats

Page Layouts
Master Pages
Background and Column Layout applied to all body pages
Change Bar Properties
Document Properties: First Page Number and Page Number Style
View Options

Reference Pages
Reference Pages
Reference Frames in current doc that are not in source doc are removed!

Variable Definitions

Cross Reference Formats
Cross Reference Formats
Updates internal cross-references (x-refs)

Table Formats
Table Format Catalog
Ruling Style Catalog
Update all tables

Conditional Text
Conditional Tags
Show/Hide Settings
Use Format Overrides

If you are going to apply P Formats, than you should also apply C
Formats. Otherwise, text tagged with C formats will still be tagged
correctly, but will be displayed with the default P format.

** TXT-3: How can I delete all empty paragraphs?

If you're trying to delete extra paragraph marks (obligatory in good
formatting), you may have noticed that you can't search for two
paragraph marks (\p\p) and replace with one paragraph mark (\p)
without losing the formatting of one of the paragraphs on either side
of that string.

The solution is to search, with wildcards, for a beginning of a line
followed by the end of a line (^$), and replace with a null string.

Contributor: Mike Sierra <>

** TXT-4: How can I type h-bar, Planck's constant?

This is not easy. There are a couple of methods described in a long

** TXT-5: How can I adjust the size of the brackets in equations?

In math mode I write an expression such as (1/x) and automatically get
large brackets on the screen:

/ 1 \
| - |
\ x /

But when I print, I get only small brackets:

( - )

Solution: Put a superscript on the numberator (1) and a subscript on
the denominator (x). Make them both white (as opposed to the standard
black). Adjust the spacing of the super and subscripts to adjust the
bracket size. What you get looks like:


but the a and b won't print. Instead of using white text, you can use
another color if you wish and then suppress printing of that color.

Contributors: Phil Endecott <>
Bob Collins <>

** TXT-6: How can I underline the area between tabbed text?

I now get: First part Second part
---------- -----------

but I want: First part Second part

In the Paragraph Format: Tabs: Properties: Leader, place a hard space
(meta space) at the appropriate tabs. These will be underlined too.

Contributor: Wim van Gijsel <>

** TXT-7: Can I make a series of changes to my document from a list?

Tempo II Plus 3.0 comes with a Find/Replace macro that assigns a list
of from/to changes to Temnpo variables. Tempo then enters them into
the application's change dialog box, waiting for each change to
complete in the target document before making the next. The macro is
designed to work within Microsoft Word but can be modified to work in
any program that has a find/change dialog box. Tempo is published by
Affinity Microsystems Ltd.

Affinity MicroSystems Ltd. Tel: +1 800-367-6700, +1 303-442-4840
Email: Fax: +1 303-442-4999

Contributor: Rick <>

** TXT-8: Can I make a series of changes to all the documents in a folder?

Tempo II Plus 3.0 comes with a "batch-process" routine that applies
the Tempo macro you create to every file in a folder. The macro can
also be set to perform differently based on some charactistic of the
document, such as a portion of its name, some text in the file or even
an image within the document. Tempo is published by Affinity
Microsystems Ltd.

Affinity MicroSystems Ltd. Tel: +1 800-367-6700, +1 303-442-4840
Email: Fax: +1 303-442-4999

Contributor: Rick <>


** NUM-1: How do I set up autonumbers for Figures as "Figure 5-1"?

First, FM organizes paragraph number into multiple series, each series
indicated by a character followed by a colon (H:). There is also a
series with no indicator.

Second, the default behavior is that when a position is ommitted from
an autonumber format, its value is reset to zero. (See below for a
way to include a position in a format without printing it.)

In autonumbering, if you include "< >" in the number, this means
"don't display and don't reset the number in this position." Note the
space between the angle brackets.

Use one number series for both headers and figure numbers. The
positions of the numbers in the series are as follows:

<level1> <figure> <table> <example> <level2> <level3> <level4> <level5>

The resultant autonumbers are:

Head1 H:<n+>
Figure H:<n>-<n+>< >< >< >< >< >< >
Table H:<n>-< ><n+>< >< >< >< >< >
Example H:<n>-< >< ><n+>< >< >< >< >
Head2 H:<n>< >< >< >.<n+>
Head3 H:<n>< >< >< >.<n>.<n+>
Head4 H:<n>< >< >< >.<n>.<n>.<n+>
Head5 H:<n>< >< >< >.<n>.<n>.<n>.<n+>

Contributor: Alan Koch <>

** NUM-2: How do I place an autonumbered figure number in an anchored
frame? Why doesn't it update properly?

There are three ways to place figure numbers so that they are
automatically updated. They each have advantages and disadvantages.
Note that you cannot use a "text line" (the A tool) for the figure
number, because text lines cannot be autonumbered, since they are not
real paragraphs in a text column.

*** A. In-Frame

The figure number is contained in a text column which is inside the
anchored frame.

+ Can use "floating" figures, because the title is inside the floating

- Text column must be properly placed (see below).
- Cannot be used if you want other autonumbered text cols in frame.

If you use this method, the text column with the figure number must be
the first text column in the drawing order. To ensure this, select the
column and do Graphics->Back.

*** B. Out-of-Frame

The figure number is outside the frame, usually in the paragrah that
contains the anchor or the paragraph after the anchor paragraph. Use
Keep With Next and Keep With Previous in Format Paragraph to keep
things together.

+ Don't have to worry about text column in frame.
+ Can have an autonumbered text column in frame.

- Cannot use floating figures.

*** C. Frame in One-cell Table

Create a one-cell table, put the anchored frame in the cell, and place
the figure title in the table title column.

+ Can use all the formatting features of tables:
Title above or below
Controlled spacing between title and figure
Controlled ruling (could use top and bottom rule lines)
+ Don't have to worry about placement of text column in frame.
+ Can easily place 2 (or more) figures side-by-side in a column.
(If using more than one row, use the Table Format:Basic:Numbering
property to set row-first or column-first numbering.)
- Yet another layer of nesting (table contains frame which contains

Note that this method provides an easy way to do side-by-side figures
(or other groupings), but you must then place the figure title inside
the table cell. Figure number ordering can be set from Table Format.

Contributor: Harro Kremer <>

** NUM-3: How can I get "Page 3 of 152" to work for a multi-file book?

If you place text such as "Page <Current Page #> of <Page Count>"
(where <xxx> signifies a variable) in the footer, you will get the
expected results for a single-file document, but not for a multi-file
book. The solution is replace the variable <Page Count> with a
cross-reference to a paragraph on the last page of the last file in
the book. The format of the cross-reference should be <$pagenum>.
Make sure that you perform "File Generate/Update Files" from the book
before you print, to update all cross-references.

** NUM-4: I want chapter number and title on separate lines, both in TOC.

At the beginning of each chapter I want:

Chapter <n>

Title of Chapter Goes Here

This requires two paragraphs, one for the number and one for the
title. However, in the TOC I want:

Chapter <n> Title of Chapter Goes Here...............<pagenum>

Solution: Use different paragraph tags for your Chapter number and
Title (e.g. ChapNum & ChapTitle). In your TOC Setup, gather only
ChapTitle. In the TOC document itself, modify the Paragraph Format
for ChapTitleTOC to set Numbering Properties to:
Chapter <n+>.\t
This will reproduce or mimic the chapter numbering, instead of pulling
it from the chapter file. You may have to use a separate series (H:,
C:) or use Book: File: Setup File to reset the numbering
appropriately. On the TOC Reference page, set the entry for
ChapTitleTOC to:

Contributors: Steve Harding <>
Rob Weinberg

** NUM-5: Can I generate a table-of-contents directly inside a file?

Sort of, by using Cross-References instead of the Generate facility.

At the front of your document, start setting up cross references to
all the paragraphs you want to appear in the TOC. You can experiment with
all the flexibility offered by X-Ref formats and autonumbers.

Every time you add a new section to your document, you must manually
add a corresponding cross reference in your TOC, but from then on it's
self-maintaining. To update the TOC, just do Special :
Cross-Reference : Update : Internal. If you delete a section and
forget to delete the cross reference in the TOC, no problem! You use
the standard methods to search- and-destroy (or fix) unresolved cross
references. After the update, visually inspect the TOC to look for
missing numbers, which may indicate sections that did not get

This isn't as automated as the Generate method, but it has the major
bonus of giving you the "Go To" hyperlink on the Cross Reference
dialogue box. When you want to go to a section, you just double-click
on the cross reference in the TOC, hit "Go To" in the dialogue box,
and there you are! Very popular if you have various people reviewing
a document on-line.

Contributor: Ken d'Albenas <>

** NUM-6: Why do some of my cross-references keep changing to point
to the wrong paragraph?

*** SITUATION: We have a document with many figures (or tables or
equations). Each figure is cross-referenced in the body text.

*** SYMPTOM: Some cross-references seem to be "unstable". For example,
when one places a cross-reference to 'Figure 3' in the text, the
number is correctly displayed ('Figure 3'). Later on, when the
cross-references are updated, the cross-reference suddenly changes,
e.g. to 'Figure 1'.

(Manually changing the cross-reference back to 'Figure 3' (Special
Cross-Reference, Replace) restored the correct number (3), but when
the 'Update' was performed again, the number again reverted to 1!)

*** CAUSE: The problem is caused by the use of the copy/paste functions to
duplicate a block of text that contains an X-Ref (aka Cross-Ref)
marker. First, here is some background on cross-reference markers.

FM puts an X-Ref marker at the beginning of a paragraph when one first
sets a cross-reference to that paragraph. Normally, users don't have
to bother about such X-Ref markers. The marker symbol ('T') is
visible if you have View Text Symbols turned on.

Each marker has a marker number and a descriptive text, such as
<MText `15755: Figure: Figure 1 Caption one'>

(The Paragraph tag and text are set in the marker when the marker is
first created, and they are not updated when the paragraph changes.
When a cross-reference is updated, the actual paragraph text is used.)

The marker number is crucial; it identifies the source of the
cross-reference (i.e., the paragraph to which one refers), therefore
it seems essential that each such number be UNIQUE in a document! FM
generates a new, unique number whenever you add a new cross-reference

*** THE SOURCE OF THE PROBLEM: However, if you copy a block of text that
contains an X-Ref marker, such as a figure caption, and then paste it
into another location (e.g., to create a new, similar figure), you end
up with TWO identical X-Ref markers, with the same marker number.

If you insert a reference to this new caption, it will show correctly
in the list box and on-screen, and will read the correct paragraph
text or number. However, whenever you Update your cross-references,
the destination cross-reference will look for the X-Ref marker with
the particular number, and it will find the first instance of a marker
with that number. This will cause the cross-reference to be
incorrect, as it will refer to the originally copied paragraph.

*** DIAGNOSIS: Is there a simple method to see if an existing document
contains the problem described above? There are two methods.

Method 1: Choose File Generate, choose 'Alphabetical Marker List',
include X-Ref (or Cross-Ref) type markers. This will produce a list of
all X-Ref markers, sorted by marker number. Visually inspect the
generated file: the presence of two or more (consecutive) lines with
the same marker number indicates the presence of the problem. The
marker texts may be different.

Method 2: Save the document as MIF, for example 'report.mif', then
issue the following Unix command:
grep MText report.mif | sort > report.lst
This searches for all markers in the document and sorts them by
number. Visually inspect the list of markers: the presence of two or
more (consecutive) lines with the same marker number indicates the
presence of the problem. The marker texts may be different.

*** THERAPY: Is it possible to fix the problem? Yes. It is a tedious
manual process, but it works reliably.

First, find and delete all duplicated X-Ref markers. Open the Special
Marker dialog. Use Edit Find/Search to search for "Marker of Type:
X-Ref" or "Marker of Type: Cross-Ref". (Look in the Marker Type list
in the Marker dialog to find the exact spelling.) Once it has found a
marker, examine the marker number in the Marker Text box in the Marker
dialog. If this marker is one of the ones with duplicated numbers,
delete it. (The marker should be already highlighted by the search,
so just give the document window the focus and hit <backspace> or
<delete>.) Repeat until all markers that had the duplicated numbers
have been deleted. You must delete ALL instances of markers with
duplicated numbers, even the original marker which formerly was

Second, update all cross-references (File Generate-Update from the
book, or Special Cross-References, Update from a single document.)
All of the references to the deleted markers will become "unresolved
cross-references". Search for these using Edit Find/Search, searching
for "Unresolved Cross-Reference". Double-click to bring up the
Cross-Reference dialog, and replace the cross-reference with the
correct paragraph. Repeat for each unresolved reference.

Third, update all cross-references again, and check for incorrect
references. You should also regenerate the marker list and check it
again for duplicates, in case you missed one.

*** PREVENTION (short term): You can prevent this in the future by noting
whenever you duplicate text containing markers. Turn on View Text
Symbols to see the markers. Note whenever you copy and paste text
containing a marker. If you duplicate text with a marker, if it is an
X-Ref marker, delete it! (This may also apply to other types of

When you are ready to publish a document, if there is a possibility of
duplicated markers, generate the marker list and check it for

*** PREVENTION (long term): Frame has been asked to update the Paste
function to check for markers in the pasted text, and ask the user
what should be done about the pasted markers (delete them, renumber
them, or leave them alone).

Contributor: Folco Casadei <>

** NUM-7: How can I convert x-refs automatically to hypertext links?

*** A. Automatic in FM4

[stated in press release; not sure of exact operation of this -Bob]

*** B. HyperGen <Unix & Windows>

Working from a book file, HyperGen automatically links the TOC, list
of figures and tables, index, and cross-references. User-defined
target strings can be used to make custom links inside or outside the
current book.

HyperGen is fully documented and warranted, and comes with pointers on
designing and integrating navigational aids. Samples of navigational
aids are included.

For more information on either version contact:

Frank Stearns Associates
Tel: +1 360-892-3970

** NUM-8: Can I set a FM variable from the command line?

There is a Unix shell script which can set a variable in a FrameMaker
.doc file:

Contributor: Michael Greenberg <>

** NUM-9: Does FM support mail merge?

*** A. fmmerge

This is included on the FUN tape; see question TMP-1 in part 2 of this

*** B. ixos - FrameMerger

Produces mail merge with FM and relational databases. ixos is a
German company. Not certain if this product is still available.

** NUM-10: Is there are tool to automatically produce index entries?

*** A. FM4 - Built-in Feature

FM4 can automatically generate hypertext links from generated
documents (e.g., table of contents, list of figures, index) to the
location in the source document.

*** B. fmixgen

"fmixgen" takes a concordance file and marks your document.

It cannot handle a word that wraps from one line to the next
(hyphenated), due to the way MIF files are structured. As a
work-around, you can turn off hyphenation while you index.

The code cannot be compiled with gcc, acc -O or cc -O (Sun
SPARCstation SunOS). It must be acc -g or cc -g.


Contributor: Vidiot <br...@ftms.UUCP>

*** C. IXgen

[Editor's Note: The following is a cut-down version of the IXgen data
sheet. See the vendor for the full data sheet, which contains System
Requirements, Licensing, Pricing, Warranty, and Other Products.]

IXgen is a suite of power utilities for creating and maintaining
indexes in a fraction of the time this task takes using the marker
window interface. And there's a bonus. IXgen -- with all its power
features -- can work on any marker type, not just index markers. IXgen
doubles as a full- featured marker manager.

The IXgen Toolset

>> Marker Expand/Collapse -- expand markers into the main text flow so
that markers can be created or edited in context. You can see
immediately how an index relates to the surrounding text without using
the marker window. This is also extremely useful when making
translations or changing nomenclature. When done, collapse the marker
text back into markers.

>> Gen Editable Index/Apply Edited Index -- generate a sorted list of
index entries. Then make index edits in the context of a sorted list.
When done, reflect those changes back to the source markers. Make all
your marker updates in one central place without moving among the
various source files.

>> Markers from Tags -- build new markers from the paratext of
selected tags. Use this feature to generate a starting base of index

>> Permute Markers -- permute existing markers into new markers. This
is an excellent second step to "Markers from Tags".

>> Capitalization -- specify capitalization rules for each level of an
index entry. IXgen will adjust marker capitalization as needed. You
can now quickly unify variant capitalization.

>> Unify Levels -- convert duplicate portions of index strings into
first level entries, then make subordinate entries from the remaining
index entry string.

>> Markers from Keyword List -- Supply IXgen with a list of keywords.
When the keyword (or keyphrase) is found, a new marker is inserted.

You can use these tools in any sequence or any combination. Use
"Markers from Tags" or "Markers from Keyword List" to generate an
initial raw index. Use "Permute Markers" to derive additional variants
from that list. Use "Capitalization" to correct capitalization
discrepancies as needed. Use "Gen Editable Index/Apply Edited Index"
to fine-tune the index.

Processing Notes

By default, IXgen processes index markers. But IXgen can work with
*any* marker type, including the user-definable markers.

IXgen does *not* put anything "new" or "special" in your FrameMaker
documents which might make them incompatible with regular FrameMaker.
IXgen merely provides a convenient and powerful interface to the
FrameMaker marker system. IXgen uses the existing marker system when
processing markers.

IXgen works on all files in a book, a single file, or a highlighted
area within a single file.

Contact: Frank Stearns Associates Toll free in USA: 800-567-6421
17201 SE 38th Circle Outside USA: 360-892-3970
Camas, WA 98607 (USA) Fax: 360-253-1498

** NUM-11: How do I set up "dictionary-style" headers?

To set up headers that reflect the first and last paragraphs of a
certain type on a page, you need to use two of the Running H/F
variables on a master page. For example, if the paragraph is interest
is tagged "Heading", you could use the following variables:

Running H/F 1 <$paratext[Heading]>
Running H/F 2 <$paratext[+,Heading]>

Running H/F 1 will give you the first paragraph, and Running H/F 2 will give
you the last paragraph with the tag "Heading" on the page.

Note that this gives you the text of the entire paragraph, so if you use this
in a generated index file, you will wind up with the index entry AND the page
number in the header.

Contributor: L. Daniel York <>

NUM-12: When I generate from the book, FM says "Degenerate!"

*** A. Save the Book File

Frame published a tech tip about the "Degenerate!" message, saying
that the way to clear it up is to save the book file, then regenerate
again. This usually works. If it doesn't see B.

*** B. Reset Autoconnect on the Master Page Text Columns

If the software keeps on calling you a degenerate even after saving
the book file, you should take a look at the generated files (like
Table of Contents, List of Figures, Index). See if there has been a
huge increase in the number of pages - like, you expect your TOC to be
4 or 5 pages long, and now it's grown to 20 or 30, with more than one
text column superimposed on some body pages.

How did you get into this fix? You probably pasted a text column onto
a master page. There's a bug either in the documentation or the
software. When you copy a column that has a flow tag and Autoconnect
ON, and then paste it, the pasted column has Autoconnect OFF! You
don't realize this, because the flow tag is retained, and the master
page _appears_ to do its job of providing a text column for body
pages. However, you must turn Autoconnect back on manually with the
Format -> Flow menu. To fix the problem:

- Turn Autoconnect ON in all flow-tagged text columns on master pages.
- Delete all the body pages.
- Regenerate. The name-calling will stop.

(For those of you who are wondering, "degenerate" is also an insult,
meaning "utterly corrupt in nature or behavior".)

Contributor: Ken d'Albenas <>

** NUM-13: How can I autonumber figures that span multiple columns?

Assume a two column document that includes some figures which flow in
one column, and others which span both columns. Is there any way to
include autonumbered captions which include both figure types?

The figures in the text flow are easy to autonumber in an anchored
frame, but to allow text to flow around figures which span multiple
columns, they must either be in a separate flow, or be drawn outside
the column flow. Neither of these solutions allow continuous
autonumbering with the figures within the text flow. But there is a

For the non-anchored figures:
1. Create an anchored frame in the margin.
2. Put a text column in the frame.
3. Put the figure number in the text column.
4. Apply a Character format to make it invisible (4pt White text).
5. In the actual figure, put a small text column for the caption.
6. Cross-reference to the invisible one to get the correct number.

Contributor: Alan S. Koch <>

** NUM-14: How can I create an "global" index across files (without books)?

Using FM3 on unix, I made a set of scripts which create a Global Index
for as many manuals as you want. As we have some problems generating
large documents, putting all manuals in one bookfile is no option for
us (generating this would take longer than doing it all by hand).

The scripts assume an special index for each manual with abbreviation
for the page numbers. The scripts (unix awk, sed and sort) combine the
indices to a global (text) index. Some global search and replace in FM
completes the Global Index.

It works good for me, is quicker (half a day instead of about a week
of cutting and pasting) but has some drawbacks:
- It sorts differently than frame does,
- It uses unix,
- It is tested only with Frame3.0 (I modify it if we get FM4).

I will send it to anyone who is interested (and maybe solve some of
the drawbacks :-) ). The package has currently the shape if a Frame
document (being the manual) with the scripts as appendices.

Contributor: Fred Jan Kraan <>

** NUM-15: Multi-line titles get messed up in List-Of-Figures or -Tables

Procedure to make a Table Of Contents in which paragraphs may extend
over more than one line and where the pagenumbers are right of the TOC
text. (Should work for List Of Figures and List Of Tables also.)

Setting up the Table of Contents

1- in the main document :
- File: Generate/Book: Table of Contents
- Generate
- move the appropriate paragraphs to : Include Paragraphs Tagged:
- Generate

2- go to the *TOC.doc document :
- go to the Reference page and the flow : Table of Contents
- make the TOC paragraphs as desired (f.e. Indents and Tabs)
but have in any case the string "qq<$pagenum>" in them.
(Example : "<$paranum> 'tab' <$paratext>qq<$pagenum>")
- in the Paragraph Catalog : delete all paragraphs without 'TOC'
in the tagname
- in the Paragraph Designer : go to Properties: Pagination
Commands: Set Window to As Is
Format: Side Head
Alignment: Last Baseline
Commands: Global Update Options
select Pagination Properties Only
select All Paragraphs
- set cursor in any TOC paragraph
- click Layout and set the Width and Gap as desired
- click Set

Making the Table of Contents

1- go to the main document
- File: Generate/Book: Table of Contents: Generate

2- go to the *TOC.doc document on a Body page
- Edit: Find: Text: and type 'qq'
Change: To Text: and type '\pqq'
click Find, Change All and OK
- set cursor in a paragraph containing 'qq'
- in Paragraph Designer:
Paragraph Tag: pagenrT (example)
Properties: Basic: Alignment: Right
Apply (and Create)
Properties: Pagination: Format: Normal
Update All
- Edit: Copy Special: Paragraph Format
- go to Find window
Find: Text: and type 'qq'
Change: By Pasting
click Find, Change All and OK
Change: To Text: (blank)
click Find, Change All and OK

Note : keep the Table of Contents in a separate flow from any other
text flow because of the Side Head properties.

