Toxic Zen Story #20, part 2 of 2: Nuremberg Zen: Eugen Herrigel, Rector of Erlangen-Nuremberg University, and alter-ego Julius Streicher of "Der Stürmer": Zen in the Art of Genocide.
part 2 of 2, continued from part 1 of 2:
____ Background for Toxic Zen Stories _____________________
< the Streets : die Straßen >
. 'After the Nuremberg Laws, Germans' attacks
. upon Jews declined and remained at a reduced level
. through 1937. During this period, Germans
. continued to assault Jews verbally and physically,
. and the ongoing legal, economic, social, and
. professional exclusion of Jews from Germany's life
. proceeded, yet the sheer volume of violence
. diminished.' [Goldhagen p. 98]
. 'The extraordinary length to which Streicher
. went in his propaganda is illustrated by the
. publication in "Der Stürmer" of a photograph of
. the burning hull of the airship "Hindenburg,"
. which caught fire in June 1937 in America. The
. caption beneath the picture includes the comment:
| "The first radio picture from the United
| States of America shows quite clearly that a
| Jew stands behind the explosion of our airship
| Hindenburg. Nature has depicted clearly and
| quite correctly that devil in human guise." '
. 'Although it is not clear from that
. photograph, the meaning of that comment is
. apparently that the cloud of smoke in the air is
. in the shape of a Jewish face. ' [Stein]
A recent PBS Nova documentary on the Hindenburg tragedy, shows conclusively that the company that built the Hindenburg has the documentation about later tests that showed the cause of the disaster. They were well aware of the problem even at that time.
Static buildup cause a lightning strike just as the wet anchor lines touched the ground, from a nearby storm. But it was not the hydrogen gas that caused the conflagration, since hydrogen burns slowly, and with an invisible flame, not the orange flames that were witnessed by the world press.
It was the aerodynamic silver gray coating that was the cause of the rapid burn. The Germans used powdered aluminum oxide, which is now used as the solid fuel in rocketry, as in the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) of NASA's Shuttle. Unbelievably, they unknowingly painted the Hindenburg with solid rocket fuel.
The discovery was an embarrassment and covered up by blaming the Jews, otherwise it might have led to more powerful V3 rockets and changed history.
The lightning strike that started the fire hit on the starboard side, just in front of the swastika on the upper tail fin.
. 'In a speech in September 1937 at the opening
. of the Wilhelm Gustloff bridge in Nuremberg,
. Streicher declared :
| "The man who murdered Wilhelm Gustloff had
| to come from the Jewish people, because the
| Jewish text books teach that every Jew has the
| right to kill a non-Jew, and, indeed, that it
| is pleasing to the Jewish God to kill as many
| non-Jews as possible. "
| "Look at the way the Jewish people have
| been following for thousands of years past;
| everywhere murder, everywhere mass murder.
| Neither must we forget that behind present-day
| wars there stands the Jewish financier who
| pursues his aims and interests. The Jew always
| lives on the blood of other nations; he needs
| such murder and such victims. For us who know,
| the murder of Wilhelm Gustloff is the same as
| ritual murder." ...
| "It is our duty to tell the children at
| school and the bigger ones what this memorial
| means." ...
| "The Jew no longer shows himself among us
| openly as he used to. But it would be wrong to
| say that victory is ours. Full and final
| victory will have been achieved only when the
| whole world has been rid of Jews." (M-4). '
. 'Extracts from the correspondence columns of
. "Der Stürmer," show another method which Streicher
. employed in his propaganda (M-26 ; M-27 ; M-28).
