That sounds like a very unhappy surprise!
> Assim que abri e loguei a conta que tinha no antigo
telefone, vi que tinha perdido todos os cartões, baralhos, tudo!
I think there is more to it than this. I think both the old phone and the new phone gave you the option to full sync, and on the new phone (which was empty - no data) you did a full sync up (wiping out the data on AnkiWeb) then on the old phone you did a full sync down, which wiped out your data there. Does that sound familiar, with the full syncs?
On the old phone there should be an option in the top menu of the deck list to "restore from backup" I would try that...