Some user configurations

1- distance of page numbers to table text
- first set the text width with
Paragraph Designer: Properties: Pagination: Layout: Width:
- then in the paragraph pagenrT adjust the
Paragraph Designer: Properties: Basic: Indents: Right:

Contributor: Wim van Gijsel <>

end of part 1 of 2

Bob McCormick email:
TCSI, Berkeley, California USA vox: +1 510-649-3881 fax: +1 510-649-3600

Bob McCormick

Sep 5, 1996, 3:00:00 AM9/5/96

Archive-name: frame/faq/part2
Version: 2.9a
Last-modified: 1996/03/13

This is part 2 of 2 of the FrameMaker FAQ (Frequently Asked
Question) list. To get part 1, send e-mail:

with body containing: send usenet/news.answers/frame/faq/part1




** PAG-1: Is there any easy way to move one or more pages to a different
place in the document? (Two layout models.)

FM supports two basic layout models; let's call them "newspaper" and
"term paper". In the term paper model, there's basically one story
that flows from one page to the next; the pages themselves can be
thought of as transient, existing only to divide up the flow. In the
newspaper model, the pages exist independently of the stories, and you
place the stories by reshaping the text columns and linking a column
on page 1 to a column on another page. The newspaper model is also
used for producing "forms". Overhead transparencies can be done with
either model.

In the newspaper model, you probably start out by using Page->Add Page
to create the proper number of pages, then placing stories in the
columns, and linking those columns to additional ones on later pages
as necessary. Pages are not automatically generated when text flows
out of a column (Autoconnect is off). There's no "easy" way to
rearrange pages, but this model doesn't often require it.

In the term paper model, you start with one page, and let a
lengthening story automatically generate additional pages (Autoconnect
is on). If style dictates that page break is required, you simply tag
the next paragraph as "Start at Top"; this is probably built into the
cataloged tag. In this model, you don't move "pages" around, you move
bunches of sentences around (using Cut and Paste), and the pages
adjust themselves automatically.

Note that in the term paper model you DON'T want to use "Add Page" and
you DO want to place any graphics in a anchored frame or table, so
they'll move with the text, not stick to the page.

Things can get complicated when you want an exception page in the
middle of a term paper, such as a rotated page for a landscape
formatted graphic.

Additional points:

- There is NO way to cut/copy and then paste a master page as a unit.

- There is NO way to cut/copy and then paste a reference page as a unit.
You can only add a new (empty) master/reference page, and then
copy and paste objects from the source page.

- There is NO way to add a new page (Page:Add Page) and simultaneously
specify a desired master page.
An added page ALWAYS gets master page "Right" (or "Left" in a
2-sided document as appropriate). If you want to add a page
using a different master page you must first add it and then
apply the master page using Page:Column Layout. If the desired
master page has a different arrangement of text columns you will
often end up with "orphan" text columns that you must delete.

Contributor: David Cortesi <>


** PAG-2: How do I force a page break?

Ideally, you would have a unique tag that leads off the text on the
new page (e.g., Head1), and you set this paragraph format to Start:
Top of Page or Top of Column. However, this is not always
appropriate. There are a few other solutions:

*** A. Create a Paragraph tag called PageBreak, and set its point size to
4.0pt (smallest possible), Space Above to 0, and Space Below to 999pt.
The huge space below forces the next paragraph to the top of the page.
Contributor: <>

*** B. Create a Paragraph tag called PageBreak, and set its Start to Top
of Page (or Column). Set the point size to 4.0pt (smallest possible),
Space Above to 0, and Space Below to 0. Set the leading to the
negative of the point size and the Space Above of the following
paragraph. This causes the two paragraphs to overlap.
Contributor: Lester C. Smalley

*** C. Select the first paragraph that you want on the new page and do
"ESC j P".

Contributor: L. Daniel York <>


** PAG-3: How can I change the page size of an existing document?

Use ONE of the following methods:

*** A. Edit the MIF file.

To change master page sizes, save the file as a MIF document, and then
edit the MIF file -- search-and-replace all instances of 8.5" x 11.0"
with the desired measurements. Look for the attribute "PageSize".
Save the MIF file, and then open it again in FrameMaker -- you will
have to use the Page Layout dialog box to reapply Master Page --> Body
Page formats, although perhaps you could use the Use Formats From
dialog box, specifying the current document as the template and
updating only the Page Layout.

Also, after doing this, remember to reformat any tabs at the right end
of the template's headers/footers.

Contributors: Jonathan B. Horen <>
Anders Thulinc <>

*** B. Copy formats.

1. Make a new document of the right size.
2. Save this document as a new name.
3. Open your old Template.
4. Go to the Master Pages of both documents,
For each master page in the old template:
- Create or go to that Master Page in the New document,
- In the New document, Edit: Select All on Page and delete,
- In the Old document, Edit: Select All on Page and copy,
- In the New document, Paste.
5. In the New Document, Select Use Formats from the File menu
and bring over everything EXCEPT the Page Layouts.

Contributor: Alan S. Koch <>

*** C. Frame's Method.

A slightly different method is described in Using FrameMaker, Chapter
14: Specifying Page Layout, Changing a document's page size.

Contributor: Ari Cohn <>


** PAG-4: I used a rotated (landscape) page for a large figure/table,
but the figure keeps moving to a portrait page!

If you have a document which contains a figure too wide for a portrait
page, you can created a landscape master page for it to reside on.

The problem is that when you add stuff on the pages before the
landscape page, the landscape figure moves onto another (portrait)
page, and the new text goes onto the landscape page. If you separate
the landscape page from the flow, then the figure numbers get messed

The easiest solution is to create the figure rotated in an anchored
frame. You can use a large "scratch" page somewhere to create the
figure of such a size that, when rotated, it will fit on your standard
portrait page. Thus you won't need a custom master page. Turn off
Cropping in the Special Anchored Frame dialog will allow the frame to
extend beyond the margins, which might allow it to be edited on a
portrait page. You need to rotate the figure back to horizontal
whenever you need to edit it.

Custom master pages in the middle of a document are a problem because
you cannot integrate them into the automatic alternation of left/right
master pages; you cannot create "alternative" left/right master pages.

Contributor: Rob Weinberg <>


** PAG-5: How can I get text to flow around a graphic?

This is described in the FM User Manual, Chapter: Controlling the Flow
of Text, Flowing text around a graphic (Windows version: page 17-14;
Unix version: page 15-11).


** PAG-6: What is the easiest way to do "this page intentionally
left blank"?

First go to your reference page and create a reference frame called
"blank page". In this frame, put your text line, and make the frame
large enough that the text will appear low enough down on the page,
i.e. leave a couple of inches of white space in the frame above the
text. Next, create a paragraph style with tag "blank", which is set
to start at the top of a page, and has space below set to 1000 points,
so that it will always have a page to itself. In the "advanced" page
of paragraph format, set the "Frame Below" to "blank page".

Henceforth you need only add or delete one paragraph.

Contributor: Karen <>


** PAG-7: How can I control the spacing between the text and the top
of the text frame?

Make two paragraph formats:
Tag: NegBelow Tag: NegAbove
Space: Below: -99 pt Space: Above: 'x' pt
Start: Top of Column where 'x' is a negative value,
Next Tag: NegAbove such as -14 pt.
Keep With: Next Keep With: Previous

Varying the value of 'x' lets you control the space you want. Leave
NegBelow empty. Start with the text in NegAbove.

Contributor: Wim van Gijsel <>


** PAG-8: How can I make a table or anchored frame span two columns?

If the table appears at the top of the page, expand the table (or
anchored frame) past the first column. Then place a blank anchored
frame in the second column, and tell it to appear at the top of the

(You can of course make a separate master page or rework the columns
on the current page, but this will have to be re-done if the content
changes and the table moves to another page.)

Contributor: Mike Sierra <>


** PAG-9: How can I float a table to the top of the page, w/o blank space?

Basically, I'd like the table to perform like an achored frame at the
top of a page with the float mode on, i.e. I don't want big empty

In your Table Format window, set the Start option for Float, set Orphan
Rows for 99 (or some other high number), and set the Space Above to 500
(or some other high number). The Orphan Row setting will force the table
rows to stay together, the Float option will allow text to flow around it,
and the Space Above will force the table to the top of the next page.

Contributor: Kim L. Shank <>


NOTE: If you try to print a book in FM4, all chapter files must be
converted to FM4 first. Refer to question FIL-8.


** PRT-1: How can I print "DRAFT" on the background of every page?

*** A. Add "DRAFT" rotated 45 degrees to the master page (FM4)

Go to the master page. Use the text line tool in the graphics palette
to create a DRAFT line. Rotate it 45 or 60 degrees,
counter-clockwise. Size as appropriate. You may want to color it
yellow (prints as light grey on some printers).

In FM 4 you can apply a custom color. Using the CMYK model, set C, M
and Y to 0%. The percentage of K (black) that you choose is now a
percentage of gray. On an HP 4M, 5% K prints watermarks at about the
right darkness.

Make sure that the text columns for the body text have Fill set to
None, not solid white.

*** B. Insert Postscript code into your document

On the master page, create a new text rectangle. Add the following
(DRAFT) /Times-Roman /B -52 /UL .8
#include "$FMHOME/
(DRAFT) /Times-Roman /B -52 /UL .8 gray 1
#include "$FMHOME/fminit/usenglish/samples/postscript/

where $FMHOME is the pathname of your $FMHOME directory. Select the
text rectangle and choose Format Flow. Select PostScript Code and
choose OK. Go to the body pages and print.

The arguments are:
1 = string to print, in parenthesis, e.g. (PRELIMINARY)
2 = font desired: /font, e.g. /Times-Roman
3 = mode code where /W = fill width, /H = fill height, /B = fill both,
expands the characters to fill the text rectangle
4 = rotate value from -180 to +180
where positive = counterclockwise, negative = clockwise
5 = starting corner: /LL /LR /UR /UL where LL = lower left, etc.
6 = grayscale value from 0 to 1 where 0 = black, 1 = white
7 = line color
formats: [ red green blue ] or gray
[] means no outline, [1 1 1] or 1 means white
8 = line width (in points)
if negative number, prints outline on top of fill

Read the .ps files for more info.

The size of the text is determined by the size of the text rectangle
and the "mode code" argument.

For Mac users: Obtain the file from somewhere and put it in
the same folder as your document. Then follow the above instructions,
except use: #include ""

*** C. Update the FMlpr script

The "Printer Name" field on the print box is passed to the FMlpr
script. A printername of xxx:yyy calls with a printername
of yyy (xxx is translated to lowercase). This allows supporting
multiple paper trays, fax modems, draft printing etc., merely by
adding scripts into $FMHOME/.fminit2.0.