. The correspondence columns of every issue are full
. of purported "letters" from Germans protesting
. that some German has been buying shoes from a
. Jewish shop, etc., thus by printing these letters
. assisting in the general boycott of the Jews. '
. 'A photograph published in "Der Stürmer" in
. April 1937 purports to show three Jews ritually
. murdering a girl by cutting her throat, with the
. blood pouring out into a bucket on the ground The
. caption underneath that photograph is as follows:
| "Ritual murder at Polna. Ritual murder of
| Agnes Hruza by the Jews Hilsner, Erdmann, and
| Wassermann, taken from a contemporary
| postcard." '
. 'Another article in "Der Stürmer", in April
. 1937, describes what is alleged to happen when
. ritual murder takes place, and the blood is mixed
. with the bread and drunk by the Jews in their
. feast. During the feast the head of the family is
. supposed to explain:
| "May all gentiles perish-as the child
| whose blood is contained in the bread and
| wine." (2699-PS). ' [Stein]
. 'Streicher was not content with writing and
. talking. He issued a book for teachers, written by
. one Fink and published from the "Der Stürmer"
. offices, called "The Jewish Question and School
. Instruction." This book emphasizes the necessity
. of anti-Semitic teaching in schools, and suggests
. ways in which the subject can be introduced and
. handled. The preface, written by Streicher, reads
. in part as follows:
| "The National Socialist state brought
| fundamental changes into all spheres of life
| of the German people."
| "It has also presented the German teacher
| with some new tasks. The National Socialist
| state demands that its teachers instruct
| German children in social questions. As far as
| the German people is concerned the racial
| question is a Jewish question. Those who want
| to teach the child all about the Jew must
| themselves have a thorough knowledge of the
| "Those who take to heart all that has been
| written with such feeling by Fritz Fink, who
| for many years has been greatly concerned
| about the German people, will be grateful for
| the creator of this outwardly insignificant
| publication." (M-46). '
. 'The preface is signed by Julius Streicher,
. City of the Reich Party Rallies, Nuremberg, in the
. year 1937. '
. 'The introduction to this book reads as
| "Racial and Jewish questions are the
| fundamental problems of the National Socialist
| ideology. The solution of these problems will
| secure the existence of National Socialism and
| with this the existence of our nation for all
| time. The enormous significance of the racial
| question is recognized almost without
| exception today by all the German people. In
| order to attain this recognition our people
| had to travel through a long road of
| "No one should be allowed to grow up in
| the midst of our people without this knowledge
| of the monstrous character and dangerousness
| of the Jew." (M-46). '
. 'A later passage in the book contains this
| "One who has reached this stage of
| understanding will inevitably remain an enemy
| of the Jews all his life and will instill this
| hatred into his own children." (M-46). '
. 'A letter from Himmler, published in "Der
. Stürmer" of April 1937, declared:
| "If in future years the history of the
| reawakening of the German people is written,
| and if already the next generation will be
| unable to understand that the German people
| was once friendly to the Jews, it will be
| stated that Julius Streicher and his weekly
| paper 'Der Stürmer' have contributed a great
| deal towards the enlightenment regarding the
| enemy of humanity."
| (Signed) For the Reichsfuehrer SS,
| Himmler." (M-22). ' [Stein]
< Academia : Akademie >
. 'By November 1938, all of Germany's
. universities were "Judenfrei" (free of Jews).'
< the Streets : die Straßen >
. 'Streicher was one of the instigators and
. authors of the Nuremberg Laws, and as early as
. 1938, in an article entitled "War against the
. World Enemy, " he called for the total destruction
. of the Jewish people.' [Wiesenthal]
. 'An article in "Der Stürmer" for July 1938 has
. these further remarks to make on "ritual murder":
| "Whoever had the occasion to be an
| eyewitness during the slaughtering of animals
| or to see at least a truthful film on the
| slaughtering will never forget this horrible
| experience. It is atrocious. And unwillingly,
| he is reminded of the crimes which the Jews
| have committed for centuries on men. He will
| be reminded of the ritual murder. History
| points out hundreds of cases in which non-
| Jewish children were tortured to death. They
| also were given the same incision through the
| throat as is found on slaughtered animals.
