We had discussions in this forum previously on the "ने" pratyaya of Hindi. (Is it a प्रत्यय? That is what our high school Hindi teachers
called it.) This time, let me come up with some other questions.
"मैया मोहि, मैं नहीं माखन खायौ" wrote Surdas, born in the second half of the 1400's CE. He wrote this in Braj Bhasha. He did not write
"मैया मोहि, मैं ने नहीं माखन खायौ. Obviously, Braj Bhasha of the time of Surdas did not have the ने pratyaya. The question is, is there the ने pratyaya in modern Braj Bhasha, say spoken in the Mathura-Brindavan-Agra area? What about other dialects of Hindi
like Avadhi, Bundelkhandi, Marwadi and Haryanvi?
There was an opinion that the ने pratyaya evolved in Khari Boli (and hence in Hindi - Urdu) in the 15th or 16th century CE in and around the Delhi area, especially
from the courts of the Muslim rulers.
But there is the equivalent of the ने pratyaya in Gujarati.
Before coming to Gujarati, here are just a few words about the Hinid ने.
राम रोटी खाता है or खाएगा
सीता रोटि खाती है or खाएगी, but
राम ने रोटी खाई or सीता ने रोटी खाई and राम ने पंखा देखा or सीता ने पंखा देखा.
There is no ने in राम मुंबई गया.
From all this, we can say that the ने pratyaya appears only in past tense and only when the verb is transitive. The verb agrees with the object and not with
the subject when ने is present unlike in cases when the ने is not present.
Exactly the same situation is there in the Gujarati language. The equivalent in Gujarati for Hindi ने is ए.
राम रोटली खाय छे (રામ રોટલી ખાય છે Ram eats roti) but રામે રોટલી ખાધી (रामे रोटली खाधी, Ram ate roti). રામ becomes રામે. The ए is
equivalent to Hindi ने and the Gujarati sentence with ए obeys all the grammatical laws that the Hindi sentence with ने obeys.
When did the ए for past transitive sentences appear in Gujarati? Does old Gujarati have this? Has it any connection with the appearance
of ने in Hindi in the 15th or 16th century CE? Are there equivalents of the Hindi ने in other languages like Marathi, Punjabi, Bengali or Oriya? Is there an equivalent of