The FMlpr.draft script will print "DRAFT" in the background of every
page. Note that the FMlpr.draft file must be made executable
(chmod a+x FMlpr.draft). Access via

Contributor: Graham Williams <>
Bob Weissman <>


** PRT-2: How can I print with the "-h" switch in FM3.0/3.1?

In FM2.1, you could place "ps -h" in the Printer Name box in the Print
dialog, to get a file printed without a header (Unix or similar
systems). In FM3.0, the printer script was changed. To restore this
feature, edit $FMHOME/ (FM3) or
$FMHOME/fminit/FMlpr (FM4), and change occurrences of

in the lpr commands. This allows multiple arguments to be passed to
lpr, instead of passing the entire text to the -d or -P switch.


** PRT-3: How can I set the default printer name?

Refer to FrameMaker Reference manual, Page D-5, Resources for the
"Print dialog box". Add the following line to your .Xdefaults file:
Maker.printerName: {printername}

NOTE: This will affect any document which has not yet been stored with
a printer name. If a document was Saved with a printer name, the
saved name will be used.

The printer name will be saved with the document when:
you save after you print the document, and in the Print dialog,
the PrinterName edit box contained something even marginally different
from what is specified by your Maker.printerName:
(either because you changed it, or
because it had previously been saved that way)
e.g. "34b" vs. "34b -h"

The printer name will NOT be saved with the document when:
you save after you print the document, and in the Print dialog,
the PrinterName edit box was IDENTICAL to
what is specified by your Maker.printerName:
(either because you changed it, or
because it had previously been saved that way)

If you build templates, you must be sure there is NOT a printer name
saved in the templates, or people's defaults will not affect them.

To remove the PrinterName from a document that has one saved with one:
1. Open the document.
2. Select File:Print
3. Change the Printer Name edit box to be IDENTICAL to
Maker.printerName: in YOUR .Xdefaults
4. Click OK (print the document.)
5. Select File:Save

Contributor: Alan S. Koch <>


** PRT-4: How can I print pages in pamphlet/booklet/signature order?

Pamphlet/booklet/signature order is where two logical pages are
printed on each side of a physical sheet of paper, double-sided, and
the pages are folded and stapled in the middle. For a 2-sheet, 8 page
booklet, the page order would be: 8 & 1, 2 & 7, 6 & 3, 4 & 5.

*** A. PSUtils
PSUtils is a package of utilities to manipulate PostScript files.
Page selection and rearrangement are supported, including arrangement
into signatures for booklet printing, and page merging for
2up/4up/8up/9up printing.

psbook rearranges pages into signatures
psselect selects pages and page ranges
pstops performs general page rearrangement and selection
psnup uses pstops to merge multiple pages per sheet
epsffit fits an EPSF file to a given bounding box

PSutils is available from

It is written by Angus Duggan. The package is also available in the
news:comp.sources.misc archives, or mail a message to
with the single body line of
prog psutils

Contributors: Angus Duggan <
Robert Pincus <>
David Cortesi <>

*** B. DynoPage (Mac)
On the Macintosh, the DynoPage 2.0 software will do this. It also
prints many other formats, such as 2-up, 6-up, etc. A free demo disk
is available. Contact:
Portfolio Software Tel: +1 800-729-3966
10062 Miller Avenue Fax: +1 408-252-0440
Suite 20 Applelink: PORTFOLIO
Cupertino, CA 95014-3466 USA CompuServe: 75300,520
America Online: Portfolio

*** C. Double Up and Double Up Professional (Windows)
On Windows, the Double Up software will do this. (A Unix version is
in Beta Test.) Contact:
Legend Communications Inc. Tel: +1 800-668-7077
54 Rosedale Avenue CompuServe: 73220,2006
Brampton ON L6X 1K1, Canada


** PRT-5: Is there a way to print certain pages or ranges from a book
or file, besides the one-range-at-a-time printing via FM?

*** A. psxlate (Unix)

The "psxlate" program can extract a whole bunch of pages and
organizations from DSC compliant PostScript, which Frame is. The
program is contained in the software package called "psroff" (the
non-Adobe TranScript program). The output of psxlate is standard out,
so it can be redirected to the printer or to a file for later

The software is available at


*** B. Tempo II Plus (Macintosh)

The macro program Tempo II Plus includes a macro that allows you to
specify multiple page ranges for a single printing. You enter the list
of ranges into a window, issue the print command, and the macro feeds
the ranges one at a time to the printer, checking periodically to see
if the current range is finished. The macro works with all standard
Mac applications, not just FrameMaker.

Affinity MicroSystems Ltd. Tel: +1 800-367-6771, +1 303-442-4840

Contributor: Graeme Forbes <>


** PRT-6: How can I print double-sided on a printer that supports it?

*** A. HP LaserJet IIISi

Have FMlpr (or manually) insert this line somewhere near the top of
the temp PostScript file (probably after %%EndComments):

statusdict begin false settumble true setduplexmode end

Then to keep the DOS users happy, insert somewhere near the end:

statusdict begin false setduplexmode end

Contributor: Nate Stelton <>

There is an FMlpr.duplex script written:


** PRT-7: Can I print FM files on a 9-bin dot-matrix printer?

I got Frame for Windows to correctly print on a 9-pin dot matrix
printer at high speed (i.e. without the printer resorting to graphics
mode)! Here is what I have discovered for the Epson 9-pin driver (a
fairly recent one I downloaded from Microsoft about 6 months ago):

1) The printer setup options in either Windows or Frame must be put at
medium resolution 120x72 (not high resolution 120x144 as you might
expect, nor 60x72).

2) I then use a fixed pitch printer font that is native to the printer
driver such as Roman 12cpi. If you try to print this in most font
sizes, say a large 24 pt., Frame/Windows will substitute a scalable
font such as Courier or Times. But if you ask for exactly the right
font size, it will use the printer font. Finding the font size that
does this is easy. Just paste the same line into an empty document in
a half dozen different sizes, and watch while it prints. I use 12 pt
for Roman 12cpi, and 15 pt for Roman 10 cpi. The printer will then
kick out of graphics mode and really fly (near letter quality and
especially in draft). When doing other fonts and drawings it will
properly resort to graphics mode. Circles drawn with Frame will be
circular, so it obviously is aware of the unequal vertical and
horizontal printer dot pitch. Unfortunately, imported bit images and
clip art of circles will print as ovals, but this is somewhat

3) You MUST adjust the Frame Paragraph Format/Advanced Properties/Word
Spacing. Set minimum=100%, Maximum=100%, and optimum=100%. If you
don't do this, your characters will not be right under one and other
(as they should be in a fixed pitch font), and strangely, you may get
occasional weird vertical spacing between lines. I originally thought
that tabs not placed at character boundaries were causing the
horizontal problem, but that doesn't seem to be the case. It was the
Word Spacing options.

Notes: It may be that the above settings will work for proportional
spaced fonts like Roman PS, but I have not tried it. And, I run with
Adobe off, but I suspect that doesn't matter.

Contributor: Russ Tront <>


** PRT-8: How can I have text that is displayed, but not printed?

If you're using FM4, you can apply a color to the region of text that
you want displayed, but never printed. Then when you open the print
dialog, click on Set Up beside Separations. From there, just move the
color that you don't want printed into the Don't Print column. After
you click OK and return to the main print dialog, make sure you
deselect Print Separations.

When you print, you will simply see nothing on the page where your
"colored" text appears on screen. FM does not reflow the text so you
may see a gap.

Contributor: Brent Gossett <>


** PRT-9: How can print to a non-PostScript printer?

*** A. Use ghostscript

You can use ghostscript to convert from PostScript to output for many
popular printers, including Epson-compatibles, and HP-compatibles.

*** B. Use a fax modem

I was PC-Faxing a document directly from Frame through my internal
modem using Eclipse-FAX software. Then, I noticed that one of the
options on the Eclipse menu was "print." Voila! Eclipse apparently
performed the necessary PS to TIF conversion and took care of printing
the file beautifully on my (non-PostScript) HP DeskJet Plus.

Contributors: Michael J Hardy <>
Karen Goeller <>


** PRT-10: What kind of control do I have over documents
distributed on-line in FrameMaker binary format?

Following is a MIF file template that, after modifications, you can
import into an open, unlocked FM file using the File/Import/File
command. Currently, the file simply reaffirms FM default settings. I
hope the file is easy to understand so modifications are easy.

Nothing remarkable happens when you import the file. Your screen might
refresh, but that's about it; nevertheless, after you lock it, the
file will respond differently based on the changes you
specified. Remember, you can lock and unlock FM files by typing, in
sequence, <esc> Flk.

Caution: If you configure a file so it cannot be unlocked, be sure to
save a copy of the unmodified file. Your readers will not be able to
unlock the file but neither will you.

<MIFFile 4.00>
<DViewOnlyXRef GotoBehavior > # Default: X-refs behave like gotolink
#<DViewOnlyXRef NotActive > # Disable hypertext in X-refs
#<DViewOnlyXRef OpenBehavior > # X-ref links behave like openlink
<DViewOnlySelect Yes > # Default
#<DViewOnlySelect UserOnly > # Disable highlighting destination link
#<DViewOnlySelect No > # Disable selecting text
<DViewOnlyWinBorders Yes > # Default
#<DViewOnlyWinBorders No > # Suppress scroll bars
<DViewOnlyWinMenubar Yes > # Default
#<DViewOnlyWinMenubar No > # Suppress menu-bar display under Unix
<DViewOnlyWinPopup Yes > # Default
#<DViewOnlyWinPopup No > # Disable popup hypertext commands
<DViewOnlyWinPalette No > # Default
#<DViewOnlyWinPalette Yes > # Document behaves like a palette
#<DViewOnlyNoOp 0x313> # Disable printing
#<DViewOnlyNoOp 0x321> # Disable cutting or clearing
#<DViewOnlyNoOp 0x322> # Disable copying
#<DViewOnlyNoOp 0xF00> # Disable unlocking the document
> # end of Document

Contributor: Robert Crews <72274...@CompuServe.COM>



** FIL-1: Where can I find a filter to convert <XXXXXX> to Frame?

There is a document (FM format) that lists free, shareware, and
commercial filters that convert to or from FM. The document is posted
to this list when it is changed. The document is quite detailed, so
PLEASE try to get the document and read it before asking on the
network for a filter. There is too much information to include the
whole filter document in the FAQ. (However, I have put info on some
filters in later questions.)

The filter list document and/or some of the free and shareware filters
can be obtained at the sites listed below:

A mail server is available for most of the filters:
body contains:

The filters reside in the directory:

The filters are packed and encoded in various ways (shar, .Z, tar),
and unpacking programs are available from the mail server; see INDEX.

If you do not have access to any of these methods, request the list by
sending email to Ed van Leeuwen <> or
Phong Co <>.