| They also were slowly bled to death while
| fully conscious." (2700-PS).' [Stein]
. 'In January 1938 the persecution of the Jews
. became more and more severe-another special issue
. of "Der Stürmer" was published. A passage from the
. leading article in that issue written by
. Streicher, states:
| "... The supreme aim and highest task of
| the state is therefore to conserve people,
| blood, and race. But if this is the supreme
| task, any crime against this law must be
| punished with the supreme penalty. 'Der
| Stürmer' takes therefore the view that there
| are only two punishments for the crime of
| polluting the race: "
| "1. Penal servitude for life for attempted
| race pollution. "
| "2. Death for committing race pollution."
| (M-39). '
. 'The following are some of the headlines on
. the articles contained in that edition:
| "Jewish race polluters at work."
| "Fifteen year old non-Jewess ravaged."
| "A dangerous race polluter. He regards
| German women as fair game for himself."
| "The Jewish sanatorium. A Jewish
| institution for the cultivation of race
| "Rape of a feebleminded girl."
| "The Jewish butler. He steals from his
| Jewish masters and commits race pollution."
| (M-40). '
. 'Another article appearing in "Der Stürmer,"
. written by Streicher's editor, Karl Holz, states :
| "The revenge will break loose one day and
| will exterminate Jewry from the surface of the
| earth." ( M-35). '
. 'Again, in September 1938, "Der Stürmer"
. published an article describing the Jews as
| "A parasite, an enemy, an evil-doer, a
| disseminator of diseases who must be destroyed
| in the interest of mankind." (M-36). '
. 'This is no longer propaganda for the
. persecution of the Jews ; this is propaganda for
. the extermination of Jews, and for the murder not
. of one Jew but of all Jews (see 2698-PS). '
. 'A picture published in "Der Stürmer" in
. December 1938 shows a girl being strangled by a
. man whose hands are around her neck. The shadow of
. the man's face, which is shown against the
. background, has quite obvious Jewish features. The
. caption under that picture is as follows:
| "Castration for Race Polluters. Only heavy
| penalties will preserve our womenfolk from a
| tighter grip from ghastly Jewish claws. The
| Jews are our misfortune." ' [Stein]
. 'The Anti-Jewish demonstrations of November
. 1938. '
. 'While his anti-Jewish propaganda was becoming
. constantly fiercer, Streicher took a leading part
. in the organized demonstrations against the Jews
. which took place on 9 and 10 November 1938. In the
. autumn of that year, on the occasion of a meeting
. of press representatives in Nuremberg, Streicher
. organized the breaking-up of the Nuremberg
. synagogues. It was announced that Streicher
. personally would set the crane in motion with
. which the Jewish symbols would be torn down from
. the synagogues (1724-PS). The event was described
. as follows:
| " ... the synagogue is being demolished!
| Julius Streicher himself inaugurates the work
| by a speech lasting more than an hour and a
| half. By his order-so to speak as a prelude of
| the demolition-the tremendous Star of David
| came off the cupola." (2711-PS) . '
. 'Streicher took active part in the November
. demonstrations of that year, particularly in his
. Gau of Franconia. The Nuremberg demonstrations
. were reported as follows in the "Fraenkische
. Tageszeitung," which was Streicher's paper, on 11
| "... In Nuremberg and Furth it resulted in
| demonstrations by the crowd against the Jewish
| murders. These lasted until the early hours of
| the morning. Far too long had one watched the
| activities of the Jews in Germany." ...
| "After midnight the excitement of the
| populace reached its peak and a large crowd
| marched to the synagogues in Nuremberg and
| Furth and, burned these two Jewish buildings,
| where the murder of Germans had been
| "The fire-brigades, which had been
| notified immediately, saw to it that the fire
| was continued to the original outbreak. The
| windows of the Jewish shopkeepers, who still
| had not given up hope of selling their junk to
| the stupid Goims, were smashed. Thanks to the
| disciplined behavior of the SA men and the
| police, who had rushed to the scene, there was
| no plundering." (M-42). '
. 'On 10 November, the day of the
. demonstrations, Streicher made a speech stating in
. part as follows:
| "From the cradle, the Jew is not being
| taught, like we are, such texts as, 'Thou
| shalt love thy neighbor as thyself, ' or 'If
| you are smitten on the left cheek, offer then
| your right one. ' No, he is told: 'With the
| non-Jew you can do whatever you like. ' He is
| even taught that the slaughtering of a non-Jew
| is an act pleasing to God. For 20 years we
| have been writing about this in 'Der Stürmer';
| for 20 years we have been preaching it
| throughout the world and we have made millions
| recognize the truth." ...
