Not with the current codebase. See api/cocos.actions.base_actions.html#restrictions-and-capabilities-for-the-current-design-and-implementation (you need to build the docs, I don't have a live link now, sorry)
There you can see an inspiration for a possible workaround: look at class MoveByAdditive, if you write a JumpAdditive then it can compose with another additive or instant action as you described,
Not ideal but the most immediate solution.
Long term, maybe a new action operation over Actions could be defined
worker_action = actor.do(Jump(...))
actor.do(Modify( worker_action, fn_my_action_patcher)
where Modify should extract init params from the worker action, calculate remaining_duration, call the user provided
fn_my_action_patcher with those params, the fn must return the desired composition.
Looks not easy to use, but maybe some experimentation can produce something viable.