Contributors: Ed van Leeuwen <>
Hansjuergen Paul <>
Barbara Burr <>


** FIL-2: How do I convert a Frame document from Mac to Sun? (etc.)

The document file is the same on every platform that Frame supports,
so there is no conversion. If you're having trouble, make sure that
you are transferring in "binary" mode, not text mode, not MacBinary
mode. If moving to the Mac, you will have to open FM and then open
the file; double-clicking the file icon won't work. If the document
does not show in the Open File dialog, press Option while choosing
File Open.

If the two platforms are running different versions (1.3/2.x/3.x),
and/or you have to convert to an older version, write the file out in
MIF format before transferring, and transfer in text mode.

Except for the special case in the previous paragraph, you do not
have to convert to MIF to transfer between platforms, unless you can
only do the transfer in text mode.


** FIL-3: Why do my imported images show up as gray rectangles?

There are a couple of reasons that this might occur.

*** A. Transfering a file from <platform-A> to <platform-B>.

Note that imported graphics may not display or print on the new
platform; consult FM Reference Manual Appendix on "Using FrameMaker on
Multiple Platforms." This occurs because the graphics are displayed
using features of the operating system (such as QuickDraw routines on
the Mac and PostScript on the NeXT) that are not available on every

If you "Copy File Into Document" when importing, and set the "Save
FrameImage with Imported Graphic" attribute (in File:Preferences),
your graphics will be displayed no matter what platform you're on.
Although you cannot always import a given graphic format into a given
platform's FrameMaker, once that graphic is imported with the
FrameImage, its contents are displayable in any platform's FrameMaker.
Again, consult the Reference Manual. Note that FrameImages are 72DPI
bitmaps, so you can display the image, but you won't necessarily like
what you get if you print it.

*** B. Not enough memory.

FM allocates memory for handling bitmaps. If it can't get enough
memory, it will display images as grey rectangles. Try increasing the
size of the X resource:

Maker.clientBitmapSize: 2000000

Contributor: Ed van Leeuwen <>
(plus another individual)


** FIL-4: How can I automatically import a graphic file whose format is

not recognized by FM, if I can how to do the conversion manually?

Modify in $FMHOME/.fminit2.0 (FM3) or $FMHOME/fminit (FM4) the files
suffixlist and MifRead. You can add any filters you want as long as
they return a file in a format directly recognised by frame (mif,
rasterfile, xwd...)

Warning: if you translate in xwd or raster, frame will give a .rf
extension to the resulting file (copied in the calling directory),
EVEN if such a file already exists.

The first time, you can't import, by copy, only by reference.

Contributor: Bertrand Decouty


** FIL-5: How do I incorporate code fragments in a Frame doc?

There is a filter called prog2mif to handle this. It is available with
the other filters (see question FIL-1).

The most difficult part is that tabs work differently in code text
files than they do in FM. In code, tab usually goes to the next tab
stop after the current column. In FM, tab goes to the next tab stop,
according to the number of tabs on the line.

Contributor: Janick Bergeron <>


** FIL-6: Are there any SGML converters for FM?

*** A. MIF/SGML Conversion System (Unix)
"MIF/SGML Conversion System" John Payne
Avalanche Development Company Tel: +1 303-449-5032
947 Walnut Street Fax: +1 303-449-3246
Boulder, CO 80302 USA Internet:

*** B. OmniMark (on all Frame platforms)
OmniMark North America: 800-565-9465
Exoterica Corporation Tel: +1 613-722-1700
1545 Carling Avenue Fax: +1 613-722-5706
Ottawa, ON K1Z 8P9 CANADA Internet:

OmniMark provides SGML support for FrameMaker and FrameBuilder through
its rich development language. OmniMark's built-in SGML parser
supports all SGML DTDs.

*** C. fm2sgml - SMGL Export Filter for FrameBuilder

The `SGML Export Filter for FrameBuilder' program (or `fb2sgml' for
short) is a DTD independent export filter for FrameBuilder. It
converts any structured FB document or selected elements thereof to
SGML instances including graphics and tables (CALS). `fb2sgml' is an
FB API client, that forms part of the FB user-interface. It can be
used to export any FrameBuilder document conforming to any EDD. For
more info, contact:

John Eadie
Computing Art Inc.
Tel: +1 416-287-6811 or +1 604-922-5104
Fax: +1 604-922-5194
Email: |

Contributor: John Eadie < |>

*** D. DynaTag - MIF-to-SGML and DynaText Conversion Solution
Electronic Book Technologies Tel: +1 401-421-9550
One Richmond Square Fax: +1 401-421-9551
Providence, RI 02901 USA Email:

DynaTag provides a point-and-click environment for converting Frame
MIF files into SGML and DynaText for online delivery. The DynaTag
set-up program-- which is used to create a "project" that defines the
MIF-to-SGML mappings for a particular class of documents--runs on
Windows. Completed projects can be run in batch mode on Windows and
the popular UNIX environments. Handles embedded Frame graphics.
Powerful, easy-to-use, and inexpensive.

Contributor: Kent Summers <>


** FIL-7: I am having problems transferring PostScript in and out of FM.

You can also get help from the folks on comp.lang.postscript and
comp.sources.postscript newsgroups. The comp.lang.postscript FAQ
is available via e-mail:
body contains: send usenet/news.answers/postscript/faq/part1-4
send usenet/news.answers/postscript/faq/part5-6
send usenet/news.answers/postscript/faq/part7-10
send usenet/news.answers/postscript/faq/part11
send usenet/news.answers/postscript/faq/part12
send usenet/news.answers/postscript/index

*** A. Can't take FM3 PostScript and import into LaTex

Comment out the following lines in the FM PostScript file, FMDOCUMENT
manualfeed {true} {papersize} ifelse
{manualpapersize} {false} ifelse
{desperatepapersize} if

Modify the size of the BoundingBox, needed especially for small FM
figures. There are various methods to compute the proper size:

1) Use bbfig, which is a set of shell script and postscript programs
that can calculate the datum for BoundingBox. One version that works
is the copy modified by (Roque Donizete
de Oliveira) at ( in the file
pub/tmp/bbbig.tar.Z. It also comes with a few packages, eg. dvips,
epsfig, etc. The version on NEXTSTEP can even allow mousing to define
the BoundingBox and update the BoundingBox statement in the postscript
program. This feature may also exist in some variants of bbfig.

2) Use ghostview read the coordinates of the lower left conner and
upper right conner, by using mouse to point.

3) Use ps2epsi or pstoepsi.

4) Measure with a ruler in inch. The keys are that the lower left
conner is not necessarily the lower left extreme of the page, whose
coordinate is (0,0) and that the coordinates are in points (pt.) which
is 1/72 inch, so 1 inch = 72 pt. The BoundingBox is the portion on the
page that you want to insert.

%%BoundingBox: (atend)
%%BoundingBox: <x1> <y1> <x2> <y2>
where <x1> <y1> <x2> <y2> are the values calculated. The old
"%%BoundingBox:..."-line at the end of the PS-file can be deleted.

Calculating the bounding box with ps2epsi did not work for
FM3-generated PS-files, but bbfig does the job.

There is a Unix shell script contributed by Peter Nuth that does a lot
of the edits automatically.

Contributors: Jan van der Steen <jansteen@cwi.n>
Ingolf Markhof <>
Amir Samad <>
Peter R. Nuth <>
Albert Pang <alb...@brahms.INSL.McGill.CA>
Sven Thelemann <>
Yu Shen <>

*** B. Can't take FM4 PostScript and import into LaTex

Similar to above for FM3, but different items need to be editted.

There is a Unix shell script contributed by Peter Nuth that does
the edits automatically.

Contributors: Eric A. Brewer
Peter R. Nuth <>

*** C. Can't view FM PostScript in Ghostview.

Change the first line of the FM PS file from


*** D. Converting PS to EPSI or EPSF.

You can use "ps2epsi", which comes with and depends on Ghostscript.
Ghostscript is part of the GNU package; consult the GNU license.

Ghostscript for Unix is available via:

Ghostscript for DOS/Windows is available via:

Ghostscript for the Mac is available via:

eps-converter can translate ps files into Illustrator 3.2 eps files:

Some guidelines about EPSI files from Frame Tech Support:

Here's the three possible EPS headers that FM 3.0 recognizes:
(All PS code shown indented, so that it won't be interpreted when
the FAQ is printed.)
%!PS-Adobe-2.0 EPSF-1.2
%!PS-Adobe-2.0 EPSF-2.0
%!PS-Adobe-3.0 EPSF-3.0
FM does a character-by-character match, so there must be no typos.

- File must have valid bounding box at head of file:
%%BoundingBox: x y xx yy
- EPSI preview must start with:
%%BeginPreview: n m p q
- EPSI preview must end with:

Also: the EPSI file must be a UNIX, not DOS file. (Each line ends in
<cr>, not <cr><lf> ). So if you produce an EPSI file under unix, copy
back to your PC as a binary file, just as you would do for Frame docs.

Note that the EPSI preview must end with %%EndImage for MSwin Frame to
view it correctly. The GhostScript ps2epsi on Unix produces good

Peter Nuth had to write a simple filter to convert epsi files produced
by MSwindows GSVIEW to Unix format and add the EndImage line.

Contributors: Nelson Loyola <>
Peter Nuth <>
Graeme Forbes <>

*** E. Places with FM & PS materials

The PostScript corner at the University of Zurich contains some
material on FM, Display PostScript, Portable Document Format, and CERN

Contributor: Peter Vollenweider <>


** FIL-8: How can I convert a group of files between FM binary and MIF?

The following c-shell script converts all files named *.framemif (MIF
format) to *.doc (FM binary format). If your files don't have the
extension ".framemif", you can change "framemif" below to whatever
extension your files use. It can be modified to do various fmbatch
operations on multiple files.

Contributor: Mike Kirsch <>


** FIL-9: How do I import ISO Latin1 (ISO-8859.1) text into FM?

*** A. Use .Xdefaults

Add the following line in $HOME/.Xdefauts:
Maker.textCharacterEncoding: ISOLatin1

Altough file $FMHOME/.fminit2.0/xresources/Maker says

! Use this resource if you want FrameMaker to save in 8-bit
! ISO-Latin text rather than in 7-bit ASCII text.
!Maker.textCharacterEncoding: ISOLatin1

this works both for importing and saving as plain text.

*** B. Use file suffix and MifRead

Add a .is1 suffix to all ISO Latin1 encoded files. This is
implemented by file $FMHOME/.fminit2.0/MifRead:

case $1 in
*.is1) $5/is1tomif <$1 >$2;;

and files $FMHOME/bin/is1tomif and $FMHOME/bin/bin.<platform>/is1tomif.

The file $FMHOME/.fminit2.0/suffixlist must contain a line with <is1>
if you want MifRead to be called.

*** C. Use preferences

Someone mentioned the file $FMHOME/.fminit2.0/preferences; there is no
such file in my installation but perhaps others have it; this is why
it's worth mentioning anyway.

*** D. Other tips and resources

The file $FMHOME/ contains a conversion table
between ISO Latin1 and FrameMaker internal encoding; it can be used by
your conversion programs.

Note that a .mif file must be completely in ascii or in FrameMaker
internal character encoding; you cannot put ISO Latin1 text in it,
even in a <String `...'> statement and with the X resource previously
mentionned and expect an automatic conversion. This is why you will
need to make the conversion yourself if you have a program that
generates .mif files derived from some text input, and that is not
aware of the problem.