| "The Jew slaughtered in one night 75,000
| people ; when he emigrated to Egypt he killed
| all the first-born, i. e. a whole future
| generation of Egyptians. What would have
| happened if the Jew had succeeded in driving
| the nations into war against us, and if we had
| lost the war? The Jew protected by foreign
| bayonets, would have fallen on us and would
| have slaughtered and murdered us. Never forget
| what history has taught us." (M-41) '
. 'After the November 1938 demonstrations,
. irregularities occurred in the Gau of Franconia in
. connection with the organized Aryanization of
. Jewish property. Aryanization of Jewish property
. was regulated by the Nazi State, which had decreed
. that the proceeds of the transfer of Jewish
. Properties to Aryans were to go to the State. In
. Streicher's Gau of Franconia, however, a good deal
. of the proceeds never found their way as far as
. the State. As a result Goering set up a commission
. to investigate what had taken place. The report of
. that commission (1757-PS) describes what had been
. taking place in Streicher's Gau:
| "... Following upon the November
| demonstrations the Deputy Gauleiter, Holz,
| took up the Jewish questions. His reasons can
| be given here in detail on the basis of his
| statement of the 25th of March, 1939: "
| "The 9th and 10th of November 1938."
| "In the night of the 9th and 10th November
| and on the 10th of November 1938, events took
| place throughout Germany which I [Holz]
| considered to be the signal for a completely
| different treatment of the Jewish question in
| Germany. Synagogues and Jewish schools were
| burnt down and Jewish property was smashed
| both in shops and in private houses. Besides
| this, a large number of particular Jews were
| taken to concentration camps by the police.
| Toward midday we discussed these events in the
| Gauleiter's house. All of us were of the
| opinion that we now faced a completely new
| state of affairs on the Jewish question. By
| the great action against the Jews, carried out
| in the night and morning of the 10th of
| November, all, guiding principles and all laws
| on the subject had been made illusory. We were
| of the opinion (particularly myself) that we
| should now act on our own initiative in this
| respect. I proposed to the Gauleiter that in
| view of the great existing lack of housing,
| the best thing would be to put the Jews into a
| kind of internment camp. Then the houses would
| become free in a twinkling, and the housing
| shortage would be relieved, at least in part.
| Besides that, we would have the Jews under
| control and supervision. I added 'The same
| thing happened to our prisoners of war and war
| internees. ' The Gauleiter said that this
| suggestion was for the time being impossible
| to carry out. Thereupon I made a new proposal
| to him. I said that I considered it
| unthinkable that, after the Jews had had their
| property smashed, they should continue to be
| able to own houses and land. I proposed that
| these houses and this land ought to be taken
| away from them, and declared myself ready to
| carry through such an action. I declared that
| by the Aryanization of Jewish land and houses
| a large sum could accrue to the Gau out of the
| proceeds. I named some million of marks. I
| stated that, in my opinion, this Aryanization
| could be carried out as legally as the
| Aryanization of shops. The Gauleiter's answer
| was something to this effect: 'If you think
| you can carry this out, do so. The sum gained
| will then be used to build a Gau school.'" ...
| "The Aryanization was accomplished by the
| alienation of properties, the surrender of
| claims, especially mortgage claims, and
| reductions in buying price."
