नष्टे मृते -- मेधातिथिः - मीमांसाविरोधः

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Mahamaho. Subrahmanyam Korada

Nov 19, 2023, 12:53:17 PM11/19/23
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नमो विद्वद्भ्यः

पराशर , in his स्मृति (4-30) , ordains (विधिः) that a lady can go for another पति (भर्ता) if she faces any one of the five  bad conditions --
नष्टे मृते प्रव्रजिते क्लीबे च पतिते पतौ ।
पञ्चस्वापत्सु नारीणां पतिरन्यो विधीयते ॥ 
This verse is available in नारदस्मृति ( 97, स्त्रीपुंसप्रकरणम्) , 154, 5-6 , अग्निपुराणम् also .
if the husband is -- gone / missing (the whereabouts are not known) , dead , taken संन्यास , impotent , धर्मभ्रष्ट (पतित) -- in these five troublesome
situations a lady should go for another पति and this is a विधि ।
मेधातिथि , a commentator on मनुस्मृति quotes this verse ( under 5-157) and says that (since remarriage for ladies is not acceptable) here
 the word पति is to be taken in the sense of पालनात् पतिः , i e she should seek the help of a man ,  and also she should go for सैरन्ध्रकर्म for आत्मवृत्ति
कुल्लूकभट्ट , another popular commentator (son of भट्टदिवाकर - मन्वर्थमुक्तावळीव्याख्या - विद्यानिकेतनमुद्राक्षरशाला चेन्नपुरी 1898 Telugu script ) does not endorse the words of मेधातिथि , rather does not say anything the like .
महामहोपाध्यायः गङ्गानाथ झा , who translated मनुस्मृति along with मेधातिथि's commentary (Calcutta University , 1926) takes the latter's words in 
support of 'providing protection to a lady' (Discourse IX -- अध्यायः 9) . विद् झा is well known for his contribution in पूर्वमीमांसा । 
There are others who interpreted the above verse -- विद् पि वि काणे (p 611 , Remarriage of Women , History of Dharmasastra ,Vol 2 Part 1)
provides a brief account in this regard .
पराशरमाधवीय (11, part 1) , which is considered as an authority , says this norm is not applicable in कलियुग -- then what about कलौ पराशरस्मृतिः?
अत्र च  अर्थात् कलियुगे एव इत्यत्र किं वा विनिगमकम् (एकपक्षसाधकयुक्तिः)?

I rather fail to understand as to how none of them took the वाक्यशास्त्रम् (पूर्वमीमांसा) while deciding the meaning of a वाक्यम् -- विधिवाक्यम् ।

In हेतुवन्निगदाधिकरणम् (पूर्वमीमांसा अध्या 1 पा 2 अधि 3 सू 29 अर्थस्तु विधिशेषत्वात् यथा लोके) शबरस्वामी rules -- ’विधौ हि न परः शब्दार्थः प्रतीयते’  -- in a विधि
परः = लक्ष्यः शब्दार्थः न प्रतीयते - in a विधिवाक्य  लक्ष्यार्थ (secondary meaning) is not to be taken . The same is quoted as - न विधौ परः शब्दार्थः
In fact , this नियम is there in other शास्त्रs --

' गौणमुख्ययोः मुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्ययः । तद्यथा ’ गौरनुबन्ध्यो’जो’ग्नीषोमीयः’ इति न वाहीको’नुबध्यते ' ( ओत् पा 1-1-15 , महाभाष्यम् ) -- ’स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा’ इतिसूत्रेण पाणिनिना ज्ञापिता इयं परिभाषा इति अस्मिन्नेव सूत्रे कैयटः । गौणार्थश्च अनियतः इति च । 
लक्ष्यार्थ and गौणार्थ are used as synonyms .
मुख्यगौणयोः मुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्ययो भवति ( 4-3-13 ब्रह्मसूत्रशांकरभाष्यम् ) |
भूतदया - is the first of eight आत्मगुणs enumerated in गौतमस्मृति (अध्यायः 3 ) -- how can a young lady be left like that to mend her ways - live by 
सैरन्ध्रवृत्ति (providing प्रसाधनम् etc. in an अन्तःपुरम् -- अर्जुनः  विराटराजास्थाने । But you (मेधातिथि) accepted नियोग !
आत्मवत्सर्वभूतेषु -- मत्स्यपुराणम्
Therefore , the above quoted words of मेधातिथि go against the वाक्यशास्त्रमर्यादा and the norms in other शाश्त्रs .

Dr.Korada Subrahmanyam
Adju.Professor , Dept of Heritage Science and Technology, IIT, Hyderabad
299 Doyen , Serilingampally, Hyderabad 500 019
Skype Id: Subrahmanyam Korada

Jay Nityananda Das

Nov 20, 2023, 3:49:41 AM11/20/23
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Respected Scholars,

Namo Namah.

I haven't gone through each and every statement of this thread, however, it reminded me of some old thread where a similar issue had been discussed (though not concluded). And I share it here only to get further enlightenment, not to support/oppose anyone's view.

I wonder if some objections raised therein (like पाणिग्रहणात्परं न संचरति ।) has been considered and thoroughly addressed herein.


Jaya Nityananda Dasa

("Nandagrama" Varnasrama Community Project)


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