There is a file that can help you with all of your tests. It contains
a line for every character with the high bit on; the character itself
is enclosed in [] and a description follows. All you have to do is
look at what is inside the [] after the one or more steps of
manipulation of this file by programs.

Available at

Contributor: Charles Levert <>


** FIL-10: How do I screendump a window with a menu?

Refer to:

Contributors: Wayne T. Watson <>
Brad Fischer


** FIL-11: How do I convert MATLAB output to FM?

Refer to:


** FIL-12: How do I convert FM to HTML?

CERN keeps a list of HTML generating tools; see it for the latest info:

Contributor: Axel Boldt <>

*** A. www_and_frame

Designed to work with MifRead and MifWrite, uses perl, sgmls, and
xlisp. Available now from:
and in the future from:


*** B. WebMaker 1.4 (free)

CERN-developed version (1.4) available at:

The freeware version of CERN WebMaker will be available at least until
the release of WebMaker 2.0 (see below). Support of the current CERN
WebMaker version will be progressively transferred to Harlequin prior
to the release of version 2.0.

There will be a beta release of WebLinker, a WWW cross-reference
management tool, by the end of March 95.

A new version, 1.5, of CERN WebMaker will be released at this time to
enable WebMaker users to incorporate the WebLinker solution into their
WWW information management strategy. A selected list of bugs will be
fixed for this release. This will be the last CERN release of
WebMaker. Contact:

*** C. WebMaker 2.0 (commercial)

Harlequin Ltd., an international software house with headquarters in
Cambridge, UK, will develop and market an industrial version of CERN

WebMaker 2.0, to be released in September 95, will include new
functionality and will be supported on UNIX, MS Windows and Apple
Macintosh platforms, accompanied with a native GUI for each platform.

Contact: or
Tel: Tel: +44 (0)1223 873800 Fax: +44 (0)1223 872519
Offices in UK, USA, and Australia.

*** D. fm2html


*** E. miftran

A MIF to HTML converter written in C.


*** F. Quadralay WebWorks Publisher & HTML Lite

FM5: WebWorks HTML Lite has been created especially for Frame
Technology as a useful, basic functionality tool to convert FM
documents into the Web's native HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
format. HTML Lite features an easy to use graphical user interface
within FM to allow one step conversion of FM documents. Lite converts
cross references, hypertext links, and generated lists (TOC, Index,
etc) with corresponding URLs (HTML Hyperlinks). It enables users to
map paragraph and character styles to HTML tags and can generate
references to GIF images imported by reference.

Quadralay's WebWorks Publisher is a more advanced commercial Internet
publishing product that enables users to design and maintain
production-quality Web spaces. Publisher combines the ease-of-use of
WebWorks' HTML Lite with a more powerful and complete set of
production-level features that utilizes the full richness of FM and
HTML. It gives users the ability to automatically convert graphics,
tables, and equations; design and save complex style mappings for
repeated use; and convert entire books and groups of files with a
single operation.

Ideal for designing and maintaining commercial Web spaces, WebWorks
Publisher builds on the basic text and hyperlink conversion features
of HTML Lite. Additional features of WebWorks Publisher include
support for Frame variables; configurable image translation such as
scaling, dpi, and transparency; and customized style set
designing. The style designer enables users to create custom HTML
tags, split documents to facilitate efficient network transfers and
even provides a macro language for maintaining corporate material
(logos, styles, etc.)

Quadralay Tel: +1 512-305-0240
3925 West Braker Lane, Suite 337 Fax: +1 512-305-0248
Austin, TX USA 78759-5321
Email: WWW:


** FIL-13: How do I convert MS Excel charts to FM?

More generally "How to produce EPSI files from MSWindows for inclusion
in Frame?"

The best way I found was to convert all Excel charts to EPSI files
(Encapsulated Postscript with device independant bitmaps). I imported
these files by reference (not by copy). This cuts down on the size of
the Frame docs and avoids some problems with Frame losing graphics
copied into the doc. You can still view and resize the graphics on
screen under Unix and MSwindows.

To produce an EPSI file from Excel:

To print an EPS file from any MSwin application, you must have a
PostScript printer driver loaded as one of your printers. Get the
latest version (3.55 or greater) from Microsoft or Simtel archives.
Select this driver under the control panel, and under Options, select
"Encapsulated Postscript" and leave the file field blank. Don't make
the mistake of just connecting the PS driver to a FILE port, and then
assuming that this will produce a good EPS file.

Then go back to Excel and set up your page for your chart. I printed
charts alone, with no headers and footers, sized to fit about 6" wide.
You don't want clutter at the top & bottom of the page. When you
print, it will prompt you for the name of the file.

This "EPS" file has a lousy bounding box that includes the entire
page. Now if you want to get a real EPS or EPSI file with good
bounding boxes, you must run it through "ps2epsi", which is part of
the Ghostscript for Unix distribution. There's also a Ghostscript and
GSview for MsWindows that produces EPSI files, but I have occasionally
had problems then including those EPSI files into Frame documents. If
you only care about EPS, and not EPSI with previews, then MSwin GSview
is fine.

Refer to question FIL-7, D, for details on PS to EPSI conversion and

Contributor: Peter Nuth <>


** FIL-14: How do I get a better FM-to-Text conversion?

*** A. MifMucker

The MifMucker can do this and many other things. Available at:

It is a free perl application that can manipulate FM docs in numerous
ways, including generating formatted ASCII (better than FM's ASCII
dump), HTML, searching across any number of docs for regular
expressions and reporting where things occured, generting MIF, and so
on. Actually, there are about 8 filters for it currently, with more
planned someday. It is designed to be completely modular. Additional
filters that can convert between formats or modify the contents of the
document can be added with no changes to the engine itself.

You could conceivably write a filter to do just about anything to a FM
doc, including sorting paragraphs which someone else was asking for.

As an example, using a single MifMucker command (multiple filters) we
can take V3.1 docs, convert them to V4.0 docs, apply a given template,
move hanging anchored frames that used to be headings into the text
flow to take advantage of V4.0's side-head feature, move paragraphs
around to conform to a new style (frame titles below rather than above
and so on) and upload back to binary. Our writers need not know MIF
was ever involved.

I wrote the MifMucker initially over a year ago, and had planned to
make a big announcement about it to this newsgroup as well as others.
Due to time constraints I never finished the documentation (there is
some) and so much for my big announcement. The HTML filter is what I
figured most people would be interested in, but the ASCII filter is
quite sophisticated. It recreates an exact representation of your
document (including line breaks, so hey if you're using a small font
on a big page then the output will be greater than 80 chars).

Anyway, it has its limitations, but works well for doing the above
things. It is currently V1.0.1. You can ask me about how to write
additional MifMucker filters to do particular things across thousands
of FM docs, but PLEASE don't ask me to write the filters. (I'm behind
schedule as it is :-)

Contributor: Ken Harward <>

*** B. FM2A

Frak Stearns Associates produces FM2A (FrameMaker to Ascii), a filter
for generating fully formatted Ascii text from an FM doc, any version.
Ascii text generation includes tables that look like tables, database
export mode (for preparing FM tables for import to a spreadsheet or
database). For a datasheet, send request to address below.

Contact: Frank Stearns Associates Toll free in USA: 800-567-6421
17201 SE 38th Circle Outside USA: 360-892-3970
Camas, WA 98607 (USA) Fax: 360-253-1498


** FIL-15: How do I merge several PS files into a single PS file?

Especially: How do I merge several PostScript files from a book into a
single PostScript file when printing on a Mac?

When printing a FM book on the Macintosh, the output consists of one
Postscript file for each file of the book. If the whole book, however,
shall be printed in pamphlet/booklet/signature order, a single
PostScript file (with a single header and consistent font definitions)
is necessary for a correct post-processing with the "PSUtils"-tools
psbook and pstops.

psconcat is a UNIX shell script that unifies the font definitions of
several Mac PostScript files refering to a generic header and merges
the generic header and the bodies of the PS files into a single file.

psconcat is written by Gerald Spiegel <> and
available from:

Contributor: Gerald Spiegel <>



See also the "Frame Connections" catalog from Frame. Over 600 pages
of third-party products, consultants, service bureaus, and training
centers. Call Frame to request a copy.

Contributor: Bob Morrisette <>


** SGB-1: Are there any grammar checkers for FM?

*** A. Grammatik 5.0 (Windows, Mac)
WordPerfect Corporation Cindy, extension 22588
Mail Stop Q-300, Information Services Tel: +1 (800) 451-5151
1555 N. Technology Way Fax: +1 (801) 222-5077
Orem, UT 84057-2399 USA $99.00

Contributor: Lester Bautista <>


** SGB-2: Do you know what happens if the spell checker finds "Interleaf"

(a competitor to FrameMaker)?

Yes, we do, but just in case, it gets posted every 3-4 months.


** SGB-3: How can I do bibliographies in FrameMaker?

*** A. fmbib

"fmbib" takes a Frame document (.mif format) as its input, with
"Bibliography" markers embedded where the references occur. The marker
text is that of a key word indexed into a bibliography database file,
such as Scribe's ".bib" files. In fact, the program is compatible
with Scribe bibliography files. The user can also specify on the
command line one of several reference and bibliography styles. fmbib
will then generate a new FM .mif file which is the actual
bibliography. The original document is modified to contain
cross-references to this new document. These references appear as
visible text when the user updates cross-references in the original
document. The program also aids in creating new bibliography database

The sources have been built and tested under CMU's BSD4.3-compliant
MACH OS, for Sun3, Sun4, Pmax, Vax, and IBM-RT workstations. It
should be portable to any Unix box.

Available at

Contributor: Craig Marcus

*** B. BibFrame (Tommy Persson's version)

BibFrame makes it possible to deal with references in FrameMaker in a
general way. You do not have to enter your reference list by hand
every time you write a document. Instead, the reference list is
automatically generated from a data base with references. This ensure
that your reference entries are in the right format. You do not have
to bother with how things should be emphasized, abbreviated and so on.

You have a database with references. The format of the references is
the same format that is used by BibTeX. That means that people using
LaTeX and FrameMaker can use the same data base.

Currently it is possible to use the bibliography styles ``plain'',
``alpha'' and ``mapalike''.

It ought to work on most Unix machines. This program require BibTeX
to be present.

Available by

Contributor: Tommy Persson <>

*** C. BibFrame (Bryan Biegel's version)

Another version of BibFrame is maintained by Bryan Biegel (BB).

This BibFrame version (BB's) includes all of the features of Tommy
Persson's (TP's) version described above, as well as extensive
documentation for installation and use. It also has been updated to
work with FrameMaker 4. As with TP's BibFrame, BB's version is
intended for use on Unix machines, and requires both BibTeX and perl
to be present (both of which can be down-loaded via anonymous ftp).
Many bugs and robustness issues have been addressed in BB's version.
Suggestions for further improvement are welcomed by the maintainer.

BB's version includes the following bibliography styles: abbrv, alpha,
draft, longkey, mapalike, plain, unsrt, quote, and short-cite
mapalike. BB's version can handle "book" (multi-file) documents.