| "The payment allowed the Jews was
| basically 10% of the nominal value or nominal
| sum of the claim. As a justification for these
| low prices, Holz claimed at the Berlin meeting
| of the 6th of February 1939, that the Jews had
| mostly bought their property during the
| inflation period for a tenth of its value. As
| has been shown by investigating a large number
| of individual cases selected at random, this
| claim is not true." (1757-PS) [Stein]
. 'The comparative quiet, however, gave way in
. 1938 to renewed attacks of all kinds upon Jews,
. with both state and Party institutions working
. hard to "solve" the "Jewish Problem." To give an
. illustration of the intensity of antisemitic
. activity, during one two-week period, as part of a
. concerted Party campaign under the slogan "A Volk
. breaks its chains," antisemitic meetings took
. place in Saxony alone. An upsurge of Germans'
. attacks on Jews, destruction of their property,
. public humiliations, and arrests followed by
. incarceration in concentration camps characterized
. this year. The hostility of ordinary Germans was
. so great that by this time Jewish life outside the
. big cities, the only places where Jews could hope
. for some anonymity, became untenable. According to
. a July 1938 Social Democratic Party summary
. report: "In consequence of the steady antisemitic
. barrage, German Jews can scarcely stay in the
. smaller provincial localities. More and more,
. localities announce themselves to be "Jew-free"
. [judenrein] ... Not only did rural areas become
. practically empty of Jews, but as a welcome
. consequence of how unbearable both the regime and
. ordinary Germans were making the lives of Jews,
. Jewish emigration from Germany also increased. The
. reaction of the populace at large was one of
. general approval of the eliminationist goals and
. measures, though it was accompanied by significant
. disapproval of the licentious brutality. Sometimes
. excepting acquaintances, Germans showed little
. sympathy for the plight of the Jews.'
. 'However much the renewed violence of 1938
. signaled to everyone that the relative peace of
. the previous two years had been a passing,
. aberrant phase, any notion of a continuing Jewish
. presence within Germany was shattered by the
. country-wide violence, unprecedented in modern
. German history, of Kristallnacht. In light of the
. widespread persecution and violence that had
. occurred throughout (especially rural) Germany,
. Kristallnacht was, in one sense, but the crowning
. moment in the wild domestic terror that Germans
. perpetrated upon Jews. Propaganda Minister Joseph
. Goebbels orchestrated the assault as putative
. retribution for the killing of a German diplomat
. by a distraught Jew whose parents the Germans had
. deported earlier in the year to Poland along with
. fifteen thousand other Polish Jews. On the night
. of November , Germans in cities, towns, and
. villages across the country were awakened to the
. sounds of shattering glass, the light and smell of
. burning synagogues, and the cries of agony emitted
. by Jews whom their countrymen were beating to a
. pulp. The magnitude of the violence and
. destruction, the (by the still embryonic standards
. of the time) enormity of the Rubicon night, is
. reflected in the statistics. The perpetrators,
. principally SA men, killed approximately one
. hundred Jews and hauled off thirty thousand more
. to concentration camps. They burned down and
. demolished hundreds of synagogues, almost all of
. those that they and their countrymen had not
. destroyed earlier. They shattered the storefront
. glass of about 7,500 Jewish stores and businesses,
. hence the appellation Kristallnacht (Crystal
. 'How did the German people react? In small
. towns, the SA men were greeted by many willing
. locals who availed themselves of the opportunity
. to join the assault on the Jews. "The realization
. that on that day the Jews were 'fair game'
. [vogelfrei] was communicated to the inhabitants
. who did not at all belong to the task force
. [Einsatztrupps] and were not even members of the
. Party ... And as a result ... some allowed
. themselves to be carried away, beating down on the
. harried and defenceless Jews." Ordinary Germans
. spontaneously, without provocation or
. encouragement, participated in the brutalities.
. Even youths and children contributed to the
. attacks, some undoubtedly with their parents'
. blessings. Hundreds and thousands more watched the
. night's assault, as well as the next day, when the
. perpetrators ceremoniously marched Jews off to
. concentration camps.'
. 'The SA men, with or without the aid of such
. volunteers, produced a fearsome sight of
. wantonness and brutality that was lethal to the
. Jews and unsettling to many Germans. Much
. criticism of the authoritatively directed, wild
. violence was voiced by Germans of all stations,
. including those in the Party. Of course, some
. Germans did feel sympathy at the sight of the
. beaten and terrorized victims. Yet the evidence
. suggests that the criticism of the violence was
. overwhelmingly a result not of a principled
. disapproval of the sufferings inflicted on the
. Jews, not of a belief that an injustice had been
. done them.'
