Emerg Infect Dis. 2010 Nov;16(11):1796-7.
Typhoid Fever among Children, Ghana.
Marks F, Adu-Sarkodie Y, Hunger F, Sarpong N, Ekuban S, Agyekum A, Nkrumah B, Schwarz NG, Favorov MO, Meyer CG, May J.
To the Editor: Typhoid fever (TF) remains a problem of concern in many low-income countries. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes ≊22,000,000 symptomatic infections and 220,000 fatalities worldwide annually (1). However, the effect and incidence of TF in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa are largely unknown because diagnostic laboratories are lacking and fatal TF is frequently attributed to malaria (2,3). In Ghana, TF ranks among the leading 20 causes of outpatient illness, accounting for 0.92% of hospital admissions (4).
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)
Date: 02 Nov 2010
I. FAITS SAILLANTS/PRIORITES
- Selon la Direction de la protection civile (DPC), Haïti se trouve dans la trajectoire de l’ouragan Tomas, qui devrait s’abattre sur Haïti le vendredi 5 novembre. En collaboration avec la DPC, l’ONU et la communauté humanitaire ont activé des plans de contingence.
- Les activités de préparation de la réponse reposent sur un nombre de familles touchées estimé à 100 000, ce qui signifie que 150 000 bâches et 100 000 couvertures seront nécessaires en plus des stocks d’urgence déjà dans le pays.
- Le Ministère de la santé (MSPP), l’ONU et la communauté humanitaire continuent de répondre à l’épidémie de choléra.
A ProMED-mail post, Nov 1, 2010, Source: National Public Radio
Medical detectives working in Haiti believe the original source of the bacterium that caused the recent cholera epidemic was someplace in south Asia.
The analysis isolated DNA from bacterial samples taken from cholera victims in Haiti. All 13 of those samples were identical, showing that the outbreak in Haiti most probably comes from a single strain. When that strain was compared to strains from around the world, it most closely matched one that originated in south Asia.
More studies may be able to pin down the source more precisely, though experts say that’s only a possibility. The work was a collaboration between Haitian public health workers and the CDC.
“Although these results indicate that the strain is non-Haitian, cholera strains may move between different areas due to global travel and trade,” Dr. Alex Larsen, Haiti’s Minister of Health, said in a statement. Therefore, we will never know the exact origin of the strain that is causing the epidemic in Haiti. This strain was transmitted by contaminated food or water or an infected person.”
Rumors have been circulating in Haiti that a contingent of United Nations peacekeepers from Nepal brought the bacterium into the country. UN teams say they’ve tested those peacekeepers, and found no traces of cholera.
Dan Campbell, Web
Environmental Health at USAID
1611 North Kent St., Suite 300
Arlington, VA 22209
Environmental Health at USAID: http://www.ehproject.org
Indoor Air Pollution Updates: http://iapnews.wordpress.com
Sanitation Updates: http://sanitationupdates.wordpress.com
Urban Health Updates: http://urbanhealthupdates.wordpress.com
Cholera Google Group: http://groups.google.com/group/cholera-control
Household Water Treatment Google Group: http://groups.google.com/group/household-water-treatment