I agree that those pupae with missing caps should be scored as "Dead".
I remember taking those photos and they were from colonies where all
of the adult bees had absconded. I believe robber bees had entered
the empty hive and removed some of the wax capping off of those pupae.
In any case, they should most definitely be scored as dead.
Reed M. Johnson
Department of Entomology
The Ohio State University
Ohio Agriculture Research and Development Center
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Wooster, OH 44691
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