. 'By and large, the criticism, even sometimes
. outrage, that Germans expressed at Kristallnacht
. had three sources. Many abhorred the licentious
. violence in their midst. So unsettling was the
. sight of the SA men and others bursting with
. savagery, wreaking destruction and death in the
. streets of their communities, that for the first
. time some non-Jewish and non-leftist Germans began
. to wonder whether this radical movement might yet
. turn on them too. Many, interpreting the events in
. terms of their hallucinatory understanding of the
. all-powerful Jews, also felt anxiety at the
. prospect of the Jews eventually revenging
. themselves upon Germany. One German memoirist
. remembers his aunt greeting him on the day after
. Kristallnacht with "solemn words": " 'We Germans
. will pay dearly for what was done to the Jews last
. night. Our churches, our houses, and our stores
. will be destroyed. You can be sure of that.' "
. Finally, Germans abhorred the destruction of so
. much property. Even if Germans wanted the Jews to
. reap what they believed the Jews to have sown, it
. was still unnecessary to lay waste to so much of
. value. Estimates total the damage in the hundreds
. of millions of Reichsmarks. The national focus on
. the profligate material destruction was so great
. even among the working class-whose members are,
. with little evidence, commonly assumed to have
. been among the least antisemitic groups in
. Germany-that, in the wake of Kristallnacht, the
. Communist underground tried to win their
. sympathies primarily by addressing the material
. costs of Kristallnacht. In their appeal, the
. Communists hopefully dissociated the "German
. people" from the deeds, saying that the violence
. and destruction are in no sense "due to the 'rage
. of the German people' ..." How could the
. Communists be sure of this? Not because they
. believed that the people felt sympathy for and
. solidarity with their fellow Jewish citizens, but
. because "workers are calculating the number of
. extra hours they will need to work to repair the
. damage done to German national property. Workers'
. wives ... watched the waste of much property with
. bitterness ... " '
. 'The criticism of Kristallnacht's licentious
. violence and wasteful destruction that could be
. heard around Germany should be understood as the
. limited criticism of an eliminationist path that
. the overwhelming majority of Germans considered to
. be fundamentally sound, but which, in this case,
. had taken a momentary wrong turn. Against this
. bounded criticism stood the Germans' enthusiasm
. for the eliminationist enterprise that continued
. unabated after Kristallnacht, as well as the
. enormous satisfaction with which many Germans
. openly greeted Kristallnacht itself. Nuremberg,
. for example, the day after Kristallnacht, saw a
. rally, which was attended by close to 100,000
. people who came voluntarily in order to hear the
. anti Jewish invective of Julius Stretcher, the
. publisher of Der Stürmer and the man known to be
. the most rabid antisemite in Germany. Photographs
. of the rally show relatively few men in uniform.
. Instead, the faces of ordinary Germans-that is,
. the collective face of Nuremberg and of Germany --
. can be seen there conveying their ardent support
. for their government and the eliminationist
. program. In the words of one commentator
. reflecting back on this rally after the war, "The
. overwhelming majority of the men and women of
. Nuremberg could have stayed away without risking
. reprisal; instead, they acclaimed the criminals in
. government." '
. 'Not just all of Germany but the entire
. western world beheld Kristallnacht, and the world
. reacted with moral revulsion and outrage. The
. German people failed to exhibit equivalent
. revulsion and outrage-and principled dissent from
. the antisemitic model that underlay the night's
. depredation even though what had occurred was done
. in their name, in their midst, to defenseless
. people, and to their countrymen. This was the
. moment when it was apparent for all Germans to see
. that their government would not recoil from using
. the most radical means in order to ensure the
. elimination of Jews and Jewish influence from
. Germany. As Alfons Heck, an erstwhile member of
. the Hitler Youth, put it, "after Kristallnacht, no
. German old enough to walk could ever plead
. ignorance of the persecution of the Jews, and no
. Jews could harbor any delusion that Hitler wanted
. Germany anything but judenrein, clean of Jews."
