On 10/17/2021 12:44 PM, Jim Burns wrote:
> On 10/17/2021 10:23 AM, olcott wrote:
>> Here is my addition to this field:
>> Knowledge is a fully justified true belief
> | Attributed to American philosopher Edmund Gettier,
> | Gettier-type counterexamples (called "Gettier-cases")
> | challenge the long-held justified true belief (JTB)
> | account of knowledge.
> | In a 1966 scenario known as "The sheep in the field", Roderick
> | Chisholm asks us to imagine that someone, X, is standing outside
> | a field looking at something that looks like a sheep (although
> | in fact, it is a dog disguised as a sheep). X believes there is
> | a sheep in the field, and in fact, X is right because there is a
> | sheep behind the hill in the middle of the field. Hence, X has a
> | justified true belief that there is a sheep in the field. But is
> | that belief knowledge?
>> such that the truth of the belief is a necessary consequence of
>> its justification.
> We have evidence (sometimes).
> The evidence justifies a belief (sometimes).
> The justified belief is also true (sometimes).
> We might not have evidence of some true circumstance.
> If we have evidence of it, it might not be enough or
> we might not understand the consequences of the evidence.
> ( A good example of this:
> ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sum_and_Product_Puzzle
> ( |
> ( | The Sum and Product Puzzle, also known as the Impossible
> ( | Puzzle because it seems to lack sufficient information
> ( | for a solution, is a logic puzzle.
> Anyway, for various reason, our beliefs might not reflect
> the evidence we have.
> We might think we have evidence for a certain belief,
> and we would be correct to believe it on that basis, but
> the evidence is not what it seems to be. Coincidentally,
> what we have been tricked into believing is actually true.
> Justified belief that is also true. Is it knowledge?
Here is an example of a fully justified true belief such that the
justification necessitates the truth of the belief:
When we divide the body of knowledge into the philosophical categories
of analytic and synthetic then we can easily apply an updated definition
of knowledge that overcomes the Gettier problem for the entirely body of
Analytic knowledge is the body of expressions of language that are
correctly accepted as true on the basis that the meaning of these
expressions conclusively proves that they are true.
Copyright 2021 Pete Olcott
"Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre