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Dr. Sir John Howard, AC, WSCMoF

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Mar 20, 2010, 10:47:28 AM3/20/10
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How the US forces deal with their enemies with one arm tied behind their backs!

Video: Fire Fight Between US Troops and Taliban Fighters as Seen by an Apache...

http://www.weaselzippers.net/blog/2010/03/video-fire-fight-between-us-troops-and-taliban-fighters-as-seen-by-an-apache.html

--
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ipvdBnU8F8
- KRudd at his finest.

"The Labour Party is corrupt beyond redemption!"
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"This is the recession we had to have!"
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"Silly old bugger!"
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"By 1990, no child will live in poverty"
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"A billion trees ..."
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"We'll just change it all when we get in."
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staten

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Mar 20, 2010, 3:55:02 PM3/20/10
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If World War II had been fought with similar stupid rules, the
battles would still be
raging today. During WWII in Germany and Japan enemy-occupied towns
like Marjah
were flattened without a second thought.


On Mar 20, 10:47 am, " Dr. Sir John Howard, AC, WSCMoF "
<""malcum.fabian.the.racist.terrorist.and.retard
\"@kangarooistan.com.au is a stupid arselifting
troll .">
wrote:


> How the US forces deal with their enemies with one arm tied behind their backs!
>
> Video: Fire Fight Between US Troops and Taliban Fighters as Seen by an Apache...
>

> http://www.weaselzippers.net/blog/2010/03/video-fire-fight-between-us...
>
> --http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ipvdBnU8F8

Kevin Rudd, Full of Himself

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Mar 20, 2010, 3:57:11 PM3/20/10
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Dr. Sir John Howard, AC, WSCMoF > wrote:
> How the US forces deal with their enemies with one arm tied behind their
> backs!

Time to wipe out the Muslim scum!

Kangaroo Court Australia

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Mar 20, 2010, 4:06:14 PM3/20/10
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On Mar 21, 6:55 am, staten <state...@lycos.com> wrote:
>  If World War II had been fought with similar stupid rules, the
> battles would still be
> raging today. During WWII  in Germany and Japan  enemy-occupied towns
> like Marjah
>  were flattened without a second thought.
>

If we dont have those ROE, it would mean the Fascists had won WWII,
waste of lives for those who fought for rules and evolution of man.

Kudos to American servicemen and women who maintain their humanity and
dignity in the face of their
genocidal politicians.

~

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Mar 20, 2010, 6:53:11 PM3/20/10
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It is USA who destroy CIVILIAN TARGETS,
That is why rules have to be set up.


"staten" <stat...@lycos.com> wrote in message
news:a32e406c-869f-4141...@l12g2000prg.googlegroups.com...

staten

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Mar 20, 2010, 7:38:37 PM3/20/10
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On Mar 20, 4:06 pm, Kangaroo Court Australia <nwn.webmas...@gmail.com>
wrote:


Bullshit. American troops die while protecting lives of these Allah
intoxicated savages who hate and want them all dead anyway. During
WWII all architects of the ROE would have been court-marshalled.

staten

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Mar 20, 2010, 7:49:00 PM3/20/10
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On Mar 20, 6:53 pm, "~" <~...@home.com> wrote:


>It is USA who destroy CIVILIAN TARGETS,

Boldface lies. US troops are court-marshaled for targeting enemy
civilians.

>That is why rules have to be set up.

Makes no sense if civilians are destroyed by the USA. You have a very
twisted , perverted logic, Ahmed.


>
> "staten" <state...@lycos.com> wrote in message

> > - Garrett the carrott- Hide quoted text -
>
> - Show quoted text -

staten

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Mar 20, 2010, 8:22:26 PM3/20/10
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On Mar 20, 4:06 pm, Kangaroo Court Australia <nwn.webmas...@gmail.com>
wrote:
> On Mar 21, 6:55 am, staten <state...@lycos.com> wrote:
>
> >  If World War II had been fought with similar stupid rules, the
> > battles would still be
> > raging today. During WWII  in Germany and Japan  enemy-occupied towns
> > like Marjah
> >  were flattened without a second thought.
>
> If we dont have those ROE, it would mean the Fascists had won WWII,
> waste of lives for those who fought for rules and evolution of man.


That's exactly what today's cowardly Allaho-fascists count on. They
laughing at the NATO troops who are scared of their own might
restricted by the idiotic ROE. The wild Muslim savages quickly
adapted to the stupidity of mushy Western P.C. politicians who
invented ROEs trying to appease Islam by by nook or by crook..
Jihadists throwing down their weapons when they are out of
ammunition and taunting coalition troops with impunity or walking in
plain view with women behind them carrying their weapons like caddies.
During WWII such circus would have been wiped out by the hell fire in
fraction of a second.

bringyagrogalong

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Mar 20, 2010, 8:25:53 PM3/20/10
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“The reason we have avoided the recession is because of the legacy of
Paul Keating. In terms of lasting achievement his agenda as treasurer
struck a cord, not necessarily with the general community, which was
never especially enamored with economic reform, but amongst those who
think about public life. Keating built many of the pillars of our
present prosperity”.

http://tinyurl.com/yker47p

Tony Abbott in an unguarded moment of honesty.

dechucka

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Mar 20, 2010, 8:55:09 PM3/20/10
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"staten" <stat...@lycos.com> wrote in message
news:a32e406c-869f-4141...@l12g2000prg.googlegroups.com...

If World War II had been fought with similar stupid rules, the
battles would still be
raging today. During WWII in Germany and Japan enemy-occupied towns
like Marjah
were flattened without a second thought.

===========================================================

Can you name examples of the Allies deliberately flattening occupied towns
without a thought in WW2?


Dr. Sir John Howard, AC, WSCMoF

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Mar 20, 2010, 9:05:32 PM3/20/10
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staten wrote:
> If World War II had been fought with similar stupid rules, the
> battles would still be raging today.

Hard to say.

> During WWII in Germany and Japan enemy-occupied towns
> like Marjah were flattened without a second thought.

Never heard of Marjah.

--

dechucka

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Mar 20, 2010, 9:23:06 PM3/20/10
to

" Dr. Sir John Howard, AC, WSCMoF "
<""leo.fabian.the.arselifting.faggot\"@kangarooistan.com.au is a stupid
arselifting troll ."> wrote in message
news:4ba570dc$0$27858$c3e...@news.astraweb.com...

> staten wrote:
>> If World War II had been fought with similar stupid rules, the
>> battles would still be raging today.
>
> Hard to say.
>
>> During WWII in Germany and Japan enemy-occupied towns
>> like Marjah were flattened without a second thought.
>
> Never heard of Marjah.

So? It this meant to surprise us?

ps remember google is your friend

staten

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Mar 20, 2010, 9:40:48 PM3/20/10
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On Mar 20, 8:55 pm, "dechucka" <vo...@hotmail.com> wrote:
> "staten" <state...@lycos.com> wrote in message

Dresden. Hiroshima . Nagasaki . They even were not enemy-occupied.
They were enemy's own towns. It's war. It cannot be won treating
enemies with kid's gloves.

staten

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Mar 20, 2010, 10:01:45 PM3/20/10
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On Mar 20, 9:05 pm, " Dr. Sir John Howard, AC, WSCMoF "
<""leo.fabian.the.arselifting.faggot\"@kangarooistan.com.au is a

stupid arselifting
troll .">
wrote:
> staten wrote:
> > If World War II had been fought with similar stupid rules, the
> > battles would still be raging today.
>
> Hard to say.
>
> > During WWII in Germany and Japan enemy-occupied towns
> > like Marjah were flattened without a second thought.
>
> Never heard of Marjah.

Marjah, Afghanistan's Helmand province. Was a key test for the
NATO troops who were constrained by new rules of engagement that
emphasized protecting civilians rather than killing jihadis. Stupid.
Irresponsible. Treasonous towards own troops. Saving enemies
civilians by risking lives of own troops has never been a priority
in history of any wars waged before. A total victory was! What
happened to us in the West today? Do we need more 911s, 7/7s, 3/11s?


>
> --http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ipvdBnU8F8

dechucka

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Mar 20, 2010, 11:18:01 PM3/20/10
to

"staten" <stat...@lycos.com> wrote in message
news:bc52d2f6-eb1a-4c45...@c20g2000prb.googlegroups.com...

=================================================

as you say these weren't occupied towns.

When you are trying to liberate a people you don't deliberately flatten
their towns. Didn't do it in WW2 and not a great idea in Afghanistan

Dr. Sir John Howard, AC, WSCMoF

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Mar 20, 2010, 11:18:13 PM3/20/10
to
staten wrote:
> On Mar 20, 9:05 pm, " Dr. Sir John Howard, AC, WSCMoF "
> <"leo.fabian.the.a...@kangarooistan.com.au is a stupid arselifting troll ."> wrote:
>> staten wrote:
>>> If World War II had been fought with similar stupid rules, the
>>> battles would still be raging today.
>>
>> Hard to say.
>>
>>> During WWII in Germany and Japan enemy-occupied towns
>>> like Marjah were flattened without a second thought.
>>
>> Never heard of Marjah.
>
> Marjah, Afghanistan's Helmand province.

Oh? And the Germans and Japanese occupied it during WWII?

> Was a key test for the
> NATO troops who were constrained by new rules of engagement that
> emphasized protecting civilians rather than killing jihadis. Stupid.
> Irresponsible. Treasonous towards own troops. Saving enemies
> civilians by risking lives of own troops has never been a priority
> in history of any wars waged before. A total victory was! What
> happened to us in the West today? Do we need more 911s, 7/7s, 3/11s?

Obviously.

--

dechucka

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Mar 20, 2010, 11:20:52 PM3/20/10
to

"staten" <stat...@lycos.com> wrote in message
news:430f05ff-6a2a-4dd7...@f14g2000pre.googlegroups.com...

On Mar 20, 9:05 pm, " Dr. Sir John Howard, AC, WSCMoF "
<""leo.fabian.the.arselifting.faggot\"@kangarooistan.com.au is a
stupid arselifting
troll
.">
wrote:
> staten wrote:
> > If World War II had been fought with similar stupid rules, the
> > battles would still be raging today.
>
> Hard to say.
>
> > During WWII in Germany and Japan enemy-occupied towns
> > like Marjah were flattened without a second thought.
>
> Never heard of Marjah.

Marjah, Afghanistan's Helmand province. Was a key test for the
NATO troops who were constrained by new rules of engagement that
emphasized protecting civilians rather than killing jihadis. Stupid.
Irresponsible. Treasonous towards own troops. Saving enemies
civilians by risking lives of own troops has never been a priority
in history of any wars waged before. A total victory was! What
happened to us in the West today? Do we need more 911s, 7/7s, 3/11s?

==============================================

Unfortunately for you the civilians are the people they are trying to
liberate from the Taliban. Not a great idea upsets people and radicalises
some people.

Kangaroo Court Australia

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Mar 20, 2010, 11:39:02 PM3/20/10
to

>
> Unfortunately for you the civilians are the people they are trying to
> liberate from the Taliban. Not a great idea upsets people and radicalises
> some people.

What does it matter to these genocidal fuckwits.....Nuremberg trials
were farce just as Saddam trial was a farce.
The two A-bomb on Japan against civilians were crimes against humanity
just as the Nazi's G Dubya and his Daddy
should be tried for war crimes.

staten

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Mar 21, 2010, 11:12:01 AM3/21/10
to
On Mar 20, 11:20 pm, "dechucka" <vo...@hotmail.com> wrote:
> "staten" <state...@lycos.com> wrote in message

“Radicalize some people”? Do you know what Sidi Haji Abdul Rahman
Adja, a visiting ambassador from Tripoli answered to Thomas Jefferson,
then the ambassador to France In 1786 , to his question why Tripoli
government was hostile to American ships, even though there had been
no provocation? Haji told him : “it was written in their Koran, that
all nations which had not acknowledged the Prophet were sinners, whom
it was the right and duty of the faithful to plunder and enslave,” .
So , they were radicalized starting from 7th century . And the war
against infidels has started not in 2001 but in 632 when Islam was
invented.

staten

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Mar 21, 2010, 11:14:44 AM3/21/10
to
On Mar 20, 11:18 pm, "dechucka" <vo...@hotmail.com> wrote:
> "staten" <state...@lycos.com> wrote in message
>
> news:bc52d2f6-eb1a-4c45...@c20g2000prb.googlegroups.com...
> On Mar 20, 8:55 pm, "dechucka" <vo...@hotmail.com> wrote:
>
> > "staten" <state...@lycos.com> wrote in message
>
> >news:a32e406c-869f-4141...@l12g2000prg.googlegroups.com...
> > If World War II had been fought with similar stupid rules, the
> > battles would still be
> > raging today. During WWII in Germany and Japan enemy-occupied towns
> > like Marjah
> > were flattened without a second thought.
>
> > ===========================================================
>
> > Can you name examples of the Allies deliberately flattening occupied towns
> > without a thought in WW2?
>
> Dresden. Hiroshima . Nagasaki . They even were not enemy-occupied.
> They were enemy's own towns.  It's war. It cannot be won  treating
> enemies with kid's gloves.
>
> =================================================
>
> as you say these weren't occupied towns.
>
> When you are trying to liberate a people you don't deliberately flatten
> their towns. Didn't do it in WW2 and not a great idea in Afghanistan

Oh, please stop this phony piety ! It's war. 23% of Germans killed
during WWII were civilians. No one was shedding crocodile tears about
their lives at the time. The war is hell and all the ROEs along with
the notion that war deaths have to be fair is idiotic in the first
place.

Besides , The Nazis, the brutal, savage regime had the decency to
put their soldiers in uniforms so that their civilian population would
not be mistaken for combatants. Muslims have no such decency. In fact
they go out of their way to make sure their soldiers wear civilian
clothes to ensure that any counter-attack include as many civilians as
possible.

You liberal idiots apply super high standards to all Western troops
but hate even to talk about Muslims deliberately murdering their own
by making human shields of their civilians against western bullets or
savagely murdering their own women and children in their endless
tribal barbaric wars. You are repulsive hypocrites. Nothing good can
come from deception and hypocricy.

Doug

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Mar 21, 2010, 12:26:42 PM3/21/10
to
" Dr. Sir John Howard, AC, WSCMoF "
<""malcum.fabian.the.racist.terrorist.and.retard\"@kangarooistan.com.au is a
stupid arselifting troll ."> wrote in message
news:4ba4e000$0$8780$c3e...@news.astraweb.com...

> How the US forces deal with their enemies with one arm tied behind their
> backs!
>
> Video: Fire Fight Between US Troops and Taliban Fighters as Seen by an
> Apache...
>
> http://www.weaselzippers.net/blog/2010/03/video-fire-fight-between-us-troops-and-taliban-fighters-as-seen-by-an-apache.html
>

That's the way I like to see muzzies....dead.


Doug

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Mar 21, 2010, 12:29:11 PM3/21/10
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"dechucka" <vo...@hotmail.com> wrote in message
news:H8qdnR9YndwCDTjW...@westnet.com.au...

Duh, how do you liberate people from the ideology/religion that enslaves
them?
All muslime countries are f'ed up totalitarian shitholes, it's not geography
that's
the problem it's their ideology.


Doug

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Mar 21, 2010, 12:29:46 PM3/21/10
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"Kevin Rudd, Full of Himself"
<never.make.a....@gutless.wonder.com> wrote in message
news:80knkl...@mid.individual.net...

Yes we should help them to acheive their 72 virgin reward!


staten

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Mar 21, 2010, 12:48:55 PM3/21/10
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On Mar 20, 11:20 pm, "dechucka" <vo...@hotmail.com> wrote:

Your changed topic "Crimes against Humanity started after WWII and
maybe not be by the Nazi's" is right- crimes against humanity was not
started by Nazis ,but by Muslims. Countless countries and people lost
their lives , their countries, their freedom and their cultures .
Countless others were forcibly converted into beastly Muslims as
Islam began its bloodied march across Arabia and then into Persia,
Byzantium, North Africa, Central Asia, India, Indonesia, Europe and
finally triggered full fledged jihad against the young US in 17
century.

Likewise, the first Holocaust was not happened in 1940s but in 1915
against Armenians. Nazis were very good and talented apprentices of
Muslims.

Ariadne

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Mar 21, 2010, 2:27:21 PM3/21/10
to
On 21 Mar, 16:48, staten <state...@lycos.com> wrote:
>Nazis were very good and talented apprentices  of
> Muslims.

Very true!

staten

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Mar 21, 2010, 4:20:28 PM3/21/10
to
On Mar 20, 11:39 pm, Kangaroo Court Australia

<nwn.webmas...@gmail.com> wrote:
> > Unfortunately for you the civilians are the people they are trying to
> > liberate from the Taliban. Not a great idea upsets people and radicalises
> > some people.
>
> What does it matter to these genocidal fuckwits.....Nuremberg trials
> were farce just as Saddam trial was a farce.

Treating Islam as a "religion of peace" is even bigger farce ever
known to humankind, Ahmed. Make a note of it.

Doug

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Mar 21, 2010, 8:14:54 PM3/21/10
to
"staten" <stat...@lycos.com> wrote in message
news:afdbe67b-3411-4ab9...@v34g2000prm.googlegroups.com...

**********************
It goes WELL beyond the above. The islamonazi pigs in Lebanon
fired their upgraded Katayushas from civilian neighborhoods
and stored their ammo there.

In the Gaza Shite, the muslimes used mosques, hospitals and
schools as firebases, OP's and ammo dumps. They also employed
ambulances to transport ammo, weapons and combatants.

In Algeria, under the French occupation, the muslimes smuggled
arms and explosives under the burkas of women -- because they
knew they wouldn't be searched.


Doug

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Mar 21, 2010, 8:17:53 PM3/21/10
to
"Ariadne" <ariad...@gmail.com> wrote in message
news:b562eeea-0b39-470c...@d37g2000yqn.googlegroups.com...

Very true!

*******************************
Let's remember MuhamMAD himself ordered and led the slaughter/enslavement
of the Jews of Medina/Ytharib and Khybar, a fact muslimes still rant
and rave about now, in the 21st century.

Deborah Shavari had an excellent timeline of islamic history that
illustrates
it has NEVER been peaceful:

TIMELINE OF ISLAM - THE FIRST MILLENNIUM

by Deborah Sharavi

Draft

622

16th July - Traditional date of the Hijrah and beginning of Muslim

calendar

622-630

Muhammad's wars against Mecca and Medina - at the time, considerable

centres of commerce and culture, with marked Christian Greek and Jewish

influence

622

Pact of Medina between Muhammad and indigenous Ansar and Jewish tribes

of Medina

Muhammad's forces attack Meccan caravans

624

March - Battle of Badr, Muhammad's forces defeat Meccans and Banu

Quraysh, expel Banu Qaynuqa

625

Battle of Uhud, Meccans defeat Muhammad; in retaliation, Muhammad

expels the Banu Nadhir from Medina

627

Battle of Khandaq; Muhammad has 900 Jewish prisoners of the Banu

Qurayza beheaded and enslaves the women and children

628

Muhammad's sham treaty with the Banu Quraysh

629

May - Battle of Khaybar; to raise his prestige after the hudna of

Hudaybiyya, Muhammad attacks the Khaybar Jews, massacres a peace

delegation led by Usayr ibn Zorim of the Banu Nahdir. Muhammad

massacres the Khaybar prisoners; orders the torture and murder of

Kinana ibn al-Rabi; marries Saffiya, the 17-year-old daughter of

Huyayy, the Banu Nahdir chief, and widow of Kinana ibn al-Rabi; takes

as a jarya (slave concubine) Kaihana, survivor of the massacre of the

Qurayza Jews. Muhammad allows the Khaybar survivors to remain on their

lands, so long as they pay him 50% of their produce. The battle greatly

raises Muhammad's prestige; the beduin swear allegiance and convert

to Islam, the Jewish tribes of Fadattr, Tedma, and Magne capitulate and

are permitted to keep their religion and their lands in exchange for

50% of their produce

630

Augmented by weapons won from the Khaybar Jews, Muhammad's forces

conquer Mecca; Muhammad dedicates the sacred pagan Black Rock, a

meteorite fragment housed in the eastern wall of Ka'aba, to Islam;

Meccans vow allegiance to Muhammad and convert to Islam

632

Death of Muhammad, supposedly poisoned by Saffiya bint Huyayy in

revenge for the massacre of the Khaybar Jews; Abdu'llah ibn Abi Quhafah

(Abu Bakr), first of the Rightly Guided Caliphs (khulafa ar-rashidin),

caliph

632-634

Wars of apostasy (riddah) begin: Muslims defeat "false prophets"

Tulayha and Musaylima, force capitulation of Jewish tribes of Fadattr,

Tedma, and Magne, laying the foundations for the future laws of the

dhimma

633

Muslim invasions and conquests outside Arabia begin; Muslim forces

under Khalid ibn al-Walid invade Syria

634

30th July, battle of Ajnadayn between Gaza and Jerusalem, Khalid ibn

al-Walid's forces defeat Byzantine forces under Theodoros, the

emperor's brother

23rd August, death of Abu Bakr; 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, second of the

Khulafa ar-Rashidin, caliph 634-644.

[N.B.: 'Umar assumes the title Amir al-Mu'minin; imposes the primacy of

Arab Muslims over non-Arab Muslims, and permanent legal disabilities on

Jews and Christians ("People of the Book"); re-appoints Shifa bint 'abd

Allah, a woman whom Muhammad had appointed, comptroller of the markets

of Medina; eradicates the Christian and Jewish communities of Arabia]

635-637

Muslims invade Mesopotamia and Iran (635-642)

635

Battle of Marj al Saffar near Damascus; Muslim forces under Khalid ibn

al-Walid defeat Byzantines

Battle of Buwayb, Muslims defeat Iranians

[N.B.: In shame over his failure to protect them from Muslim assault,

Khalid ibn al-Walid returned their taxes to the Christians of Homs]

636

20 August, Battle of the Yarmuk, Muslims under Khalid ibn al-Walid rout

Byzantine forces

Battle of Qadisiyah, Muslims under Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas defeat Iranian

forces

637

Battle of Jalula, Muslims defeat Iranians, seize Ctesiphon.

Muslims destroy Church of the Annunciation in Nazareth, Jerusalem

capitulates to Umar

638-650

Muslims ravage Iran, eradicate indigenous Zoroastrian religion;

Iranians request aid against the Muslims from T'ai Tsung, emperor of

China (d 649)

[N.B.: T'ai Tsung's military conquests had established contacts with

Iranian and Indian civilizations. He received Alopen, an Iranian

Christian (Nestorian) in 638, granting him the freedom of the empire

and leave to build an imperial church in the capital.

639

Muslim subjugation of Mesopotamia begins

Muslims invade Armenia

Muslim forces under Amr ibn al-'As invade Egypt

'Umar expels all Jews and Christians from Arabia

640

Subjugation of Caesarea; code of Umar imposed on Palestinian Jews and

Christians [Jews and Christians enjoined to pray quietly; prohibition

on building new synagogues or churches, holding judicial or civil

posts, riding horses; Jews ordered to wear yellow badges on their

clothes]

Muslims take Pelusium, defeat Byzantines at Heliopolis

641

Muslims burn the Library of Alexandria

642

Cyrus, patriarch of Alexandria, tenders surrender and capitulation of

Egypt

Battle of Nehawand, Muslims defeat Iranians

642-643

Muslims invade and occupy Barqa and the Pentapolis

644

'Umar assassinated by his Iranian slave, Abu-Luluah; Uthman ibn Affan

of the Banu Umayya of Mecca, third of the khulafa ar-rashidin, caliph

644-656

645

Muslim assault crushes Christian revolt in Alexandria, sarcophagus of

Alexander lost

649

Muslims conquer Cyprus and Aradus (650)

655

Muslim fleet annihilates Byzantine navy off Lycian coast at Dhat

al-Sawari

656

Egyptian rebels assassinate the caliph Uthman; succession of Ali ibn

Abi Talib, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, as caliph disputed,

igniting the:

FIRST ISLAMIC CIVIL WAR 656-661

Revolt against Ali launched by 'Aisha, Muhammad's favorite wife

Battle of the Camel (656) between the armies of Ali and 'Aisha; 'Ali

defeats 'Aisha's forces, captures 'Aisha and sends her back to

Medina

In revenge for the assassination of the caliph Uthman, his kinsman,

Mua'wiya ibn Sufyan, governor general of Syria, spearheads revolt

against the caliph Ali

[N.B.: 'Aisha bint Abu Bakr served as an imam during daily prayer, as

did other women in early Islam, lecturing men on their duties to the

Prophet. She authored many ahadith, and was considered a scholar]

657

Battle of Siffin, Mu'awiya ibn Sufyan proclaims himself caliph

658

Ali massacres the Khawarij. Egypt conquered for Mu'awiya ibn Sufyan

659

Ali opposes arbitration with Mu'awiya at Adruh

661

Ali stabbed to death by a Kharijis in revenge for his massacre of the

Khawarij. Buried in An Najaf, which becomes a shrine. Ali's son,

Husayn, proclaimed caliph, but declares his abdication when Mua'wiya's

forces

advance into Mesopotamia

UMAYYAD CALIPHATE OF DAMASCUS 661-750

664

Muslims invade Afghanistan, seize Kabul

669

Chalcedon taken; Muslims besiege of Constantinople

669-670

Conquest of North Africa begins under Oqba ibn Nafi (killed 683)

670

Muslims invade Sind and the lower Indus

673-678

Blockade of Constantinople

674

Conquest of Bukhara and Marakanda (676). Muslim forces advance to the

Jaxartes

680

Death of Mua'wiya; his son, Yazid, second Umayyad caliph 680-682.

Kufans in Iraq proclaim Husayn ibn Ali caliph, which ignites the:

SECOND ISLAMIC CIVIL WAR 680-682

Battle of Kerbela (680), Husayn killed and his army defeated [origin of

annual Shi'ite celebration of the martyrdom of Husayn, in the month of

Muharram). Mecca and Medina proclaim Abdallah ibn Zubayr, 'Aisha's

nephew, caliph. Battle on the Harra near Medina, siege of Mecca;

Meccans and Medinans defeated, the Ka'aba shrine burned

682

Death of Yazid I, followed by death of Yazid's successor, Mua'wiya II.

Marwan ibn al Hakam proclaimed caliph in Syria, but rejected by Muslims

in Arabia, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Qais tribe in Syria, who

proclaim Abdallah ibn Zubayr caliph

684

Battle of Marj Rhait, north of Damascus; defeat and slaughter of the

Qais of Syria, beginning disastrous blood feud between "northern" and

"southern" Arabs, which contributes to the fall of the Umeya

685

Death of Marwan I; his son Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan caliph 685-705

Arabic established as Islam's official language, superseding Greek and

Persian

Shi'ites and Khawarij in Iran and Arabia revolt against rival caliph

Abdallah ibn Zubayr

690

Battle on the Tigris; Mus'ab, ibn Zubayr's brother and governor of

Mesopotamia, defeated and killed by Abd al-Malik

691-692

Siege and capture of Medina by abd al-Malik's general Hajaj, later

governor of Iraq

Abdallah ibn Zubayr assassinated

[Construction begins on the Qubbat As-Sakhrah shrine in Jerusalem, on

the site of the Jewish Temple destroyed by Rome, by Byzantine craftsmen

sent from Constantinople by the emperor at Abd al-Malik's request. Abd

al-Malik propagandizes Jerusalem as the Quranic Farthest Mosque

(al-Masjid al-Aqsa), site of Muhammad's ascent into Paradise with the

angel Gabriel and his magical mare al-Buraq, who had the face of a

woman, the body of a lion, and the tail of a peacock, and who conveyed

him in three leaps from Mecca to al-Masjid al-Aqsa, and back again in

one night. Hence, Jerusalem as the third holiest site in Islam after

Mecca and Medina, and the only place outside Mecca and Medina where

Muslims can make pilgrimage.

"Abd al-Malik, seeing the greatness of the martyrium [the Holy

Sepulchre]

and its magnificence, was moved lest it should dazzle the minds of the

Muslims and hence erected above the rock the Dome which is now seen

there."

Al-Muqaddasi

'The very first monument of the new faith, the Dome of the Rock in

Jerusalem, was a patently competitive enterprise. It rose on the

grounds

of the Jewish temple, over the rock of Mount Moriah that had been

variously identified in the past as the place of Adam's creation and

death, and of Isaac's sacrifice. In substance, the building was a close

copy of the rotunda of the Holy Sepulchre.'

Spiro Kostof, A History of Architecture: Settings and

Rituals, p 286]

"These damned Syrians pretend that Allah put his foot

on the Rock in Jerusalem, though only one man ever

put his foot on the Rock, namely Ibrahim."

Muhammad ibn al Hanafiyah (638-700)

693

Khariji revolts crushed in Iraq and Persia. Battle of Sebastopolis,

emperor Justinian II defeated

694

Iranian exiles introduce Manichaeism into China

The Visigothic king Ergica, on rumors that Jews are conspiring with

North African Muslims, forces Jews to give all land, slaves and

buildings bought from Christians, to his treasury, and declares that

all Jewish children over the age of seven should be taken from their

homes and raised as Christians. Forced conversions began under his

predecessor, King Earwig.

698

Muslims take Carthage

699

Ibn al Ash'ath proclaimed caliph in the east, rebellion crushed

705

Death of Abd al-Malik; his son, Walid, caliph 705-715

Under al-Walid, construction begins on the Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa ("the

Farthest Mosque") in Jerusalem

708

Musa ibn Nusayr, Arab governor general of North Africa, begins

pacification and subjugation of the Berbers

Muslim forces under Muhammad ibn Qasim invade Sind and parts of the

Punjab

710

Muslims invade and subjugate Cilicia and (714) Galatia

Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad, freed Berber slave of Musa ibn

Nusayr, seize Tangiers and raid Baetica in Visigothic Hispania

711

Tariq ibn Ziyad lands in Spain at Jebel Tariq [Gibraltar] with a mixed

Berber-Arab force

July - Battle of Guadalete, Christian forces under the Visigoth king

Roderick defeated. Muslims take Ecija, Cordoba, and Toledo, the

Visigoth capital

712

Musa ibn Nusayr invades from Africa with a mixed army of Berbers,

Iranian, Yemenites, and Arabs, takes Medina Sidonia, Carmona, Seville,

Merida, and (713) Zaragoza

713

Muslims invade China as far as Kashgar

715

Death of Walid I; his brother, Suleiman ibn al-Malik, caliph 715-717

Most of southern Spain in the hands of Muslms. Musa ibn Nusayr,

governor general of North Afirca, appoints his son, Abd al-Aziz,

governor of Al-Andalus [The West] in Spain.

[N.B.: Abd al-Aziz married Egilona, widow of the Visigoth king

Roderick. When Egilona encouraged his conversion to Christianity, the

caliph Suleiman ordered his assassination and appointed Al-Samh ibn

Malik al-Khalani governor general of Al-Andalus]

716

Muslims under Yazid ibn Muhallib conquer Hyrcania and Tabaristan

717

Death of Suleiman; his cousin, Omar ibn Abd al-Aziz, caliph 717-720,

grants tax exemption to all Muslims

717-719

Second siege of Constantinople by forces under the caliph's brother,

Maslama

Muslims reach the Pyrenees, driving Christians of Hispania into the

northern and western mountains; invade Septimania and establish

themselves in Languedoc

Pelayo, successor (718-737) to the Visigothic king Roderick,

establishes the Christian kingdom of the Asturias, a theocratic

monarchy

Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khalani invades France, attacks Narbonne, Beziers,

Agde, Lodeve, Montpellier, and Nimes

720

Death of Omar; Yazid II, Abd al-Malik's third son, caliph 720-724

Muslims capture Barcelona

[N.B.: The rapidity of the Islamic conquest of the Hispanic peninsula

was due partly to the strife between the Visigothic overlords, and

partly to the preference of the natives for the Muslims. For the

natives -- a conglomerate of Germanic Suevi, Vandals, Russian Alani,

Byzantines, Romans, Jews, Phoenicians, Celtiberians, and Basques -- the

invading conglomerate of Muslim Berbers, Iranians, Yemenites, and Arabs

had more in common than their recent Visigothic rulers with the faded

civilization of the western Roman empire's richest province --

especially for the centuries-old Jewish communities, whom the Visigoths

persecuted., e.g., in 681, the Council of Toledo ordered the burning of

the Talmud, and in 682, the new Visigothic king, Earwig, opened his

reign by passing 28 laws against Jews and pressing for the "utter

extirpation of the pest of the Jews"]

721

10th June, Battle of Toulouse. Aquitainians and Franks under duke Eudo

of Aquitainia annilihate al-Khalani's forces

722-724

Revolt of Yazid ibn Muhallib in Mesopotamia; battle of Akra, defeat and

death of Yazid

War between southern Arabs (Yememites) and northern Arabs (Qais)

throughout

Muslim lands, esp in Khorasan and Transoxania, where propaganda for

Abbasids begins

Battle of Covado, Pelayo of Asturias defeats Muslim forces, beginning

the Christian Reconquista of Spain

724

Death of Yazid II; his brother, Hisham, caliph 724-743

725

Muslims raid Gaul as far as Autun

727-733

Conquest of Georgia. Muslims defeat the Khazars

732

Muslim forces under Abd ar-Rahman al-Ghafiqi, governor-general of

al-Andalus, invade France, defeat Aquitainians near Bordeaux

China condemns Manichaeism as a perverse doctrine, but the emperor

HsuanTang permits it to Iranian exiles, as foreigners, for their

competency in astrology and astronomy

10th October, battle of Tours (Poitiers); Charles Martel defeats

al-Ghafiqi, halting the Muslim advance into western Europe

[N.B.: Chinese artists, borrowing freely from Iranian forms since the

arrival of Alopen, and adapting them, produce the first true porcelain

under the emperor Hsuan Tang 721-756]

737

Muslim forces seize Avignon

738

Khawarij revolt in Mesopotamia

Sogdians, supported by Turkomans of Transoxania, revolt in Khorasan;

crushed by Khalid ibn Abdallah al-Kasri, governor-general of Khorasan

739

Berber Muslims revolt in North Africa and Spain against the primacy of

Arab Muslims, defeat Muslim forces sent from Syria

Battle of Akroinon, Byzantines defeat Muslims in Anatolia

740

Shi'ites revolt in Mesopotamia; defeat and death of Zayd, grandson of

Husayn ibn Ali

Non-Arab Muslims revolt in Al-Andalus against the exclusivity of Arab

Muslims, refuse to pay taxes

741-742

Revolt of Khawarij and Berbers in North Africa, crushed by Hanzala,

governor general of North Africa

Muslim civil war in Spain between Muslim Syrian forces under Talaba ibn

Salama and non-Arab African and native Spanish Muslims (Musta'rib -

Mozarabe)

743-744

Death of Hisham; his nephew, Walid II, caliph 743, killed in a revolt

led by his cousin, Yazid III, who succeeds Walid II as caliph; Yazid

III dies a few months later and Marwan II, grandson of Marwan I,

becomes caliph

744

Syrian Muslims revolt (Homs)

745-747

Khawarij revolt in Mesopotamia. Revolt in Arabia, rebels seize Mecca

and Medina

Shi'ites and Khawarij revolt in Mesopotamia and Persia under Abdallah,

grandson of Ja'far, brother of the caliph Ali

Abbasid revolts in Khorasan, led by Abu Muslim. Nasir, Marwan's

governor of Khorsan, defeated at Nishapur and Jurjan by Abu Muslim's

general, Kahtaba, who routs Umayyad forces at Nehawand and Kerbela

Emperor Constantine V Copronymos carries war into Syria

[746 - epidemic of plague in the eastern Empire]

748

Byzantines destroy the Muslim fleet off Cyprus

ABBASID CALIPHATE 750-1258

750

Abu-l-Abbas proclaimed caliph; Umayyad revolts against the Abbasids in

Syria and Mesopotamia

Battle of the Zab, defeat of Marwan, who flees to Egypt and is murdered

at Busir

Slaughter of Umayyad princes begins

Abd ar-Rahman ibn Mu'awiya ibn Hisham (b 731), grandson of the caliph

Hisham, escapes the Abbasid slaughter of his kindred and flees to his

mother's Berber relatives in North Africa

751

Battle of Talis; Muslims defeat Chinese forces under Kao Hsien-chih and

seize Turkestan from China

751-790

Buddhist monk Wu-k'ung begins a pilgrimage throughout Central Asia to

India in protest of the suppression of Buddhism by Islam

754

Death of Abu-l-Abbas; his brother, Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad

Al-Mansur, caliph

Revolt of Abdallah, al-Mansur's uncle and governor general of Syria,

crushed by Abu Muslim

Al-Mansur orders Abu Muslim's assassination, moves the Islamic capital

from Damascus to Baghdad [Madinat al-Salaam = city of peace]

755

Revolt of Abu Muslim's adherents in Khorasan

Yusuf al-Fahri, governor-general of al-Andalus, attacks, and is

defeated in battle by, the Umayyad prince Abd ar-Rahman ibn Mu'awiya

756

Abd ar-Rahman captures Seville (March) and Cordoba (May); proclaims

himself Abd ar-Rahman I "al-Dakhil" (the Immigrant), first Umayyad

Amir-al Qurtubi. Christians and Jews tolerated in return for payment of

one gold dinar per annum

UMAYYAD EMIRATE OF CORDOBA 756-1031

758

Byzantine invasions repulsed with great slaughter. Muslims reoccupy

Cappadocia, Melitene, Mopsuestia, other cities rebuilt and refortified

against Byzantines

759

Muslims subjugate and annex Tabaristan. Pepin the Short drives Muslims

from Narbonne

762

Shi'ites revolt under the Hasanids in Mesopotamia and Medina. Khazar

invasion of Georgia repulsed. Al Mansur laid the foundations of his

Round City in Baghdad.

[N.B. A mile and a half in diameter, walled and moated, it contained

government offices, mosques, prisons, baths, houses for officials and

servants, and shops. At the centre of the circle was the Palace of the

Golden Gate, built of mud bricks and surmounted by the statue of a

mounted warrior. A later saying: "A poor man in Baghdad is like a Quran

in the house of an infidel."]

763, 769

Abbasids, Pepin, and (769) Charlemagne support uprisings of Muslim

Arabs in Cordoba against Abd ar-Rahman, over the emir's policies of

toleration of Jews and Christians. Both uprisings crushed by the emir

765

Shi'a Islam splits into two major sects, Imamiyya and the extremist

Ismailiya

767

Revolt of Ustad Sis in Khorastan and Sistan

768,776

Umayyad columns harassed in Cordoba by forces of the Miknasa Berber

Shakya; rebels occupy Merida

774

Abd ar-Rahman crushes revolt of Syrians in Cordoba

775

Death of Al-Mansur; his son, Muhammad ibn Mansur al-Mahdi, caliph

775-785

Al-Mahdi establishes a form of Inquisition to root out Muslim heretics

775-778

Revolt of Mokanna, the Veiled Prophet, in Khorasan. Persecution of

Iranian Manichaeans

Rise of the Zanadiqa [dualists] in Khorasan, western Iran, and

Mesopotamia

776-778

Zaragossa's Muslim governor conspires with Abbasids against Abd

ar-Rahman the emir. An appeal to Charlemagne results in Charlemagne's

invasion (777) of Spain, checked by the Muslims' heroic defence of

Zaragossa. Rebellion in Saxony forces Charlemagne to withdraw his

forces (778). Crossing the Pyrenees, the rear guard is cut up and the

baggage train looted by Basques (resulting in the epic Song of Roland)

778

Battle of Germanikeia, Byzantines defeat Muslims and expel them from

Anatolia (779)

781

Insurrection against Muslim rule in Zaragossa continues

c782

The Iranian Sufi Geber (Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan) separates alchemy

from the study of chemistry and lays the foundations for study of the

latter

783-785

Muslim advances and attacks on Constantinople under the generalship of

al-Mahdi's younger son, later Haroun al-Rashid

The empress Irene sues the caliph al-Mahdi for peace, begins indemnity

payments to the caliph

785

Death of al-Mahdi; his son, Abu Abdallah Musa ibn Madi al-Hadi, son

al-Khayzuran, a Yemenite slave kidnapped by bedouin and sold to

al-Mahdi, caliph 785-786

Abd ar-Rahman of Cordoba purchases the Christian half of the church of

St Vincent, razes it, and begins construction begins on the Great

Mosque (originally the Aljama Mosque to honor his wife)

786

Death of al-Hadi; his younger brother, Haroun al-Rashid, also a son of

al-Khayzuran, caliph 786-809

[NB: The reigns of Haroun al-Rashid and al-Ma'mun, Haroun's son by a

Persian slave, famed in Persian tales which became the Thousand and One

Nights, were the greatest of the Abbasid caliphate. Baghdad became a

centre of education, attracting immigrants from all over the world,

including Jews and Christians; and, for a time, the largest city in the

world. While Haroun and Ma'mun fostered science, math, literature, and

poetry, Charlemagne's lords "were reportedly dabbling in the art of

writing their names."]

787

Haroun annexes Kabul and Sanhar

788

Death of Abd ar-Rahman I of Cordoba; his son Hisham I (b 756) emir of

Cordoba 788-796

Campaigns against the Christians of Asturias; introduction of liberal

doctrines, contested by Arab notables

791-809

War with the Byzantine empire

Battle of Heraclea (Dorylaeum), defeat of the emperor, peace concluded

(798). Khazar invasion of Armenia repulsed (799). Muslim invasion of

Asia Minor; Muslim fleet ravaged Cyprus (805) and Rhodes (807);

captured Tyana (806). Muslims advance to Ancyra, capture Iconium and

Ephesus in Lydia, reduce Sideropolis, Andrasus, and Nicaea; storm

Heraclea Pontica on the Black Sea

792

Hisham of Cordoba proclaims jihad against the Christians of Spain and

France

Muslim forces from North Africa and Syria arrive in Al-Andalus

794

Battle of Lutas; Muslims defeated by Asturians under Alfonso II,

grandson of Alfonso I by a Muslim Arab woman

796

Death of Hisham I; his son al-Hakam al-Rabdi (b 771) emir of Cordoba

796-822

[N.B.: Himself a poet, Hakam was interested in science and literature.

He continued the liberal doctrines of his father, but was troubled by

violence from non-Arab Muslims, who objected to the primacy of Arab

Muslims, as well as revolts by Arab notables in Cordoba (805, 817) and

Toledo (814) against the government's toleration of Christians and

Jews]

797

Day of the Ditch. Hakam I of Corboba invited leaders of the dissidents

to a banquet, had them seized, beheaded, and their heads thrown from

the walls

798

The empress Irene again buys peace from the caliph Haroun al-Rashid

799

Basques revolt and murder Muslim governor of Pamplona

Khazar invasion of Armenia repulsed

MEDIEVAL WARM PERIOD c800-1300

800

Charlemagne crowed Holy Roman Emperor in the west, proposes marriage to

Irene to re-united the Roman empire

Christian revolts against Muslim rule in Toledo, Merida, Lisbon

brutally suppressed after ten years

801

Charlemagne's forces take Barcelona from Muslims, establish frontier

between Christian France and Muslim Spain

Aghlabid dynasty of Tunis, founded by Ibraihim ibn Aghlab, Haroun's

governor of North Africa; conquered Sicily, took Malta and Sardinia,

invaded southern Italy (827-878); destroyed by the Fatimids of Egypt

(909)

802

Isaac the Jew, Charlemagne's emissary to Haroun, arrives in Aachen with

Haroun's ambassadors, the caliph's assurances that Christians in the

Holy Land will be well treated

[N.B.: presents from the caliph: silks, vials of rare perfume, jars of

costly salves, a vast tent with as many apartments as a palace and

curtains of "byssos silk dyed in many colours", a brass water clock

which dropped

bronze balls on a bowl beneath to mark the hours and twelve knights who

emerged from twelve windows whose motion caused the windows to shut

behind them, and an elephant named Abu l'Abbas after the founder of the

Abbasid dynasty. Abu l'Abbas was a great hit and accompanied the

emperor on all his travels]

803

Bani Qasi revolt in Tudela against Hakam I of Cordoba Nicephoros I, who

deposed Irene (802), refuses to pay tribute

[N.B.: By emissaries to to Haroun al-Rashid, his most dangerous enemy

after Charlemagne: "The queen considered you a rook and herself a pawn.

That pusillanimous female submitted to pay a tribute the double of

which she should have exacted from you barbarians. Restore, therefore,

the fruits of your injustice." Haroun smiled, drew his famous scimitar,

and 'cut asunder the feeble arms of the Greeks.' His response: "In the

name of the most merciful God, Haroun al-Rashid, Commander of the

Faithful, to Nicephoros the Roman dog: I have read your letter, O son

of an unbelieving mother. You shall not hear -- you shall behold my

reply." Whereupon Haroun's armies scourged Imperial lands, and

Nicephoros was forced to buy uneasy peace at a greater price than the

pusillanimous female Irene had paid]

805

Revolt of the Suburb in Cordoba and Merida, spearheaded by Muslim

religious leaders conspiring to assassinate the emir. Royal troops

surrounded the district; the leaders were captured and executed, the

inhabitants massacred, and the district razed; then rebuilding

commenced, with a new population

806

Franks take Pamplona. Christians revolt in Toledo against Muslim rule;

Muslims behead 700 men,

women, and children

808

Revolt in Khorasan; invasion of Byzantines under Nicephora

809

Death of Haroun; his son (by his cousin Zubayda bint Ja'far ibn

Mansur),

Muhammad ibn Haroun, Abbasid caliph 809-813. Al-Amin's brother, Abu

Jafar

al-Ma'mun ibn Harun, proclaimed caliph in Iran; revolt in Iran

810

Iranian mathematician Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarazmi begins study of

Hindu

equations, invents algebra

811

Charlemagne conquers Catalonia

Christians revolt in Toledo against Muslim rule

813

Siege of Baghdad by Tahir ibn Husayn, al-Ma'mun's general. Al-Amin

surrenders to his brother, al-Ma'mun, who has him beheaded

Abu Jafar al-Ma'mun ibn Harun, Haroun al-Rashid's by an Iranian slave,

caliph 83-833

[NB: Liberal religious attitudes flourish under al-Ma'mun.

Mu'tazilitism (which maintained the free will of man, and that justice

and reason control God's actions towards men) made the established

faith; orthodox Ash'arites reject the liberal Mu'tazilite doctrines.

Ma'mun establishes the House of Wisdom in Baghdad under the direction

of Hunayn ibn Ishaq, a Christian scholar. Greek, Syriac, Persian, and

Sanskrit philosophical, scientific, and literary works are translated

into Arabic. Hunayn ibn Ishaq (809-877) tr

works of Hippocrates, Galen, and some of Ptolemy; al-Farghani (d 850)

set up an astronomical observatory, his work was continued by

al-Battani (858-929) and Thabit ibn Qarra (826-901), who tr Greek

mathematical and physics texts of Apollonius, Ptolemy, and Euclid; the

Iranian mathematician al-Khwarizimi introduced Hindu numerals and

calculation methods; al-Rhazi (Razes, 865-925), chief physician of the

Baghdad hospital, and encyclopaedist, wrote texts on gynecology,

obstetrics, ophthalmic surgery, and was the first to

distinguish between smallpox and measles; the Iranian ibn Sina

(Avicenna, 980-1037) canon of medicine remained compulsory reading for

medical students in European universities until the 17th century]

817

Shi'a Muslims revolt in Mesopotamia and Arabia. Ali al-Ridha,

descendant of the caliph Ali, proclaimed al-Ma'mun's heir

818

Christians revolt in Cordoba. Hakam looses his troops for three days of

pillage and massacre, crucifies some 300 Christian notables, and expels

20,000 Christians

819

Muslim revolt against Christian rule in Pamplona

820

Revolt of the Tahirids of Khorasan begins

822

Death of Hakam I of Cordoba; his son, Abd ar-Rahman II (b 792)

al-Mutawasit emir of Cordoba 822-852.

A patron of the arts and literature, Rahman II suppressed all rebellion

during his reign, warred against the Asturians and the Franks, whom he

drove back from Catalan

First appearance of Viking raiders along the coasts

824

Insurrection in Pamplona crushed. Basques annihilate a Frankish army at

Roncesvalles

825

Arabs expelled from Cordoba invade and seize Crete, plunder the Greek

islands

Muslims invade Christian territory from Coimbra and Viseu

827

Abd ar-Rahman II financed Christian revolt against Christian rule in

Barcelona

828

Major revolts of Berber Muslims and Spanish muwali ("neo-Muslims") in

Merida, brutally crushed by Abd ar-Rahman II

829-833

Byzantine invasions in support of Babek the Magian, leader of the

Kurramites of Azerbaijan

833

Death of al-Ma'mun; his brother, Abu Ishaq al-Mu'tasim ibn Haroun,

caliph 833-842

Formation under al-Mu'tasim of standing army composed of slave-soldiers

(ghilman) seized as children from conquered regions

834

Revolt of the Jat (Gypsies) on the lower Tigris against Muslim rule

supressed

837-838

Abd ar-Rahman II suppresses revolt of Christians and Jews in Toldeo and

sacks Marseilles

Babek the Magian defeated in Azerbaijan and put to death

837-842

War with the Byzantine empire. Battle of Anzen on the Halys, Byzantines

defeated. Muslims destroy Ankara. Amorium taken (838) and preparations

made for siege of Constantinople. Storm destroys Muslim fleet

838

Bishop Bodo (823-786), palace deacon and confessor to Holy Roman

Emperor Louis the Pious, converts to Judaism while on a pilgrimage to

Rome, takes the Jewish name Eleazar, marries a Jewish lady, travels to

Umayyad Spain (839)

840

In Zaragoza, ex-bishop Bodo, now Eleazar, encourages Muslims and Jews

to resist Christians; begins correspondence with Pablo Alvaro, a

Christian knight of Cordoba. Bodo-Eleazar encourages Alvaro to return

to Judaism, while Alvaro, a Jewish convert, encourages Bodo-Eleazar to

return to Christianity

842

Death of al-Mu'tasim; his son, al-Wathiq ibn Mu'tasim, caliph 842-847

Byzantines and Muslims exchange prisoners

Under al-Wathiq, the Abbasid caliphate begins its decline

844

Vikings raid Galicia and Lisbon, plunder Seville, and are annihilated

by a combined Muslim-Jewish-Christian army from Cordoba

[Source of the legendary battle of Clavijo, where St James aids

Christians against Muslims]

846

Muslims sack Rome, vandalize the Vatican

847

Death of al-Wathiq; his brother, al-Mutawakkil 'Ala Allah Ja'far ibn

al-Mu'tasim, caliph 847-861. Byzantines retake Damietta and ravage

Cilicia.

[N.B.: Under al-Mutawakkil, liberal Mu'tazilite doctrines were abjured

and replaced by orthodox Muslim dogma. Persecution of Mu'tazilite

professors and scholars, Jews, Christians, and Shi'ites. Shi'ite

mausoleum of Husayn the Martyr destroyed]

850

Martyrs of Cordoba -- 48 Christians (Baeto-Romans, Visigoths,

Septimanians, Arabs, and Greeks -- executed for insults to Muhammad or

blasphemy against Islam

27 September - Adolphus and John, sons of a Christian woman by a Muslim

father, are beheaded for insults against Muhammad

Arabs invent coffee

851

18th April, Easter Sunday -- Perfectus refuses to retract the insults

he made against Muhammad and is beheaded

5th June -- Sanctius, a Septimanian prisoner of war, beheaded for

refusing to convert to Islam

7th June - Peter, Walabonsus, Sabinian, Wistremundus, and Habentius,

Spanish churchmen, are beheaded for publicly denouncing Muhammad;

Jeremiah, an old man, is beaten to death

16th July -- Sisenandus of Estremadura, deacon of church of St Acisclus

in Cordoba, beheaded

20th July -- Paul, deacon of St Zoilus, behaded

25th July -- Theodemir, a monk, beheaded

22 October-- Alodia and Nunilo, daughters of a Christian mother and a

Muslim father; their Muslim stepfather persecuted them, had them

imprisoned, and their were beheaded

24th November-- Flora and Maria, daughters of Christian-Muslim

marriages, denounced Islam in court; Flora, daughter of a Muslim

father, was executed for apostasy, and Maria, sister of the Walabonsus

executed in June, executed for blasphemy

852

13th January - Gusemindus, a priest, and Servusdei, a monk, executed in

Cordoba

3 June-- Isaac, a Muslim notary, resigns and becomes a monk; denounces

Islam and Muhammad, and is executed

27th July - Giorgias, a Palestinian monk, Aurelius and Felix and their

wives Natalia and Liliosa, denounced Islam and were executed

20th August-- Leovigild, a priest, and Christopher, a monk, executed in

Cordoba

15th September-- Emilas and Jeremiah imprisoned then beheaded for

insults to Muhammad

Death of Abd ar-Rahman II; his son, Muhammad I, emir of Cordoba

852-886; suppressed Christian (Mozarab) rebellion in Cordoba (852);

begins extensive military operations against the Christian kingdoms of

Leon, Galicia, and Navarre

Bishop Reccared of Corboda preaches tolerance of Islam and submission

to Muslim authorities

16th September-- Rogellus and Servus-Dei executed for entering a mosque

and denouncing Islam

853

13th June -- Fandilas abbot of Penalmaria near Cordoba beheaded for

insults to Muhammad

14th June -- Anastasius deacon of Acliscus, Felix a Berber convert, and

Digna, a nun, executed

15th June -- Benilidis, inpsired by Anastasius, denounces Islam, is

executed and her ashes thrown into the Guadalaquivir

17th September -- Columba, a nun, denounces the authorities for closing

her convent in 852, insults Muhammad, and is beheaded

19th September -- Pomposa, a nun from Penamelaria, insults Muhammad to

the court and is beheaded

854

11th July -- Abundius, parish priest of Ananelos, near Cordoba, is

beheaded and his body thrown to dogs

Rebellion of Muslims and Mozarabs in Toledo, aided by Ordono I of

Asturias, crushed by Muhammad I

855

30th April -- Amator, a priest, Peter, a monk, and Ludovicus executed

for blaspheming Islam

Witisind, a convert to Islam who recanted, executed for apostasy

3rd September -- Sandila

856

17th April -- Elias, a priest, and his two young students, Paul and

Isidore, executed

28th June -- Argymirus, the emir's censor, deprived of his office

because of his religion, becomes a monk; accused of publicly insulting

Muhammad and proclaiming the divinity of Jesus, offered mercy if he

recanted, refuses and is executed

19th July -- Aura, a Muslim, denounced by Muslims relatives for

becoming a Christian and a nun, forced to renounce Christianity,

continues to practice it in secret; brought by her family before the

court, refuses to recant again and is executed

857

13th March -- Solomon and Roderick, a priest, accused of apostasy by

his Muslim brother and executed

859

Vikings raid the Iberian coast, capture and ransom the king of Pamplona

11 March -- Eulogius, a priest who encouraged the Martyrs of Cordoba,

executed for proselytizing Christianity and protecting Leocritia, a

Muslim girl who converted from Islam

18th March -- Leocritia, a girl converted from Islam by a Christian

relative, executed for apostasy

861

Al-Mutawakkil assassinated by his Turkoman guards; his son,

al-Muntasir, caliph 961-862

862-869

Al-Muntasir deposed by his Turkoman guards; his cousin, al-Musta'in,

grandson of al-Mu'tasim, caliph 866. Al-Mu'tasim forced to abdicate,

then murdered by al-Mu'tazz, caliph 866-869

863

Abdallah, second son of the Cordoban emir, is married to Oneca of

Navarre, daughter of Fortun Garces by his Muslim queen Aurea bint Lope

864

19th October -- Laura, a Muslim widow who converted to Christianity and

became a nun, executed for apostasy by being thrown into a vat of

molten lead

868

Revolt against Muslims in Merida. Southern Syria (Palestine) annexed to

Egypt

869

Al-Mu'tazz murdered by his troops; al-Muhtadi, son of al-Wathiq, caliph

869-870

869-884

Revolts of the Zenj [black slaves] in Chaldaea, which devastated the

region, begin

870

Al-Muhtadi forced to abdicate by his Turkoman guards; al-Mu'tamid,

oldest surviving son of al-Mutawakkil, caliph 870-892

872

Samanids succeed the Tahirids in Transoxania; stamp out the Saffrids,

and rule the territory from Baghdad to India, from the Great Desert to

the Persian Gulf, until 999. Under the Samanids, Bokhara became the

intellectual centre of Islam. Their power was broken in 999 by the Ilak

khans of Turkestan, who ruled Transoxania, Kashar, and eastern Tatary

999-1165

878

Aghlabids from North Africa invade Sicily and take Palermo (831);

Byzantines retain only Taormina and Syracuse

879

"Neo-Muslims" of Cordoba, headed by Umar ibn Hafsun, revolt against the

Arab elite and the primacy of Arab Muslims

879

Yaqub ibn Layth of the Saffrids drives the Tahirids from Khorasan,

establishes himself in Sistan, eventually masters all Iran

883

Byzantine forces invade Syria; driven back by the Tulunid governor of

Tarsus

886

Death of Muhammad I of Cordoba; his son, al Mundhir (b 842), emir

886-888; al Mundhir succeeded by brother, Abdallah I the Pious (b 848),

emir 888-912, under whom repeated rebellions erupted.

[N.B. Scholar, poet, and linguist, Abdallah was the most pious of the

Umayyad emirs, hence the sobriquet. His wife was Oneca, daughter of the

Christian king of Navarre by his Muslim wife Aurea bint Lope ibn Musa

of the Banu Qasi. Their favorite grandson was Abd ar-Rahman, greatest

of the Umayyad caliphs, son of their son Muhammad (b 876) by a Frankish

or Basque jarya named Maria. Under Abdullah's reign, rebellions erupted

repeatedly. In legend, Abdallah had the plains around Cordoba thickly

planted with almond trees, so that their flowering might appease his

wife's homesickness by reminding her of the mountain snows of her

homeland]

["Among the Abbasids only three Khulafa were sons of a hurra, and

among the Umayyads of Andalusia not a single son of a free woman

succeeded in becoming khalifa." Ibn Hazm]

891-906

Carmathian revolt against Muslim rule; rebels overrun and ravage Syria,

Iraq, and Arabia; seize Mecca and carry off the sacred Black Stone

892

Death of al-Mu'tamid; al-Mutadid, caliph 892-902. Wars with Islamic

Egypt begin

902

Death of al-Mu'tadid; al-Muqtafi, caliph 902-908. Egypt brought under

the caliph's direct control. Byzantines repulsed. Carmathian revolt

crushed (906)

908

Death of al-Muqtafi; his brother, al-Muqtadir, caliph 908-932

Conquest of North Africa by the Fatimid Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah,

who drove the last Aghlabite, Ziyada-tullah, out of Egypt

909

Ubayd-Allah, son of the Ismailian (Shi'ite) Hidden Imam, founder of the

Fatimid dynasty, who claimed descent from the caliph Ali and Fatima,

proclaimed caliph, imam, and mahdi in Qairowan.

FATIMID CALIPHATE OF EGYPT 909-1256

912

Death of Abdallah the Pious of Cordoba; his favorite grandson, Abd

ar-Rahman III (b 7 Jan 891), first caliph of Islamic Spain, greatest

and most gifted of the Spanish Umayyads; Hasdai ben Isaac ibn Shaprut,

the emir's physician and chief minister

[N.B.: Under Rahman III and his son, Cordoba reached its zenith as the

greatest capital of Islam, as well as of the Christian West; for a

time, it was the most populous city in the world, as well as the most

literate, and the first urban European economu since the Roman Empire.

The contributions of Abd ar-Rahman and his son to Europe can hardly be

over-estimated -- this in the face of continuing wars against

Christians as well as against fellow Muslims

Under Hakam II, the caliphate of Cordoba reached an apogee as a world

centre of science, culture, and the arts. A semi-invalid, one of his

major accomplishments was the amassing and annotating of 4,000 books of

his personal library; the great library of Cordoba he founded contained

almost half a million volumes. Widespread toleration of Christians and

Jews, industrial progress, agricultural advances, development of huge

paper mills. The aristocracy was almost extinguished, and replaced by a

large, well-to-do middle class. Pacification of country, centralization

of government, naval activity. Cordoba the capital, whose population

was appx 500,000, was the greatest intellectual centre in the Islamic

world, certainly of Europe, and,

at the time, the largest city in the world; its schools of medicine,

mathematics, science, and philosophy were pre-eminent, as well as

poetry and music. Height of Islamic learning was achieved by Isn Rushd

(Averroes),

phiopsopher, physician, commentator on Plato and Aristotle, and master

of Christian, Muslim, and Jewish scholars who traveled from Europe and

the Middle East to study]

Sons of Abd ar Rahman: Hakam II (914 - 976), Abd al-Jabbar (b 916),

Suleiman (b 918), Abd al-Malik (b 920), Ubayd Allah (b 922)

916

Battle of Valdejunquera, Abd ar-Rahman defeats Ordono II of Leon

917

Battle of San Estevan de Gormaz, Ordono II of Leon defeats Abd

ar-Rahman

918

Battle of Talavera, Abd ar-Rahman defeats Ordono II of Leon

920

Aleppo Codex, oldest existing manuscript of the Jewish bible

923

Buwayhids -- Imad al-Dawla, Rukn al-Dawla, Mu'izz al-Dawla -- conquer

Iran and Iraq, divide the territory between them. Mu'izz al-Dawla

forces the Baghdadi caliph to grant him the title Amir al-Umara (945)

Owing largely to internal divisions, the Buwayhid territories are

eventually seized by the Ghaznavids, by the Kurdish Kakwayhids, and,

ultimately, by the Seljuks (1007-1057)

924

Abd ar-Rahman III defeats the Basque forces of his cousin Sancho

Garces, king of Navarre; sacks Pamplona

927

Battle of Melilla; Abd ar-Rahman III seizes the North African

stronghold as an advance base for operations against the Fatimids of

Egypt

928-1024

Zayarids established themselves as independent rulers in Tabaristan,

Jurjan, Isfahan, and Hamadan; patrons and supporters of the Iranian

Buwayhids

929

Abd ar-Rahman proclaims himself Khalifa, Amir al-Mu'minim, Amir

al-Quiturbi, asserting his supremacy over rival Fatimid caliphs in

Cairo, and especially over Baghdadi Abbasid caliphs, slaughters of his

great-grandfather's kindred

929

Hamdanids, descendants of the Arab clan of Taghlib, seize power in in

Mosul and Aleppo. Sayf al-Dawla takes Aleppo from the Ikhshidids of

Egypt (944); wara against the Byzantine empire. The court of Sayf

becomes a brilliant Islamic centre, residence of the great poet

Mutannabi. Hamdanid dominions are eventually seized by the Fatimids and

Buwayhids (1003)

931

Abd ar Rahman seizes the North African stronghold of Ceuta; begins

intrigues with Fernan Gonzalez, Count of Burgos, via which Burgos

expands at the expense of neighboring Christian kingdoms. Subsequently,

Burgos achieves autonomy as the kingdom of Castile

933

Battle of Osma, Fernan Gonzalez defeats the caliph's forces

934

Death of Ubayd-Allah; his son, Abu Al-Qasim Muhammad al-Qaim, Fatimid

caliph 934-945

Al-Qaim continued Fatimid expansionism, but his forces were repeatedly

defeated, and he was ultimately besieged in his capital by Khariji

forces under Abu Yazid Makhlad

939

Battle of Alhandega, the caliph's forces defeated. Battle of Shant

Markas, Ramiro II of Leon defeats the caliph. Christians recapture

Madrid

945

Death of Al-Qaim; his son, Ismail al-Mansur, Fatimid caliph and mahdi

945-952, defeated Abu Yazid Makhlad (947), conquered North Africa,

Sicily, and Calabria for the Fatimids, but lost Morocco to Abd ar

Rahman, caliph of Cordoba

950

Otto I the Great, Holy Roman Emperor, exchanges ambassadors with Abd

ar-Rahman, caliph of Cordoba

952

Death of al-Mansur; his son, Ma'ad al-Mu'izz li'ni Il'h, Abbasid caliph

952-975

955

Treaty between Abd ar-Rahman of Cordoba and Ordono III of Leon. The

caliph recognizes the independence of Leon and Navarre, the latter

acknowledges the caliph's suzerainty and begins indemnity payments

957

Treaty of 955 between Abd ar-Rahman and Ordono of Leon broken by the

king's brother and successor, Sancho, who, after his defeat by Muslim

forces, is deposed and expelled from Leon

959

Abd ar-Rahman III executes one of his sons for conspiracy against him;

restores Sancho of Leon to check the expansion of Count Fernan Gonzalez

of Burgos (the kingdom of Castile since 946)

Hasdai ben Isaac ibn Shaprut, the caliph's physician and foreign

affairs minister, corresponds with Joseph, ruler of the Jewish kingdom

of the Khazars

961

Death of Abd ar-Rahman III; his son, al Hakam II (b 914) al Mustansir

Cordoba caliph 961-976; al-Hakam continues his father's intrigues

against the Christian kingdoms, eventually forcing their rulers to sue

for peace. At the same time, his forces wage successful war against the

Fatimids in Morocco and North Africa

966

Riots in Jerusalem. Muslims torch the Church of the Holy Sepulchre

Ma'ad al-Mu'izz drives Byzantine forces out of Sicily

Vikings raid Galicia, routed by Bishop Rudesind of Santiago de

Compostela, who kills the Viking chief Gundred

968

Fatimids under Al-Mu'izz subdue Egypt, attack southern Syria

(Palestine) and the Hijaz. Fatimid seat of government transferred to

al-Mansureya (972), which al-Mu'izz renames Al-Qahira (The Subduer), as

it was founded in the month of Mars (Qahir). Foundation in al-Qahira

(Cairo) of Al-Azhar mosque

970

Hakam of Cordoba receives embassies from the king of Navarre, the

regent of Leon, and the counts of Burgos (later Castille), Galicia, and

Barcelona, who render formal homage and pay tribute

Death of Hasdai ben Isaac ibn Shaprut, court physician and chief

minister under Abd ar-Rahman III, patron of Jewish scholars under Moses

ben Enoch, rabbi of Cordoba, the centre of Talmudic study

971

Vikings raid Galicia

973

Hakam's forces defeat Fatimid forces in Morocco, and replace their

dynasts with Umayya rule

974

Ibn Tumlus rebels in Seville, crushed by the caliph's forces from

Cordoba

975

Al-Mu'izz's successor, Abu al-Mansur Nizar al-Aziz, son of al-Mansur,

defeats Tayyids in southern Syria (Palestine) (982), invades northern

Syria and attacks the Hamdanids of Aleppo, Byzantine vassals, thereby

provoking war with the Byzantine empire.

[N.B.: Al-Aziz formed the first units of Mamelukes -- slave-soldiers,

kidnapped as children from Christian families in southern Russia and

the Black Sea area, and forcibly converted to Islam. Egyptian state

finances regularized by Yaqub ibn Yusuf ibn Killis (930-991), a

Baghdadi Jew, al-Aziz's Grand Vizer after 979, founder (988) of

Al-Azhar University in Cairo]

976

Death of Hakam II of Cordoba; his son (by his Basque wife Aura) Hisham

II al-Mu'ayyad (b 964) caliph 976-1008

[N.B.: As a boy of 12, Hisham was governed by regents, from whom the

hayib (chamberlain) Muhammad ibn Abi 'Amir, seized power. Under Hakam

II, the former law student became manager of Hisham's estates. From

this humble beginning ibn Abi 'Amir worked his way up the political

ladder and was instrumental in securing Hakam's succession]

977

Subaktagin, Turkish slave of Alptagin, himself a slave and Samanid

commander in Khorasan, defeated the Rajputs, received Khorasan from the

Samanids, and founded the Ghaznivid (Yamini) dynasty (fl. 977-1186). He

extended his rule from the Oxus to the Indus and broke the power of a

Hindu confederacy of Jaipal king of Bhatinda, the Gurjara-Prathihara

king of Kanagu, and the Chandella king of Dhanga (997)

978

Muhammad ibn Abi 'Amir, manager of Hakam's estates, becomes

chamberlain to the caliph Hisham II

981

Battle of Atienza, ibn Abi 'Amir of Cordoba, with a force of Berbers,

Christians, and Zaragozans, and his chief rival and father-in-law,

Ghalib al-Nasiri, with a force of Andalusian Muslims and Christians

from Castile under Garcia Fernandez I

[Ibn Abi'Amir assumes the title Al-Mansur bi'Allah al-Hayib (Allah's

Victorious Chamberlain -Almanzor).