Available at
(gzipped tar file of the whole package), maintained by Ethan Miller.

Contributor: Bryan Biegel <>
Ethan L. Miller <>

*** D. EndNote Plus

Mac Endnote 1.6 ($149), Mac EndNote Plus 1.3 ($249)
Niles & Associates, Inc. Internet:
2000 Hearst Ave. Suite 20 CompuServe: 71172,653
Berkeley, CA 94709 USA AOL: NilesAssoc
Tel: +1 510-649-8176 AppleLink: Niles.Assoc
Fax: +1 510-649-8179

From the vendor:

EndNote stores the bibliographic references in a database, so they can
be resorted and reformatted in various different ways. Users copy a
temporary citation into their Frame paper by choosing one or more
references and copying onto the clipboard. When they paste into the
paper, it's in a temporary citation format like this [Billosky, 1989

To format, a user must save their files as MIF, and then open and scan
them in the EndNote program. This searches the files for brackets and
matches them to the EndNote reference database. The user then chooses
a bibliographic style (we supply several, including APA, Chicago,
Nature and Vancouver), and Formats the paper. EndNote will make
copies of each file, change the temporary citations to author-year or
numeric format, and build a bibliography of the cited references at
the end of the last file.

From Todd R. Johnson <>:

Although EndNote Plus is quite versatile and easy to use, it is
extremely slow at processing MIF files. For example, a 14 page
document with a few figures took several minutes to process. During
this time EndNote takes over your Mac so that you can't even switch to
another application.

From: Graeme Forbes <>

Niles & Associates has discontinued EndNote and provided Endnote users
with an upgrade path to EndNote Plus 2.0. EndNote Plus 2 processes MIF
files at (my subjective impression) 4 to 5 times the speed of earlier
versions of EndNote.


** SGB-4: Can FM produce automatically numbered endnotes?

*** A. Producing endnotes from scratch

Not directly. However, there is a work-around using cross-references.

- Create an autonumbered paragraph type called "Endnote," with a
number format of "E:[<n+>] "

- Putting each note text in a paragraph of this type, at the end of
the document.

- Create a character style called "Endnote" which reduces the point
size and enables the superscript attribute. This will be used for
reference to the note in the main text.

- Create a cross-reference format called "Endnote" with a format of
<Endnote>[<$paranumonly>]<Default P Font>

- In the body of the document, add a cross-reference to the Endnote
paragraph that lists the reference.

Unfortunately, if you rearrange the text, the notes will not
automatically be re-arranged in the back of the document. When you
are ready to produce the document, go to the beginning, use Edit
Search/Find to search for "Cross-Reference of Format: Endnote". If
you find an Endnote that is out of order, re-arrange the note text in
the back of the document.

Contributor: David Cortesi <>

*** B. Converting footnotes to endnotes

In FM4 (this should also work with earlier versions), with the file in
which you want to make the conversion to the front, choose
Generate/Book...-> List of Paragraphs and generate a list of your
footnotes. Copy this list and paste it at the end of your original
file. Then create the autonumbered paragraph type "Endnote" as
described in SGB-4:A above and apply this paragraph format to all your
endnotes (if you have multi-paragraph notes you will have to pass
through your list of endnotes at this point and apply some other
paragraph format to all but the first paragraph of each such note).

Next, create a character style and x-ref format as described in
SGB-4:A. Then go to the top of your document, choose Find/Change and
select Footnote from the menu for the Find window. Clicking Find
highlights the foonote reference number 1 in your text as well as the
number and text of this footnote aty the bottom of the page. Choose
Special->Cross-Reference, make sure the Endnote paragraph format is
highlighted in the source type list and the Endnote cross-reference
format is chosen in the Format box. Click the first entry in the
Reference Source list and then click Replace. This removes footnote 1
from the bottom of the page and replaces the reference number in the
text with a (visually indistinguishable) reference number that refers
to the first paragraph in your list of endnotes.

The remaining footnotes in your file are renumbered from 1, so you may
continue through your paper repeating the above steps, working through
the Reference Source list, until all footnotes have become endnotes.

After you've done this it's a good idea to search through your
document for "Cross Reference of Format:" to make sure you've got all
the notes numbered and in the correct sequence. If you later move text
about you may well disrupt the order of the endnote reference numbers
in your text.

Contributor: Graeme Forbes <>


** SGB-5: Are there any plotting/charting packages that work with FM?

*** A. GNUPlot

Gnuplot version 3.4 can output graphs in MIF format, so that you can
include them in Frame documents. This is superior to using EPS since
you can see and edit the imported graphic.

Gnuplot is excellent for plotting mathmatical functions. I prefer
xvgr/xmgr for plotting data files.

For more details, see the announcement in
Available by

Contributor: Phil Endecott <>

*** B. TempleGraph

TempleGraph generates the output in MIF format. Temple Graph was
originally created at Temple University, but it is licensed to and
sold by:

Mihalisin Associates, Inc. Tel: +1 215-646-3814
600 Honey Run Rd.
Ambler, PA 19002 USA

Contributor: Bob Nehls <>

*** C. Robochart

Robochart is a generic flow diagram editor. You can create diagrams
using hundreds of built-in or user-defined objects, connect them with
several types of "rubber-band" flow lines, and add or edit label text
for both objects and flows. You can create multilevel hierarchical
diagrams, use multiple fonts and colors, and output in PostScript,
EPSF, MIF, HPGL, or ASCII formats.

Robochart is available for OpenWindows and Motif under Solaris 1.x
and 2.x. Floating licenses are $850/first, $395/additional. An
evaluation copy (the full program and HTML manual, with file save
disabled) is available free via Internet, or by mail for $25 (with
printed manual, fee credited against first license).

Digital Insight Tel: +1 805-583-3627
PO Box 533 Fax: +1 805-583-3809
Simi Valley, CA 93062-0533 USA Internet:

*** D. xvgr/xmgr

xvgr (Sun View) and xmgr (Motif) can be obtained via

xvgr can read single (X-Y), multiple (X-Y1,Y2,Y3) and error-bar
(X-Y-DY) data in a pretty flexible format. The graph types include
line, scattered plots, and bar charts among others. The user has
complete control over fonts, legend locations, tick-marks, size of
graph, output type, and zillions of other things. xvgr can produce
MIF output, so you have full editing capability over the graph in FM.

Contributor: Vallury Prabhakar <>

*** E. Xmgf

Xmgf is an Interactive tool for displaying image feature files in gf
and other common CAD formats. Xmgf has a viewing window and controls
the orientation and focal point of a viewing camera. Formats include
NFF, OBJ, OFF, RAY, SLA, DXF, IGRIP, MINICAD. Xmgf auto-scales
images, can have the viewing parameters stored in a file produce Xfig
and Postscript and MIF output as well as RAYSHADE data files and PGM,
PBM and XBM SunRaster and GIF image outputs. Xmgf can produce 3D
objects in MIF format including Block, Sphere, Cones, Cylinders, etc.
that are drawn shaded, wireframe, color, hidden line, and can be fully
edited in FM.

Xmgf is Shareware; contributions are welcome! Xmgf was written by
Paul Hoad.

Available at:

Contributor: Paul Hoad <>

*** F. Visual Thought

Visual Thought is a multipurpose UNIX diagramming & flowcharting tool,
featuring editable drag-and-drop palettes, nearly 100 shapes,
rubberbanding connections, complete text handling and graphical
editing, colors and fonts limited only by the system, arbitary pan and
zoom, full page layout capabilities, 100-level undo, "live" editing,
image import, sound recording, and more. Output formats include MIF,
EPSF, EPSI, TIFF, JPEG, GIF, and others.

Users can create software design diagrams, flowcharts, plus dataflow,
network, organizational, and circuit/logic diagrams for presentation
and documentation graphics.

Confluent offers a free evaluation CD-ROM.

Confluent, Inc. Tel: +1 800-780-2838
132 Encline Court Tel: +1 415-586-8700
San Francisco, CA 94127 Fax: +1 415-586-8838
Email: WWW:

Contributor: William Tseng <>


** SGB-6: Is there a thesaurus that works with FM?

FM4 includes a thesaurus program; choose Edit->Thesaurus. For folks
using FM3, or for general references, here are some sources.

*** A. Concise Oxford Dictionary/Oxford Thesaurus on CDROM

I'm using - among others - the `Concise Oxford Dictionary/Oxford
Thesaurus' (Electronic Book version, [EBROM = 8cm CDROM]) on
Suns/Nexts. The CD costs ~ 100 DM in Germany (~ 60 US$). These EBROM
CDs are intended for the various Electronic Book Player units (`Data
Discman'), but can also be used under Unix using a retrieval software
(we're selling such a retieval software, please contact
for more information).

Contributor: Juergen Keil <>

*** B. 1911 Roget's Thesaurus

A seachable Roget's is available to those with forms-based Web browsers:

Thanks to Project Gutenberg, a copy of the 1911 Roget's Thesaurus has
been made available at or, if you must,

Please ftp the file during off-hours -- at times OTHER THAN 10:00 AM
to 6:00 PM Central Standard Time (Daylight time in summer).

You only need one of these, as is roget13a.txt in a .ZIP
file. Transfer the .zip file if possible, since it is half the size of
the text file.

Contributor: Darryl Okahata <>
Graeme Forbes <>


** SGB-7: How to use configuration management tools with FM?

Note that was we need to document revision control, which is similar
to but not identical to source code control.

*** A. SCCS on binary (.fm, .doc)

Just use SCCS in binary mode. Several people commented that the -b
option would be required, some say it is used automatically. However,
the s_dot files grow very quickly, even for very small changes.

*** B. RCS on binary (.fm, .doc)

May need to compile it to use GNU diff.


In order to support binary files, requires RCS version 5 or later,
compiled to use a diff that supports binary files, e.g. GNU diff.

If your FM document contains any RCS keywords, e.g. $Header$, RCS will
expand these inside the document, making the file unreadable to FM.
To prevent this, use the -ko flag to co (or rcs).

Contributor: Simon Pickup <>

*** C. Convert to MIF

The initial files are large, but do not grow as fast a binary. Since
it is a text file, the standard SCCS variables can be used. Major
disadvantage is the fiddly save/open procedure. This can be fixed
with a shell around appropriate SCCS functions, using fmbatch. You
can also modify the MifWrite filter to so to some processing when
saved as MIF.

*** D. Mezzanine

Mezzanine is from a company called Saros. They call it "middleware",
and it is a document management system, independent of any
documentation package.

It also enables a system administrator to determine which fields of
information should be completed to identify a document, so that
searches can then be made using these fields (e.g. project name,
contract number, contractor, etc.).

Saros Corporation, USA
Tel: +1 206-646-1066
Fax: +1 206-462-0879

Saros Europe HQ, Naarden, the Netherlands
Tel: +31-2159-42050
Fax: +31-2159-46452

*** E. CasewWare/CM

CaseWare/CM is a set of tools used for configuration management and
version control. One of the tool modules manages Frame documents,
including (from the data sheet):

Version control of Frame Documents
Version control of Frame Books
Automatic Dependency Management
Full Document Configuration Management

Support for FrameMaker Objects
Frame Documents
Frame Books
Frame Live Links
Frame Image Files

CaseWare, Inc. Tel: +1 714-453-2200
108 Pacifica, Irvine, CA 92718 USA

*** E. Other Possible Products/Vendors

BOSS Document Manager DocuServer
C-Quest Frame File
Nova Manage ODMS
Topic Papersight

See the Frame Connection catalog for more information. Call Frame and
request this catalog if you do not have it.

Contributors: John Townsend <>
Karen Hutchins <>
Reid Simpson <sim...@Xylogics.COM>
Aaron L. Hoffmeyer <>


** SGB-8: Are there any "spreadsheet" tools for FM tables?

Highland Digital is currently shipping TablePro for SunOS, Solaris,
and HPUX. TablePro requires FrameMaker 4.0 or greater.

TablePro adds spreadsheet power to your FrameMaker tables. It works
on any table in any Frame document and it is used like a regular
spreadsheet. TablePro is accessed through additional menu options
that appear on the regular FrameMaker Table pull-down menu.

TablePro allows you to:

- Enter values and formulas directly into cells in a regular Frame
table. No need for extra documents or programs.

- Perform calculations on cells using both formulas and values.
The results of the formula appear in the same cell as the
formula itself. The results are also available for use by
other formulas.

- Sort selected rows or columns in a table

- Hide, display or delete formulas.

- Automatically change formulas to account for changes made by
adding, deleting, copying or sorting.

Call or email for more information or an evaluation version.

Contact: Sabrina Rouleau, +1 415-493-8550 x212,



See question FIL-2 for conversion between FM on various platforms.


** PLT-1: Various FM on X Window questions

*** A. Displaying White Text on Black Background

For FM3 on X, set up the following in your .Xdefaults file:
Maker.colorDocs: False
Maker*docBackground: black
Maker*winRect.foreground: white

For FM4 on X, set up the following in your .Xdefaults file:
Maker*Black: White
Maker*White: Black
The Black and White words have to be exactly as typed (i.e., no
Maker*Black: LightGrey). You DON'T need Maker*colorDocs: FALSE.

To change colors of the menus, dialogs, borders, etc., try:
Maker*foreground: FG
Maker*background: BG
Maker*winRect.foreground: FG
Maker*winRect.background: TC
where FG, BG & TC are your favourite fore/back/through colours.

*** B. Other X Resources

Look in the various files in $FMHOME/.fminit2.0/xresources .

*** C. How come I can't type in any dialogs?

Try setting the following attributes:
Maker*focusOnMouse: True
OpenWindows.FocusLenience: True
Maker.olwmClickType: False
OpenWindows.SetInput: followmouse

Also, consult the Release Notes, particularly the section about
configuring FM for different window managers.

*** D. How can I prevent color flashing between applications?

This has to do with the various X applications managing the colormap.
Change the following X resources to True or False as appropriate to
modify how FM deals with the colormap.

noPrivateMap means "I dislike colormap flashing soooo much, that I
would rather have you exit than even think of using a private color

forcePrivateMap means "Don't even try to use the default colormap;
create and use a private colormap without a second thought..."

The forecePrivateMap resource was added in release 4.0.3 and is
therefore not present in the xm4.0.1.P1m version.

The private colormap is loaded such that the colorcells that Frame
Maker wants are allocated at the bottom, and any cells left over
are filled in with colors from the default. This scheme will reduce
colormap flashing if other apps are using colors near the top of the
map (the ones shared between the two maps). If your system has
multiple hardware colormaps, colormap flashing may never happen at

Contributor: Steven Cox <>


** PLT-2: How do I open documents from the command line using an already
running FrameMaker (and thus only a single license)?

For Versions prior to Version 4:

In the directory $FMHOME/source/openmaker/clclient the README contains
information on how to build and use the clclient (Command Line Client)
program. This program allows you to open documents from the command
line using an already running FrameMaker. This is useful for desktop
tools like Sun's FileManager which associate an application to be run
with a document, allowing FrameMaker to be running just once, and
communicating with this running FrameMaker to open further documents.

For Version 4:

Use $FMHOME/bin/fmclient from the command line to initiate FrameMaker
or to use an already running FrameMaker. For example:
fmclient -f paper.doc
Fmclient appears to be the same as the older clclient, but is now part
of the distribution. Note that you may need to tell fmclient which
version of FrameMaker to run: for example, maker or imaker. The
default is maker. Use the environment variable FM_PROGNAME to change
this (for example, "setenv FM_PROGNAME imaker").

Contributor: Graham Williams <>


** PLT-3: Where can I find keyboard shortcuts for [platform]?

UNIX: Refer to (FM3) $FMHOME/.fminit2.0/kbmaps/README.kbmap for lots
of info on keyboard mapping, and pointer to the various files used for
mapping. (NeXT: /LocalAppls/

UNIX: Print out (FM3) $FMHOME/ or (FM4)

MAC: There is a Quick Reference sheet for the Macintosh available from
Frame Technologies. It was circulated recently in MIF format.


** PLT-4: How can I maximize battery life for FM on portables?

*** A. Mac PowerBooks

I had similar battery problems with my powerbook. Here is how I solved
it. First, create a RAM disk and install FM on it (put only those
items which FM needs to launch on the RAM disk). Install a minimum
operating system on the RAM disk and configure the computer to boot
from the RAM disk. With this configuration FM will not need to keep
accessing the hard drive. On a Macintosh, I find I need 6mb for the
RAM disk (2.3 for system, 2.5 for FM and remainder for document). The
system takes 1.5 mb in addition to the RAM disk and FM needs 2mb to
run. This implies you need at least 10mb of RAM- I have 12-for this
to work. Not the best solution, but its the only one I've found that
doesn't make me start cussing at my computer and FM.

Contributor: John R. O'Hair <>


** PLT-5: Various FM-Windows Questions

*** A: Can FM-Win run under Win-OS/2 3.0?

From the OS/2 FAQ:

To run Framemaker for Windows under Win-OS/2 3.0, patch the file
MAKER.EXE (using PATCH or DEBUG). Around offset $1DDD1C ($1E0AFE for
Framemaker 3.01) in the file you should see a series of hexadecimal
bytes as follows: 9A FF FF 00 00 A8 20 75 17. Change the second to
last byte from $75 to $EB.

Contributor: Ren Maddox <>

*** B: Characters are not kerning correctly.

When WINFAX is the selected printer driver, the TT font spacing goes
all to hell. Type 1 fonts, though, work OK. Selecting a "real"
printer fixes the problem, since FRAME claims the problem is with
WINFAX not doing Windows GDI right, or some such.

FM-Windows provides WYSIWYG by displaying on screen based on the
current print capability.

Contributors: Gary Newman <>
Kyle Hor <>

*** C: Displaying White Text on Black Background

Short answer: It cannot be done.

FM-Windows follows the Microsoft Windows Multi-document Interface
(MDI) specification. MDI gives applications the ability to open
multiple documents at one time. This is very important for FrameMaker,
especially when working with multiple documents contained in a book

Following the MDI specification, there is no way to change the color of
an application's document window without actually making that document
black with white fonts. Doing so would cause the document to print
black with white fonts also.

The only 2 applications that can display documents with background
colors other than white are Program Manager (a Microsoft application
that cannot print), and Microsoft Word (a Microsoft application that
*looks* like it uses MDI, but does not).

Contributor: Naji Mouawad <>


** PLT-6: FrameMaker does not display black text on an external
color monitor connected to a Macintosh PowerBook.

I recently discovered a strange problem when a color external monitor
is plugged into my Macintosh PowerBook 180 and video mirroring is
enabled (i.e. the two screens are supposed to display the same thing).
Text which displays perfectly on the PowerBook screen (a monochrome
display) is mostly absent on the color external monitor -- there are
just white spaces where the text should have been. This problem does
not occur if the text is displayed in any color other than black. The
same problem even occurs with the text in the pull-down menus. I
observed the problem using FM4; I do not know if it applies to earlier

Frame provided a simple work-around to the problem. You just have to
go the the Preferences menu (under the File heading on the menu bar),
and in that menu you must turn off the `Fast Text Cache' option. I
was promised that the bug would be fixed in the next major release of

Contributor: R. Nigel Horspool <>


** PLT-7: What can be done to make FM run faster on Macintoshes?

- Turn off the Fast Text Cache.

- Don't display the Paragraph and Character Designers when they are
not being used.

- Allocate more memory. Don't use virtual memory to do this; Frame
will wear out your hard drive with paging and you'll grow old watching
it pull down menus.

- If you must use Virtual Memory, keep background activity on your Mac
to a minimum. Applications that wake up periodically (like e-mail or
alarm programs) will cause Frame to be paged out and back in.

- Reduce inits.

- Dismiss the modeless dialog boxes (any dialog boxes in which you do
not have to choose OK or Cancel).

- Keep tables simple. Numerous tables are OK, and 1- or 2-page tables
are also OK. Avoid monsters (probably >5 pages); avoid fancy features
like rotated text.

- Keep running headers and footers simple. Place your page in the
window so they aren't displayed, and scrolling will be much faster.
The reason seems to be that every time a running header is
*displayed*, Frame must search backwards to find its contents.

- Don't generate TOCs or Indexes unneccesarily. When you must, plan it
for the end of a session and quit and restart Frame afterwards. Once
Frame's lost its memory to tables and generated docs, it never seems
to find it again.

Contributors: Karen Rickman, Frame Tech Support
Mike Dustan <>
Blair MacIntyre <>




** TMP-1: Where can I get the FUN tape?

The FUN tape contains some sample clip art and various useful programs
and filters. It is available by and .

Or, send a blank tape (size/format?) to:
Frame Technology, Attn: FUN Tape, using address at top of FAQ.


** TMP-2: Where can I get a template for technical papers?

There are two templates for IEEE format papers:, ieee2.mif,

Contributor: Alan D. Cabrera <>


** TMP-3: Where can I get DTD template for FrameBuilder?

FrameBuilder versions of the ISO 12083 SGML DTDs for articles and
books are available at

Also included are a few FrameBuilder "templates" for these document
types containing layout information. The article template is in the
style of a Kluwer journal article. ISO 12083 is a set of SGML DTDs
for articles, books and serials.

Contributor: Thomas F. Gordon <>


** TMP-4: Where can I get additional Clip Art for FM?

Note that most commercial clip art can be imported into FM. See also
the FUN tape, question TMP-1.

Desktop Graphics Collector
268 East 16th Street 1535 West Holt
Suite 6 Pomona, CA 91768 USA
Costa Mesa, CA 92627 USA +1 714-620-9014

3G Graphics Fusion Graphics
11410 N.E. 124th Street 1728 Moorpark Road
Suite 6155 Thousand Oaks, CA 91360 USA
Kirkland, Wa 98034 USA Tel & Fax: +1 805-494-8411

Freemyers Design
575 Nelson Ave
Oroville, CA 95965 USA
+1 916-533-9365

Contributor: Anthony D Alston <>


** TMP-5: Where can I get a thesis template?

Every school has their own thesis format; you should ask people at
your school if *they* have one you can use.

Here is a template customized for UC Berkeley thesis requirements:

Contributor: Ethan Miller <>

end of part 2 of 2; end of FAQ

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