The brilliant reforming minister carried on successful campaigns

against the Christian kingdoms and the Fatimids in North Africa, and

tried to halt the ethno-religious separatism which would bring to an

end the Golden Age of Islamic Spain]

Battle of Rueda, Almanzor crushes Ramirez II of Leon and forces the

king to pay tribute to the caliph

985

Almanzor sacks Barcelona; burns the monastery of San Cugat de Valles

(986); wastes Coimbra (987); 997

sacks Santiago di Campostela in Galicia, steals the bells of the

sanctuary to humiliate Christians, and destroys the city (987); sacks

Leon, Zamaro and Sahagun (988) and Osma (989)

Abu Abdallah al-Muqaddasi writes the Ahsan al-Taqasim fi Ma'rifat

al-Aqalim (Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Climes)

990

Abu-l Ali ibn Marwan the Kurd establishes the Marwanid dynasty of

Diyar-Bakr, which rules over Aleppo, Amid, and Mayarfariquen until

1096; his domains eventually fell to the Seljuks

994

Muslims destroy the monastery of Monte Cassino

995

House of Science established in Cairo under the Fatimids. Al Hazen

(965-1038) worked on optics. Al Mushudi (d 957) compiled an

encyclopaedia of natural history. Ibn al Nafis (1210-1288) described

the lesser circulation of the blood

996

Hamza ibn Ali establishes the basis of Druze Islam

Death of al-Aziz; his son, Tariqu al-Hakim bi-Amr al-Lah, Fatimid

caliph 996-1021

[N.B.: Al-Hakim struggled with the Baghdadi Abbasids and the

Carmathians of Bahrain, both of whom opposed Ismailiyya Shia Islam,

which Hakim tried to make the official religion of Egypt. Persecution

of Jews, Christians, and non-Shia Muslims in Egypt and Syria. Laws

passed by Al-Hakim included proscription of chess, and preparing or

consuming the Egyptian vegetable dish Molokheya (Jew's Mallow); and

punished merchants who cheated by having them publicly sodomized by his

slaves. For proclaiming himself Allah, Al Hakim was known as the Mad

Caliph]

996

'Uquaylids of Mosul, of the Banu K'ab, succeeded the Hamdanids in

Mosul, expanded their dominions under Muslim ibn Quraysh, drove the

Mirdasids from Aleppo, and ruled from Baghdad to Aleppo. Their

territories were ultimately conquered and absorbed by the Seljuks

(1096)

998

Slavic general Wadih captures Fez for the caliph of Cordoba

Mahmud I of Ghazni "the Idol-Breaker", Subaktagin's successor, mastered

Khorasan and made 17 plundering raids of great destruction into the

Punjab (defeating king Jaipal 1001) to Kangra (1009), Mathura, Kanaug

(1018-1019), Gwalior (1022), and Somnath (1024-1026). Pillage and

destruction of immensely rich Hindu temples (including Saiva temple of

Somanatha) and wholesale slaughter of Hindus. His court was reknowned

for its scholars and poets. The Ghaznavids were ultimately overthrown

by the Seljuks (1930)

1002

Battle of Calatanazor, defeat of Almanzor, who dies from his wounds in

the village of Salem. Almanzor was succeeded by his son, Abd al-Malik

al-Mazaffar (1002-1008), who carried out several successful campaigns

against the Christian kingdoms. Al-Malik was succeeded by his

half-brother, Abd ar-Rahman (Shanjoul or Sanchuelo -- Little Sancho --

grandson of Sancho Garces, king of Navarre). When Little Sancho forced

the

caliph to proclaim him his heir, the Umayyad prince Muhammad al Mahdi,

cousin of the caliph, proclaimed himself caliph in 1008

1003

Muslims sack Leon

1004

Muslims sack Pisa

1008

Little Sancho forces the caliph to proclaim him his heir. The Umayyad

prince, Muhammad al-Mahdi, great-grandson of Abd ar-Rahman, proclaims

himself caliph, forces his cousin Hisham II to abdicate, executes

Little Sancho, and expels Berbers from Cordoba

1009

18th October -- Hakim the Mad orders the destruction of the Church of

the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem

1009-1027

Dynastic struggles amongst the Umeya of Cordoba and period of anarchy.

Berbers proclaim Suleiman al-Mustain, another great-grandson of Abd

ar-Rahman, caliph (1008-1010). Hisham II restored as caliph in 1010.

Suleiman seeks aid from Sancho Garces I of Castile. Muhammad II

defeated Sack of Cordoba by Berbers and Castilians. Muhammad II obtains

aid from the count of Barcelona; a Christian Catalan army defeats

Suleiman at Aqabat al-Baqar Guardio. Muhammad assassinatd (1010),

HIsham II restored as caliph by Berber troops under the Slavic general

Wadih

1010

Hakim the Mad abrogates Christian protectorate over Holy Places agreed

upon between Haroun al-Rashid and Charlemagne

1012

The Sedaqa, fourth ruler of the Hilla Mazaydids of the Banu Asid, one

of the great Arab heroes. His domains were absorbed by the Zangids

(1050)

Berbers seize Cordoba, massacre half the population, and restore

Suleiman II as khalifa al-Qurturbi (to 1017).

1013

Berbers assassinated the caliph Hisham II and expel Jews from the

caliphate. Shmuel haLevi flees to Malaga, becomes wazir to the emir of

Granada

1014

Hakim the Mad decrees the destruction of all churches and synagogues in

Egypt and Syria (Palestine)

Zahwi ibn Ziri of the Sanhaja Berbers, emir of Granada from 1016 onward

1016

Normans invade Galicia

Emir Ali ibn Hammud of Ceuta proclaims himself caliph of Cordoba.

Berbers execute Suleiman

1018

Ali ibn Hammud assassinated in Cordoba. Al-Qasim caliph 1018-1021.

Zirids of Granada defeat Abd ar Rahman IV, who proclaims himself caliph

(1021) of Cordoba

1021

Hakim the Mad disappears while on a journey. His son, Ali az-Zahir,

Fatimid caliph 1021-1036; first under the regency of his aunt, the Sitt

al-Mulk, after the Sitt's death, a group of her favorites ruled

1021

Yahya caliph of Cordoba to 1022

1022

Al Qasim restored as caliph of Cordoba 1022-1023. Abd ar-Rahman V

caliph 1023-1024. Muhammad III caliph 1024-1025. Yahya restored as

caliph 1025-1029. HIsham III restored as caliph 1027-1031

1023

Mirdasids of Aleppo, of the Banu Kilab, war with the Fatimids and

Buwayhids until overthrown and conquered by the 'Uquaylids (1079)

1024-1029

Revolt in Syria against the Fatimids. Persecution of Druze in Egypt

*1027 Shmuel haNasi, Jewish vizier of Granada

1030

Muslims defeat the emperor Romanus III in Syria

1031

Death of Hisham III, last caliph of Cordoba; end of the caliphate

[N.B.: As a result of the dynastic wars of the Umeya and their

successors, the petty Muluk al Tawa'if rise on the ruins of the

caliphate. Upon the death of Hisham III, the Yahwarids seized power in

Cordoba (1031), the Abbadids in Sevilla (1031), the Hudids in

Zaragossa, the Dhul-Nunids in Toledo (1035), the Hammudids of Malaga,

which they had ruled since 1016, in Algeciras (1039), the Zayrids of

Grenada*. Most of the petty kingdoms are absorbed by the Abbadids of

Sevilla, who summonto their aid the fanatic North African sect of the

Almoravids]

1032

Byzantine fleet under Harold Haadraade of Norway defeats Muslims off

the coast of Anatolia, ravages the North African coast

1036-1094

Ma'ad Abu Tamim al-Mustansir-billah, son of az-Zahir, Fatimid caliph.

Civil war between Turkish and Sudanese soldiers, lower Egypt ravaged by

Berbers

1037

Seljuks, a sept of the Ghazz Turks, invade Khorasan, defeat the

Ghaznavid armies, then conquer Balkh, Jurjan, Tabaristan, and Khwarezem

1046

Nair i-Khusra, a Persian visiting Egypt, finds it the only haven of

peace and prosperity in eastern Islam. In Cairo, the sultan owned

20,000 brick houses and 20,000 shops, and his palace had 12,000 slaves.

Some streets were light by lamps. Soldiers rode horses, citizens had

donkeys and asses, and crime was punished so severely that merchants

could secure their shops at night with only a cord across the entrance

1047

Mecca and Medina disclaim allegiance to the Fatimid caliphs

1048

Battle of Stragna, the empress's armies defeat the Seljuks

1050

Castille and Aragon ally against Spanish Mulsim emirates

1053

Al Mutadid, emir of Seville, expels Berber Muslims from Arcos, Moron,

Ronda, Algeciras (1055) and Carmona (1957)

1054

Almoravid dynasty, founded by Abdallah ibn Tashfin, conquer Morocco and

parts of Algeria

1055

Seljuks under Tughril Bey seize Baghdad. Tughril Bey proclaimed sultan

and King of the East and the West. Suljuks invaded Cappadocia and

Phrygia. Al-Mutadid emir of Sevilla drives Berbers from Algeciras

1060

Almoravids crush "heretical" Berghouta Berbers and conquer their

taifa in Ceuta

1062

Ferdinand of Leon forces annual tribute from al-Muktadir ibn Hud, emir

of Zaragoza; invades Toledo and Badajoz, exacts tribute from emir

al-Ma'mun, who becomes a tributary of Castile, and al-Mutadid of

Seville

1063

Death of the Seljuk Tughril, self-proclaimed Sultan and King of the

East and the West; succeeded by his nephew, Alp Arslan, who conquers

Georgia and Armenia

1065

Battle of Graus, emir Muktadir of Zaragoza, with aid from a Castilian

force, defeat Ramiro I of Aragon. The pope sends and international

force (Italians, Normans, French, Spaniards); Muslims defeated

Muslims take Barbastro, massacre French and Spanish garrison

1066

The pope blesses the Norman invasion of England

Yosef HaNagid, Jewish vizier of Granada, invites emir Mutasim of

Almeria to rule in Granada. Zirids of Sanhaja massacre 5,000 Jews of

Granada, crucify Yosef HaNagid, raze the Jewish quarter

1067

Zaragoza besieged by Sancho II of Castile and Rodrigo Diaz (El Cid -

Al Sayyid)

1070

Rashi completes his commentaries

1071

Battle of Malaz Kard (Manzikert). Seljuks under Arslan defeated the

Byzantine emperor, Romanus IV Diogenes, breaking Byzantine power in

Asia Minor

Robert Guiscard captures Bari, ending Byzantine rule in Italy

Emperor Michael VII Parapinakes appeals to pope Gregory VII for aid

against Seljuks

Seljuks capture Jerusalem

[In the 11th century, there had been 117 unidsturbed Christian

pilgrimages

to the Holy Land, until the advent of the Seljuks]

1072

Robert Guiscard takes Palermo, beginning the Norman conquest of Sicily

and southern Italy from Muslim rule

1073

Death of Arslan; his son, Malik Shah, succeeds. Malik Shah's vizier,

Nizam al Mulk was one of the ablest of the Seljuk administrators and a

patron of learning

1074

Treaty between Seljuks and Byzantines, so Michael VII can secure

military aid against his uncle; Seljuks defeat until, overrun Anatolia

1076

Almoravids sack Kumbi, capital of the Empire of Ghana

1077

Alfonso VI of Castile proclaims himself Emperor of All Spains

Seljuks seize Nicaea from Christians

1078

Revolt of Nicephoros Bataniates with Seljuk aid; forces Michael's

abdication

1079

Rodrigo Diaz Bivar, the Cid Campeador, fights for Sancho II of Castile

Battle of Cabra, defeats Abdallah emir of Granada and Count Garcia

Ordinez of Castile

Battle of Cora, Alfonso VI of Castile defeats al-Mutawakkil emir of

Badajoz, exiles El Cid (1081) who enters the service of emir

al-Mu'tamin of Zaragoza

1082

Battle of Pharsalus; Normans defeat Byzantines and seize Macedonia

Battle of Almenar; army of al-Mutamin of Zaragoza, led by El Cid,

defeats the armies of al-Mundahir of Valencia, al-Hayib of Lerida,

Sancho of Aragon, and Berenguer Ramon II of Barcelona

1083

Normans under Robert Guiscard expel the Holy Roman Emperor from Rome,

seize the pope, and sack the city

Almoravids take Ceuta and murder its ruler, al-Mu'izz ibn Suqut

1084

El Cid defeats Aragon. Alfonso begins the siege of Toledo

1085

Seljuks take Antioch from Christians

Alfonso VI of Castile captures Toledo from the Dhul-Nunids, alarming

the Abbasids of Sevilla, who appeal for aid to the fanatic Almoravids

under Yusuf ibn Tashfin. Alfonso appoints his physician, Joseph

Terruziel, Nasi of all the Jews in his kingdom

1085-1140 Yehuda HaLevi

1086

Almoravids under Yusuf ibn Tashfin (d 1106) land at Algeciras and

rampage through the south, slaughtering Christians, Jews, and

"decadent" Muslims. Alfonso calls off the siege of Zaragoza

23 October - Battle of Zallaka, Almoravids defeat Alfonso of Castile

1087

Genoese capture Mahdiya in North Africa and take command of the western

Mediterranean from Muslims

1090

Hassan Sabbah, a former schoolmate of the Seljuk vizier al-Mulk,

establishes the cult of the Hashshashin (Assassins) of the Nizari sect

of the Ismailiyya sect of Shi'a Islam

Almoravids sieze Oranda and Malaga. Emir al-Mutawakkil of Badajoz cedes

Lisbon, Sintra, and Santarem to Christians for protection against the

Almoravids

1091

After the failure of two expeditions against the Assassins, Nizam

al-Mulk is murdered by an emissary of his old schoolmate, Hassan

Sabbah, head of the Assassin cult

Almoravids sieze Cordoba, defeat Castilians allied with the emir of

Seville; seize Seville, Aledo, Almiraca and Ronda, Mertola; execute

al-Rodi, son of the emir of Seville

1094

Jan -Death of Al-Mustansir; civil war between his sons, Ahmad and Nizar

Ahmad al-Musta'li defeats his brother, then executes him, and is chosen

caliph by the regent Malik al-Afdal

May - Rodrigo Diaz takes Valencia

Almoravids seize Badajoz and Lisvbon, lay siege to Valenica; take

Santarem (1095); Yusuf ibn Tashfin's puritanical reforms strengthen

Spanish Muslims; Islamic Spain is brought into an integral relation

with his North African Empire (which, after his death in 1106, falls

apart). Jews, Christians, and Muslims leave Almoravid domains for

Toledo, and 40,000 Jews fight for Alfonso VI of Castile against the

Almoravids

Death of Malik Shah ends Muslim unity in Asia Minor. Civil war between

his son, Rukn al-Din (Barkyaruk), and his brother Muhammad over control

of Iranand Khorasan

1095

Synod of Clermont; pope receives plea from the Byzantine emperor

Alexius I Comnenus for aid against the Seljuks; proclaims first crusade

FIRST CRUSADE 1096-1099

Pope Urban II, under a revived and regenerated papacy, transforms

military assistance to Constantinople into holy war, or ecclesiastical

imperialism.

- The People's (Paupers') Crusade - leaves Cologne April 1096; a

majority

are captured and sold into slavery by Balkan Slavs; a section under

Walter

the Penniless reaches Constantinople in July, lands in Anatolia in

August,

enter Seljuk territory and are massacred October 1096

- The German Crusade: pogroms begin in the Rhine Valley, massacring

thousands of Jews

"Just at that time, there appeared a certain soldier, Emico, Count of

the

lands around the Rhine, a man long of very ill repute on account of his

tyrannical mode of life. Called by divine revelation, like another

Saul, as

he maintained, to the practice of religion of this kind, he usurped to

himself the command of almost twelve thousand cross bearers. As they

were

led through the cities of the Rhine and the Main and also the Danube,

they

either utterly destroyed the execrable race of the Jews wherever they

found

them (being even in this matter zealously devoted to the Christian

religion)" Ekkehard of Aura

"Emico and the rest of his band held a council and, after sunrise,

attacked

the Jews in the hall with arrows and lances. Breaking the bolts and

doors,

they killed the Jews, about seven hundred in number, who in vain

resisted

the force and attack of so many thousands. They killed the women, also,

and

with their swords pierced tender children of whatever age and sex. The

Jews,

seeing that their Christian enemies were attacking them and their

children,

and that they were sparing no age, likewise fell upon one another,

brother,

children, wives, and sisters, and thus they perished at each other's

hands.

Horrible to say, mothers cut the throats of nursing children with

knives

and stabbed others, preferring them to perish thus by their own hands

rather than to be killed by the weapons of the uncircumcised. From

this cruel slaughter of the Jews a few escaped" Albert of Aix

- The Barons' Crusade: French under Godfrey of Bouillon and his brother

Baldwin, and Raymond of Toulouse, Normans under Bohemond of Otranto,

reach

Constantinople December 1096; the emperor withholds food and supplies

until

the leaders swear fealty to him

1097

July -- battle of Doryaleum, Crusaders defeat Seljuks, take Nicaea, the

Seljuk capital October -- siege of Antioch begins

Battle of Bairen, El Cid defeats the Almoravids

Battle of Consuegra, Almoravids defeat Alfonso of Castile, kill Diego,

son of El Cid

Battle of Cuenca, Almoravids defeat Castilians; Yusuf ibn Tashfin

proclaims himself Amir al-Muslimin

1098

May -- Fall of Antioch; Muslims reinvest the city, but are driven off

Fatimids seize Jerusalem from the Seljuks

1099

May - Crusaders reach Jerusalem

July -- Fall of Jerusalem, massacre of Jews and Muslims

"..from the archbishop of Pisa, duke Godfrey, now, by the grace of God,

defender of the church of the Holy Sepuchre, Raymond, count of St.

Gilles,

and the whole army of God, which is in the land of Israel,

greeting...And

if you desire to know what was done with the enemy who were found

there,

know that in Solomon's Porch and in his temple our men rode in the

blood

of the Saracens up to the knees of their horses."

"Saracens, Arabs, and Ethiopians took refuge in the tower of David,

others

fled to the temples of the Lord and of Solomon. A great fight took

place in

the court and porch of the temples, where they were unable to escape

from

our gladiators. Many fled to the roof of the temple of Solomon, and

were

shot with arrows, so that they fell to the ground dead. In this temple

almost ten thousand were killed. Indeed, if you had been there you

would

have seen our feet colored to our ankles with the blood of the slain.

But

what more shall I relate? None of them were left alive; neither women

nor

children were spared." Fulk of Chartres

Death of the papal legate leaves organization to feudal magnates.

Godfrey

Of Bouillon elected king of Jerusalem, refuses the crown, is named

Defender of

the Holy Sepulchre; his brother Baldwin, Count of Edessa and King of

Jerusalem. Crusaders begin to re-establish Christian rule throughout

Syria

and Lebanon; Assizes of Jerusalem, most complete feudal code extant:

County of Edessa (Baldwin), Principality of Antioch (Bohemund), County

of Tripoli(Raymond of Toulouse) fiefs of Jerusalem. Genoa, Pisa, and

Venice profit by commerce through their ports; extend trading influence

south to the Red Sea

1100

After the death of El Cid, the Almoravids attack Valencia, occupy Spain

as far as Zaragoza, seize Valencia (1102)

1101

Death of al-Musta'li; his son, Al-Amir, caliph 1101-1130

1106

Death of Yusuf ibn Tumart; his son, Ali, succeeds. The Almohades,

founded by ibn Tumart as a religious movement to purify Islam, initiate

riots and persecute Jews, Christians, and disagreeing Muslims

1108

Battle near Toledo, Almoravids defeat Castilians, incl Sancho, son and

heir of Alfonso of Castile by his Muslim wife, Zaida

2nd May - Solomon ibn Ferusal, Jewish wazir (nasi), murdered by Muslims

1109

Caesarea, Tripoli Tyre, Sidon in Crusader hands; constant warfare

between Crusaders and Muslim Burids, Fatimids, Ortugids, and Zangids

1110-1113

War between Henry of Portugal and Alfonso I of Aragon against

Alfonso's wife Urraca, queen of Castile. Teresa Countess of Portugal

seizes power and styles herself Queen of Portugal

Byzantines war against the Seljuks (to 1117)

1111

Almoravids occupy Lisbon and Santarem

1116

Teresa of Portugal wars against Urraca of Castile

Battle of Philomelion; Byzantines defeat Seljuks, forcing the latter to

make peace at Akroinon (1117) and abandon most of western Anatolia.

Burids and Ortugids overthrow the Seljuks in Syria

1120

Spanish Jews fleeing Muslim persecution settle in Byzantium

Successful Byzantine campaign against Seljuks, southwest Anatolia

recovered

1125

Rise of the Berber sect of the Almohades (al-Muwahhidun -- "the

monotheists), founded by the Abu Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn Tumart

(1080-1130) of the Moroccan Banu Masmuda

1130

Rise of the fanatic Almohades under Abd al-Mu'min, ibn Tumart's

successor, who expand their power across North Africa, annihilate the

Almoravid army (1144), conquer Morocco (1146), subjugate Algeria

(1152), drive the Normans from Tunis (1158)

Alfonso VII of Castile founds school for the sciences in Toledo

1135

Muslims riot against Jews in Cordoba, "stormed their houses,

plundered their possessions, and killed a number of them."

John of Seville (1135-1153) translates Arabic texts on math, astronomy,

and philosophy into Latin and the vernacular

1144

Atabegs of Mosul complete Muslim reunification of Syria; capture Edessa

Gerard of Cremona (1114-1187) studies under Ibn Ghalib, native

Christian scholar, translates Ptolemy's Almagest, Euclid, Galen, and

the Hippocratic corpus; his translation remained the standard text on

astronomy until Copernicus. Gerard and ibn Ezra introduce the use of

the zero, known in Baghdad since 770

1147-1149 SECOND CRUSADE

Triggered by the Seljuks' capture of Edessa, Bernard of Clairvaux,

persuaded by the pope, reluctantly preaches a new crusade. Normans of

Sicily seize the Greek islands and attack Athens, Thebes, and Corinth.

English crusaders capture Lisbon, Portugal

Crusaders massacre Jews in the Rhineland, Cologne, Mainz, Worms, and

Speyer, over the vehement opposition of the Archbishops of Mainz and

Cologne

1148

Almohades seize Cordoba and offer the Jewish community the choice

between conversion or death. The family of Maimonides (1135-1204), like

many Jews, choose exile. Jewish property is confiscated, women and

children sold as slaves, synagogues destroyed. Muslim as well as Jewish

scholars flee the Almohades to Toledo

1160-1173

Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela travels extensively through the Middle East,

central Asia, and China; his records have little influence on Europe

due to his religion. The same reasons hold for the great geographical

works of Yaqut, and, later, the Moroccan traveler ibn Battuta

1163

Asad ad-Din Shirkuh bin Shadhi Shirkuh ("Lion Mountain"), an

Armenian Kurd, general of the Zangid ruler Nur al-Din of Damascus,

enters Egypt to aid the penultimate Fatimid caliph, Al-Adid

(1160-1171), in a civil

war over the Egyptian vizierate. Shirkuh was appointed vizier (1169),

but dies two months later, and is succeeded by his nephew, Salah ad-Din

1165

Yemeni Jews are given the choice between conversion to Islam or death

1169-1193

Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub, son of the Kurdi governor of Baalbek, and

nephew of the Zangid ruler of Damascus, vizer and sultan of Egypt,

founder of the Ayyub dynasty (1169-1250) of Egypt

1171

Saladin proclaimed al-Mustaddi, Abbasid caliph of Baghad, caliph in

Egypt. He ruled Egypt as Nur al-Din's viceroy until the latter's death

in 1173, then asserted his independence, and consolidated his power

over Egypt, Nubia, the Hejaz, Syria, and the Yemen

SECOND RESTORATION OF ISLAMIC UNITY - 1172

Islamic Spain declared a province of the Almohade empire, reducing Arab

influence to only Granada

Saladin drives the Normans out of Tripoli

1174

Saladin invades Syria (1174), seizes Damascus and Aleppo (1183), Mosul

(1185), and reduces Mesopotamia (1185-1186)

1175-1206

Muhammad of Ghor, Mu'izz-ud-Din, conquered Hindustan for his brother,

Ghiyas ud-Din Muhammad, whom he succeeded as ruler of Ghor (1203).

Battle of Tararori crushed a new Hindu uprising led by the king of

Ajmer and Delhi. Muslims occupied Delhi 1193; conquered Bihar and

massacred the Buddhist community (1197). Bengal taken 1199, and

Chandella state in Bundelkhand

1176

Battle of Myriocephalon; Seljuks defeat Byzantines

1177

Battle in Bithynia; Byzantines defeat Seljuks

1187

Saladin's jihad, provoked by Christian attack on caravan said to be

carrying his sister.

July 4th - Battle of the Horns of Hittin. Saladin destroys the army of

the kingdom of Jerusalem

October 2nd - Saladin's entry into enters Jerusalem is a virtually

bloodless conquest in marked contrast to the massacres perpetrated by

crusaders

1188

Saladin attacks Tyre, Tripoli and Antioch

THIRD CRUSADE 1189- 1122

A completely royal affair, precipitated by the fall of Jerusalem to

Saladin, led by the Holy Roman Emperor Fredrick Barbarossa, Philip II

of France, and Richard the Lionheart. The latter financed his crusade

by inciting pogroms against the Jews of England and seizing their

property along with the property of Christians who protected them; Jews

were massacred in London and York on rumours that Richard I instigated

it, attacked in Lincoln, Stamford, Lynn, Norwich, Bury St Edmunds,

Thetford. En route to the Holy Land, Richard seized Christian Cyprus,

which he sold to Guy of Lusignan

1191

July - Fall of Akko

August - Richard executes 3,000 Saracen prisoners of war (actually

Christians) before Saladin's army

September -- battle of Arsluf, north of Jaffa; Richard defeats Saladin,

takes Jaffa

1192

Truce between Richard and Saladin; the coastal plain between Jaffa and

Akko returned to Christians, with an access corridor from the coast to

Jerusalem

1195

Battle of Alarcos. Almoravids defeat Alfonso VIII of Castille,

whereupon the kings of Leon and Navarre promptly invade Castile

Muhammad of Ghor appointed his Turkestan slave, Kutb-ud-din Aibak, as

his viceroy; Aibak, killed playing polo in 1210, founded a dynasty

which ruled from Delhi until 1526

Maimonides completes Guide to the Perplexed

FOURTH CRUSADE 1202 - 1204

Pope Innocent III issues call to European monarchs, ignored by the

kings of France and England

Venetians sack the Christian city of Zara

Pope excommunicates the Crusaders

1204

Crusaders sack Constantinople with unparalleled horrors, replace the

Byzantine emperor with the Latin Empire of the East (Romania). Assizes

of Romania copied from the Assizes of Jerusalem. Venice acquires 3/4ths

of Constantinople, plus Adrianople, Gallipoli, Naxos, Andros, Euboea,

Crete, and Ionia

1211

French and English Jews settle in Palestine

1211-1236

Shams ud-Din Iltutmish, slave and son-in-law of Aibak, succeedes him in

the Ganges valley only, conquers the upper Punjab (1217), Bengal

(1225), lower Punjab and Sind (1228), Gwalior (1232), and sacked Ujjain

(1234). Shams was invested as sultan of India by Al-Mustansir, the

Baghdadi (Abbasid) caliph, in 1229

1212

Children's Crusade -- preached by Stephen of Vendome and Nicholas of

Cologne; reaches Marseilles, children sold as slaves to Muslims

Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, defeat of Almohades. Their power

declined in Spain, and they were eventually expelled from Spain,

leaving only the Nasrid dynasty of Granada to stand against the

Reconquista

FIFTH CRUSADE 1218-1221

Preached at the Fourth Lateran Council, which adopted portions of the

Muslim Code of Umar against European Jews

1219

Crusaders capture Damietta; Sultan offers Jerusalem for Damietta, but

his offer rejected

Mongols overrun Azerbaijan, Georgia, and northern Persia; invade

Transoxania, take Bokhara, Marakanda (1220); devastate Khorasan,

destroy Merv and Mishapur, and capture Herat

1221

Crusaders march on Cairo fails; treaty between Sultan and Crusaders,

Egypt retakes Damietta

SIXTH CRUSADE 1228-1229

Emperor Frederick (the "Antichrist"), excommunicated by the pope, who

calls for a crusade against Frederick's Italian domains, negotiates a

treaty with Malik al-Kamil, Saladin's nephew; peace for ten years,

granted Jerusalem, Nazareth, Bethlehem, etc, with a corridor for

Christians from the coast to Jerusalem. Crowns himself king of

Jerusalem, as the Patriarch of Jerusalem refused to crown him; the pope

renews the sentence of excommuniciation

1230

Work on the Alhambra begun

1232

Muslims massacre the Jewish community of Marrakech

1235

Ziyanid dynasty takes Algeria from the Almohades, eventually absorbed

by the Marinids of Morocco (1339)

1236

Castillians take Cordoba from the Almohades

1240-1241

Crusade of Richard of Cornwall, brother of Henry III of England,

forbidden by the pope

1241

Mongols seize the Punjab from Muslims

1243

Battle of Kosedagh; Mongols defeat the Seljuks, overrun Anatolia

1244

Muslim mercenaries capture Jerusalem from Christians

1245-1253

Mongols ravage Mesopotamia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Georgia

SEVENTH CRUSADE 1248-1251

Louis IX of France takes Damietta, marches on Cairo (1249); army

routed, Louis captured, Muslims slaughter 30,000 prisoners, Damietta

lost. Louis ransomed, spends 1251-54 on pilgrimage to Jerusalem

1256

Hulugu, grandson of Jenghiz Khan, stamps out the cult of the Assassins

1258

Hafsids conquer Tunis from the Almohades

Mongols under Hulugu capture and sack Baghdad, execute the caliph,

Musta'im, massacre 80,000, put the city to the torch; then invade Syria

and seize Aleppo

['Among the Turks and the Tatars their wives enjoy a very high

position; indeed, when they issue an order they say in it, "By

command of the Sultan and the Khatun."' Ibn Battuta

Dokuz Khatan, Hulugu's favorite wife, herself a Nestorian Christian,

favored Christians and influenced her husband to place them in posts of

responsibility.]

1260

Battle of Ain Jalut; Egyptian Mameluks under Baybars destroy Mongol

army

Baybars revives the caliphate, invites the Abbasid Ahmad Abu al-Qasim

to Caior, and knowledges him caliph as Mustansir l'Jlla

1261-1310

Ottoman Turks conquer the Aegean coast, drive out the Byzantines,

establish Turkish principalities

1263

Destruction of Christian churches, shrines, and monasteries throughout

Palestine, including the church of the Annunciation in Nazareth

(permission to rebuild the church not granted to Christians until 1730)

1269

The Polo brothers arrive in Akko with letters to the pope from Kublai

Khan. They set out again for the east in 1271 with their nephew, Marco

EIGHTH CRUSADE 1270

Louis IX of France and Edward I of England attack Tunis. Louis dies,

Crusade ends

1275

The (Nestorian Christian) patriarch of Baghdad creates the

archbishopric of Beijing

Moroccan Jews ordered to choose between conversion to Islam or death

1281

Mar Yabalaka, pilgrim from Beijing to Jerusalem, first patriarch of

Beijing; churches built in Chen-kiang, Yang-chou, and Hangchow; the

emperor creates a special bureau (1289) for Christian affairs in

Beijing; the patriarch of Beijing and the pope negotiate an entente

between the Nestorian and Roman Catholic faiths

1290

Edward I expels English Jews; Mameluks seize Akko, last Christian

stronghold in Palestine (1291)

1291

Akko falls to Muslim Mamluks of Egypt

1293

Decree issued ordering the destruction of synagogues in Egypt and Syria

1296

Marinids of Morocco seize the Moroccan capital from the Almohades

(dynasty to 1470)

1297-1316

Ala ud-Din, nephew and murderer of Firuz, successor of Balban's son,

sultan; launched a surprise attack on Devagiri in Maharashtra,

counquered and despoiled Gujarat and its rich port of Cambay;

instituted a program of repression, which included espionage;

confiscation of Hindu wealth, endowments, and tax exempt lands;

prohibition of liquor and all Hindu social gatherings

[NB: From 1229 onward, Islamic architects introduced a tradition of

spacious, light and airy prayer chambers covered by arch, vault, and

dome, erected with concrete and mortar, and ornamented with colour and

flat,

linear, conventional decoration, a formula applied with recognition of

Hindu structural styles and the excellence of Hindu ornamentation;

e.g., Aibak's mosque at Delhi was an Islamic screen of arches framed

with Hindu carving and ornamented with the plunder of 27 Hindu temples]

1301

Battle of Baphaeon. Ottoman Turks defeat the Greeks; seize Ephesus

(1304); destruction of synagogues in Egypt and Syria

1307

John of Montecorvino baptizes 5,000 Chinese and is named Roman Catholic

archbishop of Beijing

GREAT FAMINE IN EUROPE 1315-1317

1317

Siege of Bursa begins; Muslims starve town into submission 6th April

1326

1320

Tughluk dynasty, founded by Ghiyas ud-Din Tughluk, who encourages

agriculture and corrected abuses by tax collectors. Ghiyas murdered by

his son Muhammad, who succeeds him (1325-1351). Muhammad raises taxes

to exhorbitant levels to encourage rebellion, which he then put down

with great brutality and seizure of property. Tughluk dynasty survives

to 1413

1325

"I left Tangier, my birthplace, on Thursday, 2nd Rajab 725 [14th June

1325], being at that time [twenty-one] years of age, with the intention

of making the Pilgrimage to [ Mecca] and [Medina]. I set out alone,

finding no companion to cheer the way with friendly intercourse, and no

party of travellers with whom to associate myself. Swayed by an

overmastering impulse within me, and a long-cherished desire to visit

those glorious sanctuaries, I resolved to quit all my friends and tear

myself away from my home. As my parents were still alive, it weighed

grievously upon me to part from them, and both they and I were

afflicted with sorrow."

Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta of Morocco

1326

Orkhan I, sultan of the Ghazis (d 1362), expands his dominions from

Ankara to Thrace

July: "No one is allowed to pass into Syria without a passport from

Egypt, nor into Egypt without a passport from Syria, for the protection

of the property of the subjects and as a measure of precaution against

spies from Iraq. The responsibility of guarding this road has been

entrusted to the Badawin. At nightfall they smooth down the sand so

that no track is left on it, then in the morning the governor comes and

looks at the sand. If he finds any track on it he commands the Arabs to

bring the person who made it, and they set out in pursuit and never

fail to catch him. He is then brought to the governor, who punishes him

as he sees fit. The governor at the time of my passage treated me as a

guest and showed me great kindness, and allowed all those who were with

me to pass. From here we went on to Gaza, which is the first city of

Syria on the side next the Egyptian frontier."

"From Gaza I travelled to the city of Abraham [Hebron], the mosque of

which is of elegant, but substantial construction, imposing and lofty,

and built of squared stones At one angle of it there is a stone, one of

whose faces measures twenty-seven spans. It is said that Solomon

commanded the jinn to build it. Inside it is the sacred cave containing

the graves of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, opposite which are three

graves, which are those of their wives. I questioned the imam, a man of

great piety and learning, on the authenticity of these graves, and he

replied: "All the scholars whom I have met hold these graves to be the

very graves of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and their wives. No one questions

this except introducers of false doctrines; i

is a tradition which has passed from father to son for generations and

admits of no doubt." Ibn Battuta

1329-1335

Battle of Palekanon, Ottomans defeat Byzantines under the emperor

Andonicus III. Nicaea taken 2nd march 1331. Ottomans defeat Greeks at

Pelekanon, seize Nicomedia (1335)

1330

"We went on to the town of Ta'izz, the capital of the king of Yemen,

and one of the finest and largest towns in that country. Its people are

overbearing, insolent, and rude, as is generally the case in towns

where

kings reside." Ibn Battuta

1333

Baghdadi Jews ordered to choose between conversion to Islam or death

1334

Madura revolts against Muslim rule

1340

Muslim invasion and conquest of Kashmir

1344

Destruction of Iraqi synagogues. The Tughluk sultan Muhammad ibn Ghiyas

massacres tax collectors for failure to meet tax quotas

1345

Ottomans cross into Europe at the invitation of the emperor John

Cantacuzene to support his claims against the empress Anna; again in

1352

------------------------------------------------

THE GREAT MORTALITY 1347-1353

Pandemic of bubonic, pneumonic, and septicaemic plague throughout Asia

Minor, the Middle East, Europe, North Africa, India, and China

"Plague attacked almost all the seacoasts of the world, and killed

most of the people. For it swept not only through Pontos and Thrace and

Macedonia, but even Greece, Italy and all the Islands, Egypt, Libya,

Judea, and Syria." Emperor John Cantacuzenos

1347

Outbreaks of plague in the Crimea, Trebizond, Constantinople, Messina,

Genoa, Venice, and Alexandria

1348

April - in Tunis, Marinid rulers attempting to conquer Tunis were

defeated by the plague (ibn Khaldun). Plague in Gaza (10,000 reported

dead), Ashqelon, Jerusalem, Sidon, Damascus (1,000/day in

September/October), Homs, Aleppo, and Antioch. Half a million reported

dead in Syria, entire areas of Palestine depopulated. Plague in Pisa,

Genoa, Venice, Marseilles, Barcelona, Florence (April), England (June),

Spain, Portugal, France, England, the Low Countries

Arab armies in Spain considered adopting Christianity as a

preventative, until Christians, including Alfonso VIII, began dying

"Kinsfolk held aloof, brother was forsaken by brother, oftentimes

husband by wife; nay, what is more, and scarcely to be believed,

fathers and mothers were found to abandon their own children to their

fate, untended, unvisited, as if they had been strangers." Boccaccio

"And so they died. And no one could be found to bury the dead...I,

Anolo di Tura, buried my five children with my own hands, and so did

many likewise." Agnolo di Tura

"Men and women wandered around as if mad... no one had any inclination

to concern themselves with the future."

"Charity was dead." Guy de Chauliac, physician to Clement VI

"No one knew where to turn for help." Henry Knighton of Leicester

"God is deaf nowadays, and deigneth not to hear us;

And prayers have no power the Plague to stay." William Langland

1348

Ibn Battuta: "...July 1348. The viceroy Arghun Shah ordered a crier to

proclaim through Damascus that all the people should fast for three

days and that no one should cook anything eatable in the market during

the daytime. For most of the people there eat no food but what has been

prepared in the market. So the people fasted for three successive days,

the last of which was a Thursday, then they assembled in the Great

Mosque, amirs, sharifs, qadis, theologians, and all the other classes

of the people, until the place was filled to overflowing, and there

they spent the Thursday night in prayers and litanies. After the dawn

prayer next morning they all went out together on foot, holding Korans

in their hands, and the amirs barefooted. The procession was joined by

the entire population of the town, men and women, small and large; the

Jews came with their Book of the Law and the Christians with their

Gospel, all of them with their women and children. The whole concourse,

weeping and supplicating and seeking the favour of God through His

Books and His Prophets, made their way to the Mosque of the Footprints,

and there they remained in supplication and invocation until near

midday. They then returned to the city and held the Friday service, and

Allah lightened their affliction; for the number of deaths in a single

day at Damascus did not attain two thousand, while in Cairo and Old

Cairo it reached the figure of twenty-four thousand a day."

1349

Plague in Mecca, Medina Mosul, Baghdad, Ireland, Scotland, Scandanavia

1350

Plague reaches Yemen and (in 1351) northwestern Russia, killing the

Grand Duke of Moscow and the Patriarch of the Russian Church

1353-54

Plague in the Chinese and Mongol empires kills an estimated 25 millions

Arab physicians of Cordoba and Granada concur with the verdict of the

University of Paris medical faculty, requested by the king to report on

the "great affliction", called the "black plague" in a Welsh lament of

the time; it's ascribed to a triple conjunction of Saturn, Jupiter, and

Mars in Aquarius on 20th March 1345, plus "effects whose cause is

hidden from even the most highly trained intellects."

Beginning of the slaughter of European Jews, accused of collusion with

Muslims in conspiracy to destroy Christianity; thousands massacred,

more than 200 Jewish communities destroyed; survivors flee to Poland,

Russia, and Muslim lands

The deaths of an estimated 75 million worldwide precipitate substantial

socio-economic changes

------------------------------------------------

1354-61

Ottomans seize Gallipoli, advance rapidly over Thrace, conquer Ankara

(1359) and Adrianople (1361)

1362

Murad I, sultan (d 1389(. Organization of Janissary corps from

prisoners of war, alter from forced levies of Christian children

converted to Islam

1366

Ottomans move their capital from Bursa to Adrianiople

1371

Battle of Chermanon, Ottomans defeat allied Serb princes of Macedon.

Byzantine, Bulgarian, and Macedonian rulers acknowledge Ottoman

sultan's suzerainty

1377-1386

Ottomans expand into central Anatolia, capture Sofia (1385), defeat

Albanian lords at battle of Voissa, capture Nish (1386) Thessalonika

(1387), and invade Bulgaria (1388)

1380-1387

Timur the Lame, vizier of the Mongol Chagatay Khan Suyurghatmish,

overruns Khorasan, Jurjan, Mazandaran, Sijistan, Afghanistan, Persia,

Azerbaijan, and Kurdistan

1389

15th June - Battle of Kosovo, Ottomans defeat Serbs and Bosnians. Murad

assassinated by a Serb.

1389-1402

Bayazid I, Ottoman sultan, had his brother Yukub strangled and Lazar of

Serbia executed; re-established Ottoman authority in Anatolia, raided

Albania, occupied Bulgaria, executed the tsar, invaded Hungary,

commenced the blockade of Constantinople

1393

Timur the Lame seizes Baghdad, then reduces Mesopotamia

1395

Battle of Nicopolis. Hungarians and Balkan forces, supported by French,

English, and German knights and by both popes, defeated by Ottomans

1397-1399

Siege of Constantinople. Further Ottoman conquests in Greece, Ottomans

annex entire area west of the Euphrates, which incurs the hostility of

Egypt

1397

Timur the Lame marched against Anatolia and defeated the Ottomans at

Ankara. The empire of the Timurids (until 1500), however, was soon

reduced to Transoxania and eastern Persia

1398

After ravaging Persia, Afghanistan, and Mesopotamia, Timur the Lame

invades India, ravages the kingdom of Delhi, massacres 100,000 Hindu

prisoners (12th December 1398) and sacks Delhi (17th December)

1400

Timur the Lame sacks Damascus

------------------------------------------------

LITTLE ICE AGE c1400 - c1850

------------------------------------------------

1402

Battle of Ankara 28th July. Bayazid defeated by Mongols under Timur the

Lame; dies in captivity 1403

1402, 1408, 1427

Ethiopian embassies to Venice to seek aid and establish Christian

alliances against Muslim Mamluks of Egypt

1403-1413

Civil war between Bayazid's sons, Issa, Suleiman, Mehmed, and Musa.

1413-1421

Mehmed I Kirishdji (the Restorer), sultan

1414-1526

Kingdom of Delhi reduced to Jumna valley with tenuous control over the

Punjab; ruled by Sayyid dynasty with nebulous claims to Arab descent

from the Prophet

1415-1416

Socio-religious insurrection led by Sheikh Bedreddin, crushed with

difficulty. First Ottoman war with Venice. Ottoman fleet destroyed off

Gallipoli

1417

Ottoman invasion of Wallachia, in punishment for latter's support of

Mehmed's brother, Mustafa, and Bedreddin

1421-1451

Murad II, sultan. His brother Mustafa, supported by the Byzantines,

proclaimed sultan in Adrianople

1422

Mustafa attacked Bursa, was captured and executed

1439

Ottomans annex Serbia. Siege of Belgrade (1440)

1441-1443

Two Ottomans armies defeated in Transylvania, battle of Zlatica

(Izladi)

1444

Battle of Varna, Hungarians and Wallachians defeated, Vladislav king of

Hungary and Poland kllled

1448

2nd battle of Kosovo, Ottomans defeat John Hunyadi, governor of

Transylvania

1451-1481

Muhammad II the Conqueror, sultan. Reasserted Ottoman authority in

Anatolia, drove out Hungarians and Venetians, patronized Muslim, Greek,

and Italian scholars

1452

War between the sultan and the last Byzantine emperor, Constantine

Ethiopian embassy to the pope, and embassy to Ethiopia from the pope

(1453), for aid against Egyptian Mamluks and Ottoman Turks

1453

29th May - Fall of Constantinople. The emperor killed. Ottoman sultan,

Mehmet Fahti (d 1481) proclaims himself eastern Roman emperor

1455-1463

Ottomans annex southern Serbia. Genoese colonies on the Black Sea

submitted and made Ottoman tributaries. Remainder of Serbia annexed.

Conquest of the Morea, the principality of Kastmandou, and the empire

of Trebizond. Invasion of Bosnia and Herzegovina

1463-1479

Great war between Ottomans and Venice over Ottoman interference with

Venetian-Levantine trade

1465

Massacre of Moroccan Jews in Fez

1477

Ottoman armies reach the outskirts of Venice

1481

Death of Muhammad II; his son, Bayazid II, sultan 1481-1512. Younger

brother Djem proclaims himself sultan at Bursa, proposes division of

the empire. Bayazit: "Empire is a bride whose favours cannot be

shared." Civil war.

1484-1489

Ottomans war with Egypt for control of Cilicia

1487

Spanish Inquisition burns to death sixteen Spanish Jews; by 1492, the

Inquistion burns appx 2,000 Spanish Jews to death

1489

Djem turned over to the pope, who uses him to extort money and support

from Bayazit against France

1492

The last emir of Granada, Abu-Abdallah, descendant of Spanish

Christians, surrenders to Isabella and Ferdinand, descendants of Muslim

caliphs.

Abu-Abdallah flees "disguised as a woman from the city he lacked the

manhood to defend" to his kinsmen in Fez, where, for losing Granada,

his eyes are put out

175,000 Jews expelled from Spain, an act which deprives Spain of its

most cultured and economically active subjects; the Ottoman sultan

welcomes them to the Ottoman empire, commenting: "The Christian king

Ferdinand was wrongly considered wise, since he impoverished his realm

by his expulsion of the

Jews and enriched ours."

Spanish Muslims appeal to Ferdinand for permission to convert to

Christianity and turn their mosques back into churches

Columbus discovers the Bahamas

1493

David and Shmuel ibn Nahmias, expelled from Spain, establish a public

printing press in Istanbul

1496

Jews expelled from Portugal. Astronomer-historian Abraham Zacuto,

creator of the tables used by

Columbus, who fled from Spain to Portugal, where he developed the metal

astrolab used by Vasco

Da Gama, flees Portgual for Tunis

1499-1503

Ottoman war against Venice. Ottoman fleet defeats Venetians, while

Ottoman cavalry raids as far as Vicenza

1500-1502

Muslims riot in Granada

1501

Is'mail proclaims himself Hidden Imam and Shah of Iran (1387-1524).

Isma'iliyya Shi'a Islam becomes Iran's state religion

1504

Muslims expelled from Spain for violating the terms of their surrender

1509

Portuguese destroy an Egyptian-Indian fleet off Diu; acquire Goa (1510)

as their headquarters

1510

Sayyida al-Hurra of the Banu Rashid of Al-Andalus, manager of the

affairs of her husband, who had declared a holy war against the

Portuguese, prefect, later governor general, of Tetuan. Aided by the

Turkish pirate Barbarossa, Sayyida assembled ships and began a career

as a pirate in the western Mediterranean. Later, she married Ahmad

al-Wattasi, king of Morocco

1511

Is'mail shah of Iran incites uprisings of Anatolian Shi'ites against

the Ottomans

1512

Civil war between Bayazid's sons, Selim, Ahmed, and Corcud

Death of Bayazid, after his son Selim forces his abdication

Selim I the Grim sultan 1512-1520

1513

Selim defeats his brother Ahmed in Anatolia and executes him

1514

Selim massacres 40,000 Ottoman Shi'ites. War against Iran.

23rd August -- Battle of Chaldiran, Iranians defeated. Ottomans plunder

Tabriz

1515

Ottomans conquer eastern Anatolia and Kurdistan, prepare for second

campaign against Iran

1516

Invasion of Syria by Kansu al-Gauri, sultan of Egypt, ally of Iran.

Battle of Marj Dabik 23rd August, Kansu defeated and killed. Aleppo and

Damascussurrender to Ottomans, who conquer Syria and Egypt

1517

22 January-Ottomans seize and sack Cairo. Tuman Bey, sultan of Egypt,

executed. The sheriff of Mecca and Medina surrenders. Ottomans seize

the caliph Mutawakki and take him to Constantinople. Selim secures the

Holy Places in Arabia and acquires Jerusalem

1520

Death of Selim; his son, Suleiman the Magnificent, greatest of the

Ottman sultans, 1520-1566. Suleiman, known as Kanuni (Lawgiver),

oversees most detailed codification of sultanic and Koranic law in an

Islamic state, comparable only to the work of Justinian. Suleiman

constructs the walls of Jerusalem and has the Dome of the Rock faced

with porcelain Iznik tiles and the Quranic surah Ya Sin inscribed

across the top

1521

Ottomans capture Belgrade and Rhodes (1522); regular raids in Hungary

and Austria panic central Europe

1525

Negotiations between Suleiman and Francis I of France against Holy

Roman Emperor Charles V

1526

Battle of Panipat Zahir ud-din Babar (Baybars), descendant of Timur the

Lame, defeats Ibraihim Shah Lodi, takes Delhi and Agra. Battle of

Khanua against Rana Sangra of Chitor and battle on the Gonga (1529)

complete Babar's conquest of the sultanate of Delhi to the Bengal

frontier

------------------------------------------------

MOGUL EMPIRE OF INDIA 1526-1761

------------------------------------------------

1528-1532

29-30 August-Battle of Mohacs, Ottomans defeat Hungarians, king Louis

of Hungary killed. Third campaign (1532) in Hungary, Suleiman forced to

retire because of threat from Iran

1533

Peace between Ottomans and Hungarians. Naval war in Mediterranean with

Charles V continues. Ottoman admiral Khaireddin Pasha (a Greek from

Mytilini) evacuates thouands of Spanish Muslims expelled by Ferdinand

and Isabella, ravage the coast of Sicily and southern Italy

1534

War between Ottomans and Shah Tahmasp of Iran, who was in negotiations

with Charles V against Suleiman and Francis of France

1535

Imperial expedition against Tunis. Khaireddin Pasha defeated off the

coast. Horrible sack of three days

Portuguese secure Bassein by treaty, fortify Diu and defend it against

an Ottoman fleet and Gujarti army (1538)

1536

Formal alliance between Suleiman and Francis of France against Charles

V

1537-1540

Ottomans war with Venice. Latter sues for peace, pays large indemnity

1538

Ottomans take Yemen, Aden, coast of the Red Sea

1542

Sayyida al-Hurra, Queen of the Pirates, deposed from Tetouan

1547

Five-year truce between Suleiman and Ferdinand of Hungary, the latter

paying tribute until renewal of war 1551-1562

1548

Ottomans war with Iran, ravage the western part of the country. Peace

made in 1555

---------------------------------------------------

GLACIERS BEGIN EXPANDING c 1550

Climatic minima reached mid-17th century

---------------------------------------------------

1553

Suleiman issues laws to stop the persecution of Jews via blood libels,

decreeing that all accusations of the slaughter of Christian children

by Jews be referred to the Imperial Divan where the courts would expose

these lies. Peparation of the law included input of Moses Hamon, a

favorite doctor and dentist of the Sultan.

Suleiman had his eldest son, Mustafa, strangled, as a result of

machinations of his wife, the former slave Roxelana (Anastasia

Lisovska), and of the grand vizer, Rustem Pasha, Roxelana's son-in-law

1554-1556

Ottoman armies conquer the North African coast

1556

Death of Muhammad Humayun, son of Babar; his son, Jalah ud-din Akbar (b

1542), Mogul ruler. Under his guardian Bairam Khan, Akbar crushes

Afghan army at Panipat

1559

Rebellion of Bayazid, Suleiman's son by Roxelana. Battle of Konia;

Bayazid defeated, flees to Iran. The Shah executes Bayazid and his

young sons in exchange for a large monetary payment by Suleiman

1561

Mogul "harem party" effects the conquest of Malawa

1564

Akbar marries a Rajput princess, abolishes the jizya, marking anew

policy of impartiality toward non-Muslim Mogul subjects

1566

Death of Suleiman; his son by Roxelana, Selim II the Drunk, sultan

1566-1574

Divided counsels of Mehmed Sokullu, a Serbian convert to Islam, grand

vizer 1560-1579 -- who favored close relations with Venice and war

against Spain -- and the Portuguese Joseph Nasi, who was hostile to

Venice and France and was supported by Selim's Jewish wife Noor Banu

Sultan, mother of Murad III

1568

Akbar takes Chitor, massacre 30,000 Rajput Hindus Moriscos revolt in

Granada after Philip II enacts legislation prohibiting displays of

Muslim culture

1569-70

Ottoman expedition against Russians (siege of Astrakhan 1570) end in

peace treaty. Ottomans declare war on Venice

1571

Moriscos revolt crushed by Don Juan of Austria, Philip's half-brother.

Moriscos ordered deported

Pope Pius organizes the Holy League against the Ottomans. Don Juan of

Austria assembles a great Armada at Messina

7th October -- Battle of Lepanto, greatest naval battle since Actium,

Ottomans defeated. But advantages of victory lost through Spanish and

Venetian dissension; Ottomans rapidly rebuild their fleet, astounding

Europe

1572-73

Akbar conquers Gujarat, giving him access to the sea and new revenues;

reorganization of Mogul administration

1573

Venetians abandon war, conclude peace with the Ottomans, and pay a

large indemnity

1574

Death of Selim II; Murad II, his son by his Jewish wife Noor, sultan

1574-1595

Ottomans seize Tunis from Spain, which had seized it from the Ottomans

in 1572, and ravage western Mediterranean coasts

Solomon ben Nathan Eshkenaz, Ottoman palace physician, appointed

ambassador to Venice; arranges exchange of correspondence between the

sultan and Elizabeth of England

1578

Battle of al-Aqsr al-Kabir; Moroccans drive Portuguese from North

Africa

Akbar abrogates Muslims-only religious debates and allows public

debates on religion to Hindus, Jains, Zoroastrians, Sabaeans, and

Christians, as well as to Muslims

1579

Akbar decrees himself infallibile under Islamic doctrine. Revolt ensues

1583

William Hartonne in Istanbul as Elizabeth's ambassador to the sultan

1585

Treaty between the Ottomans and Spain; the latter begins preparation

(1586) for the invasion and conquest of England; Elizabeth appeals to

the sultan for aid against Spain

1589-91

Jamal Khan, Akbar's minister of Ahmadnagar, adherent of Mahdavism,

which anticipates the Mahdi's arrival in A.H. 1000 (1591-92) persecutes

Sunni and Shi'a Muslims

1590

Treaty between the Ottoman empire and Iran; Ottomans expand their

frontiers to the Caspian and Caucasus

---------------------------------------------------

THE ISLAMIC MILLENNIUM, the thousandth Islamic year from the Hijrah

(1591-92)

---------------------------------------------------

1593-1606

War between the Ottoman and the Austrian Hapsburg empires

1595

Death of Murad III; his son, Muhammad III, sultan 1595-1603

1598

Abbas the Great, shah of Iran, begins reorganization of Iranian forces

under English knights from Elizabeth of England

1602-1608

Iran wars with the Ottoman Empire

1603

Death of Muhammad III; his son, Ahmed I, sultan 1603-1617

Abbas of Iran takes Tabriz, Erivan, Kars, smashes Ottoman forces at

Lake Urmia, takes Baghdad, Mosul, and Diarbekr

1605

Death of Akbar; his son, Nur ud-din Jahangir, a drunk who allows his

wife, Nur Jagan, to rule in his name, Mogul sultan 1605-1627.

Jahangir's son and successor, Shah Jahan (1628-1657) grants Madras to

the English and builds the Taj Mahal, one of the pre-eminent buildings

of the world

1606

Treaty of Zsitva-Torok between Ottomans and Austria

1607

Thames river freezes over; ice remains on Lake Superior until 10th June

1609

Moriscos expelled from Spain for appealing to Ahmed I for military

intervention in Spain

1612

Treaty between Ottomans and Iran; the latter renews the war, enters

into a treaty 1618; Ottomans cede Azerbaijan and Georgia to Iran

1616

Bubonic plague epidemic in India

1617

Death of Ahmed I; his brother, Mustafa I, sultan 1617-1618; their

nephew, Osman II, sultan 1618-1622; Mustafa I restored 1622-23; Murad

IV, a boy of fourteen, son of Ahmed I, sultan 1623-1640

1625

Java conquered by the Muslim kingdom of Mataram

"The attitude of the Muslims toward the Christians and

the Jews is that of a master toward his slaves, whom he

treats with a certain lordly tolerance, so long as they

keep their place. Any sign of pretension is promptly

repressed." H.E.W. Young, British consul in Mosul, 1909


asdf

unread,
Mar 21, 2010, 7:53:42 PM3/21/10
to

...and even then, the allies DID flatten towns in WWII. The allied bombing
of Dresden left very little standing.

> **********************
> It goes WELL beyond the above. The islamonazi pigs in Lebanon
> fired their upgraded Katayushas from civilian neighborhoods
> and stored their ammo there.
>
> In the Gaza Shite, the muslimes used mosques, hospitals and
> schools as firebases, OP's and ammo dumps. They also employed
> ambulances to transport ammo, weapons and combatants.
>
> In Algeria, under the French occupation, the muslimes smuggled
> arms and explosives under the burkas of women -- because they
> knew they wouldn't be searched.

--


fritz

unread,
Mar 21, 2010, 8:16:16 PM3/21/10
to

"asdf" <as...@nowhere.nowhere> wrote in message
news:lcSdneiiuZ8MLDvW...@westnet.com.au...

The area bombing of Hamburg by 'Bomber Harris' was just as bad as Dresden,
roughly the
same number of civilians were killed, about 45,000. Hardly any of the
industrial
areas were targeted, there is no doubt at all that the real idea was to
massacre civilians.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firestorm

This book (which I have) goes into great detail about the raids on
Hamburg...
http://www.amazon.com/Battle-Hamburg-Firestorm-Military-Paperbacks/dp/0304353450

staten

unread,
Mar 21, 2010, 9:35:26 PM3/21/10
to
On Mar 21, 8:16 pm, "fritz" <yapu...@microsoft.com> wrote:
> "asdf" <a...@nowhere.nowhere> wrote in message

>
> >> Besides ,  The Nazis, the  brutal, savage regime  had the decency to
> >> put their soldiers in uniforms so that their civilian population would
> >> not be mistaken for combatants. Muslims have no such decency. In  fact
> >> they go out of their way to make sure their soldiers wear civilian
> >> clothes to ensure that any counter-attack include as many civilians as
> >> possible.
>
> > ...and even then, the allies DID flatten towns in WWII. The allied bombing
> > of Dresden left very little standing.
>
> The area bombing of Hamburg by 'Bomber Harris' was just as bad as Dresden,
> roughly the
> same number of civilians were killed, about 45,000. Hardly any of the
> industrial
> areas were targeted, there is no doubt at all that the real idea was to
> massacre civilians.

No. The real idea was to finish Nazism by any means it took. The
objective was achieved. Civilians? Again, when did this notion come
about that war deaths have to be fair? Should more Allies troops
have died during WWII so that Liberal idiots would feel that things
were fair in the universe?

staten

unread,
Mar 21, 2010, 9:49:08 PM3/21/10
to
On Mar 21, 7:53 pm, "asdf" <a...@nowhere.nowhere> wrote:

Where and when this notion come about that saving lives of enemies
civilians should be a priority of any war instead of a quick and
decisive victory ? Has history mentioned such precedents before?
Would Nazis have played such games in nicety had they had power
and A-bombs before Americans?

staten

unread,
Mar 21, 2010, 9:58:06 PM3/21/10
to
> knew they wouldn't be searched.- Hide quoted text -
>


Enough Americans and Israelis to die for Muslims! The only right
standing with Muslims is to respond with a such force that Muslims
would
remember for centuries to come. Muslims have a great respect only to
a brutal force. It's their way of life.

Doug

unread,
Mar 22, 2010, 1:14:53 AM3/22/10
to
"staten" <stat...@lycos.com> wrote in message
news:2c5d0fca-c8b2-41c7...@u5g2000prd.googlegroups.com...

*************************
Exactly, I hope India and Israel flatten the islamonazi theocracies
of the Mid-East and the Indian sub-continent. Bomb the islamonazis
back into the Dark Ages where they belong.


fritz

unread,
Mar 22, 2010, 6:07:05 AM3/22/10
to

"staten" <stat...@lycos.com> wrote in message
news:5ec2fd04-a24e-44c5...@q2g2000pre.googlegroups.com...

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Then you would have no problem with 9/11 then.

Doug

unread,
Mar 22, 2010, 1:16:40 PM3/22/10
to
"fritz" <yap...@microsoft.com> wrote in message
news:ho7fga$ss4$02$1...@news.t-online.com...

Islamopig sympathizer, 9-11 was an action that occured outside the
confines of any declared was -- aside from the genearl global jihad against
infidels/kufars and idiots like you.


SPierce

unread,
Mar 22, 2010, 5:13:03 PM3/22/10
to

"fritz" <yap...@microsoft.com> wrote in message
news:ho7fga$ss4$02$1...@news.t-online.com...
>
> "staten" <stat...@lycos.com> wrote in message
> news:5ec2fd04-a24e-44c5...@q2g2000pre.googlegroups.com...

>


> No. The real idea was to finish Nazism by any means it took. The
> objective was achieved. Civilians? Again, when did this notion come
> about that war deaths have to be fair? Should more Allies troops
> have died during WWII so that Liberal idiots would feel that things
> were fair in the universe?
> -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>
> Then you would have no problem with 9/11 then.
>
>

# The attack on America was an act of war. It should have been declared a
war on the country of origin of the perpetrators...Saudi Arabia. No if or
buts. The Saudi Royal Family should have been targeted right away. No if
or buts. They were responsible for the country and its people. That's
who you declare war on. They should have been treated like Hitler was, the
responsible minister in charge.

The Americans should have bombed shit out of Riyadh, sent in the troops to
wipe out their military, AND TAKEN OVER THE OIL FIELDS...actually, in
reverse order.
Then they should have added up the cost of all the damage and made the Saudi
country pay for it in oil deliveries for years ahead. Then and only then
should they have gone after the piddling jihadist in their own country and
the public slaughtered them as treasonous vermin instead of calling them the
'religion of peace'. That would have been the appropriate message to Islam
throughout the world.


dechucka

unread,
Mar 22, 2010, 5:30:20 PM3/22/10
to

"SPierce" <ecr...@bigpond.net.au> wrote in message
news:z3Rpn.14368$pv.1...@news-server.bigpond.net.au...

all this proves is that you are as nutty, extreme and radical as the nutty,
extreme and radical moslems, jews, christians etc

dechucka

unread,
Mar 22, 2010, 5:38:19 PM3/22/10
to

"Doug" <andx...@gmail.invalid> wrote in message
news:ho855t$vl6$1...@news.eternal-september.org...

You do realise that the military action in Afghanistan is not covered by a
declaration of war by the US don't you. The last time the US declared war on
someone was WW2

dechucka

unread,
Mar 22, 2010, 5:39:55 PM3/22/10
to

"staten" <stat...@lycos.com> wrote in message
news:2c5d0fca-c8b2-41c7...@u5g2000prd.googlegroups.com...

===============================

SPierce

unread,
Mar 22, 2010, 5:51:55 PM3/22/10
to

"dechucka" <vo...@hotmail.com> wrote in message
news:luOdnYCPIucZfDrW...@westnet.com.au...

# As you wish. I'm happy with that. But like Hitler he was defeated and
the Nazism was wiped out. It used to be called ACTION to defeat an
enemy...not fucking pussyfooting verbiage to cover up cowardice.


SPierce

unread,
Mar 22, 2010, 5:59:34 PM3/22/10
to

"dechucka" <vo...@hotmail.com> wrote in message
news:avydnRfOrv9ZfjrW...@westnet.com.au...

# We bombed Hamburg, Cologne, Essen, and 43 other cities with civilians in
them to RUBBLE. It was deliberate and unrelenting. And we were not
trying to 'liberate' them. I also know what it's like to be on the
receiving end.


dechucka

unread,
Mar 22, 2010, 7:36:59 PM3/22/10
to

"SPierce" <ecr...@bigpond.net.au> wrote in message
news:%DRpn.14374$pv.1...@news-server.bigpond.net.au...

who is the enemy?

dechucka

unread,
Mar 22, 2010, 7:38:36 PM3/22/10
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"SPierce" <ecr...@bigpond.net.au> wrote in message
news:aLRpn.14377$pv....@news-server.bigpond.net.au...

but we are trying to liberate the Afghanis from the Taliban.

SPierce

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Mar 22, 2010, 10:03:54 PM3/22/10
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"dechucka" <vo...@hotmail.com> wrote in message
news:Qv2dnYYDn-AIYjrW...@westnet.com.au...

>
> "SPierce" <ecr...@bigpond.net.au> wrote in message
> news:aLRpn.14377$pv....@news-server.bigpond.net.au...
(snipped)

>>
>> # We bombed Hamburg, Cologne, Essen, and 43 other cities with civilians
>> in them to RUBBLE. It was deliberate and unrelenting. And we were
>> not trying to 'liberate' them. I also know what it's like to be on the
>> receiving end.
>
> but we are trying to liberate the Afghanis from the Taliban.

# You are listening to media babbletalk. The words chosen by spin doctors.
What we are actually doing is killing jihadists who use Afghanistan as a
base. It no longer matters where they are. They will have to be pursued
in every country forever until they are all killed. It will probably last
your whole lifetime.


dechucka

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Mar 22, 2010, 11:08:55 PM3/22/10
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"SPierce" <ecr...@bigpond.net.au> wrote in message
news:ekVpn.14423$pv....@news-server.bigpond.net.au...

So go after the Jihadists and leave the civilians alone

staten

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Mar 23, 2010, 8:03:27 PM3/23/10
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On Mar 22, 6:07 am, "fritz" <yapu...@microsoft.com> wrote:
> "staten" <state...@lycos.com> wrote in message
> ---------------------------------------------------------------------------­--------------------------
>
> Then you would have no problem with 9/11 then.- Hide quoted text -

No. There is a big problem. The major role of Islam has been
whitewashed from history. Muslims were the closest partners of Nazis
during WWII but the West excused Islam from its horrible hand in the
holocaust and crimes against other infidels which still are being
carried out with almost total impunity worldwide. Had we put Muslim
Nazis on trial along with their German buddies and banned Islam like
Nazism , 9/11 would never happened. Now we in the West pay the price
for letting Islam walking away without a scratch.

staten

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Mar 23, 2010, 8:05:37 PM3/23/10
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On Mar 22, 5:38 pm, "dechucka" <vo...@hotmail.com> wrote:
> "Doug" <andxor...@gmail.invalid> wrote in message
>
> news:ho855t$vl6$1...@news.eternal-september.org...
>
>
>
>
>
> > "fritz" <yapu...@microsoft.com> wrote in message
> >news:ho7fga$ss4$02$1...@news.t-online.com...
>
> >> "staten" <state...@lycos.com> wrote in message
> >> ---------------------------------------------------------------------------­--------------------------

>
> >> Then you would have no problem with 9/11 then.
>
> > Islamopig sympathizer, 9-11 was an action that occured outside the
> > confines of any declared was -- aside from the genearl global jihad
> > against
> > infidels/kufars and idiots like you.
>
> You do realise that the military action in Afghanistan is not covered by a
> declaration of war by the US don't you. The last time the US declared war on
> someone was WW2-

So, 9/11 was not a war declaration against our nation by Islam,
Muslim lackey?


staten

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Mar 23, 2010, 8:10:54 PM3/23/10
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On Mar 22, 7:36 pm, "dechucka" <vo...@hotmail.com> wrote:
> "SPierce" <ecre...@bigpond.net.au> wrote in message

>
> news:%DRpn.14374$pv.1...@news-server.bigpond.net.au...
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
> > "dechucka" <vo...@hotmail.com> wrote in message
> >news:luOdnYCPIucZfDrW...@westnet.com.au...
>
> >> "SPierce" <ecre...@bigpond.net.au> wrote in message
> >>news:z3Rpn.14368$pv.1...@news-server.bigpond.net.au...
>
> >>> "fritz" <yapu...@microsoft.com> wrote in message
> >>>news:ho7fga$ss4$02$1...@news.t-online.com...
>
> >>>> "staten" <state...@lycos.com> wrote in message

> >>>>news:5ec2fd04-a24e-44c5...@q2g2000pre.googlegroups.com...
>
> >>>> No. The real idea was to finish Nazism by any means it took. The
> >>>> objective was achieved. Civilians?  Again,  when did this notion come
> >>>> about that war deaths have to be fair?  Should more Allies troops
> >>>> have died during WWII so that Liberal idiots would feel that things
> >>>> were fair in the universe?
> >>>> ---------------------------------------------------------------------------­--------------------------

>
> >>>> Then you would have no problem with 9/11 then.
>
> >>> #  The attack on America was an act of war.   It should have been
> >>> declared a war on the country of origin of the perpetrators...Saudi
> >>> Arabia.   No if or buts.   The Saudi Royal Family should have been
> >>> targeted right away. No if or buts.   They were responsible for the
> >>> country and its people. That's who you declare war on.  They should have
> >>> been treated like Hitler was, the responsible minister in charge.
>
> >>> The Americans should have bombed shit out of  Riyadh, sent in the troops
> >>> to wipe out their military,  AND TAKEN OVER THE OIL FIELDS...actually,
> >>> in reverse order.
> >>> Then they should have added up the cost of all the damage and made the
> >>> Saudi country pay for it in oil deliveries for years ahead.  Then and
> >>> only then should they have gone after the piddling jihadist in their own
> >>> country and the public slaughtered them as treasonous vermin instead of
> >>> calling them the 'religion of peace'.   That would have been the
> >>> appropriate message to Islam throughout the world.
>
> >> all this proves is that you are as nutty, extreme and radical as the
> >> nutty, extreme and radical moslems, jews, christians etc
>
> > #  As you wish.  I'm happy with that.    But like Hitler he was defeated
> > and the Nazism was wiped out.   It used to be called ACTION to defeat an
> > enemy...not fucking pussyfooting verbiage to cover up cowardice.
>
> who is the enemy?-

Islam.

staten

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Mar 23, 2010, 8:13:38 PM3/23/10
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> extreme and radical moslems, jews, christians etc-

It's better being a radical than dead. And yeas, Muslims indeed have a
great respect only to a big stick. Our European ancestors knew that
very well when they crushed Islam first at at Poitiers in 732 and then
at gates of Vienna in 1683 and thus saved Europe from Islam
helping it remain a civilized continent. Damn shame that today
liberal scum like yourself send thousands of Westerners to die for
Muslims in Iraq, Afghanistan and Kosovo instead of ruthlessly
crushing these Islamo cockroaches in the best traditions of our
ancestors.

dechucka

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Mar 23, 2010, 8:23:08 PM3/23/10