. Criticism of Kristallnacht was indeed possible,
. and Germans did express openly and volubly their
. disenchantment with the wastefulness and the naked
. brutality of the nationwide assault. It is
. therefore significant that Germans did not cry out
. against the enormity of the injustice, which
. appears not to have moved them. Among Bavarian
. religious instructors there was moral outrage, but
. not for what their countrymen had done to Jews, of
. which they obviously approved. Fully 84 percent of
. Protestant and 75 percent of Catholic religious
. instructors in Middle and Upper Franconia
. protested the assassination of the German
. diplomat-not the immense suffering of the innocent
. Jews-by not teaching religious classes.'
. 'This, perhaps the most revealing day of the
. entire Nazi era, the day on which an opportunity
. presented itself for the German people to rise up
. in solidarity with fellow citizens, was the day on
. which the German people sealed the fate of the
. Jews by letting the authorities know that they
. concurred in the unfolding eliminationist
. enterprise, even if they objected, sometimes
. vociferously, to some of its measures. Melita
. Maschmann once again conveys the thinking that
. guided Germans as they tried to make sense of the
. manifest horror that wakened Germany that night: '
| "For the space of a second I was clearly
| aware that something terrible had happened
| there. Something frighteningly brutal. But
| almost at once I switched over to accepting
| what had happened as over and done with and
| avoiding critical reflection. I said to
| myself: The Jews are the enemies of the new
| Germany. Last night they had a taste of what
| this means. Let us hope that World Jewry,
| which has resolved to hinder Germany's 'new
| steps towards greatness,' will take the events
| of last night as a warning. If the Jews sow
| hatred against us all over the world, they
| must learn that we have hostages for them in
| our hands. "
. 'Clearly, whatever condemnation Germans
. expressed at the nature of the sentence and the
. means by which the perpetrators had carried it
. out, they, with few exceptions, agreed that the
. Jews collectively were guilty.'
. 'The progressive exclusion of Jews from German
. society that had been proceeding since the Nazis'
. assumption of power gained greater momentum with
. Kristallnacht. The Germans had by now transformed
. those Jews who had not fled for their lives from
. Germany into a "leprous community," a community
. shunned and reviled, as if its members were
. medieval lepers. Contact with Jews, reduced to a
. minimum by virtually all Germans, was seen in the
. public ideology, and generally mirrored in
. personal action, as polluting -- dangerous to
. Germans' well-being. Why else have a "Law for the
. Protection of German Blood and Honor," a law that
. was promulgated after many Germans called for it,
. and that was immensely popular in Germany, and not
. only because it had finally codified which
. relations with Jews were permissible? Charges of
. "race defilement" (Rassenschande), namely of
. extramarital sexual relations between Jews and
. Germans, which were utterly prohibited, were, not
. surprisingly, frequently leveled by ordinary
. Germans against Jews.' [Goldhagen p. 98-103]
. 'The second part of this report [1757-PS],
. which contains the findings of the commission,
. reads in part as follows:
. "... Gauleiter Streicher likes to beat
. people with a riding whip but only if he is in
. the company of several persons assisting him.
. Usually the beatings are carried out with
. sadistic brutality. "
. "The best known case is that of Steinruck,
. whom he beat bloodily in the prison cell,
. together with Deputy Gauleiter Holz and SA
. Brigadier General Koenig. After returning from
. this scene to the Deutscher Hof he said: 'Now
. I am relieved. I needed that again! ' Later he
. also stated several times that he needed
. another Steinruck case in order to 'relieve'
. himself. "
. "In August 1938, he beat Editor Burker at
. the District House together with District
. Office Leader Schoeller and his Adjutant
. Koenig. "On the 2nd of December 1938 he asked
. to have three youthful criminals (15 to 17
. years old) who had been arrested for robbery
. brought to the room of the director of the
. Criminal Police Office in Nuremberg-Furth.
. Streicher, who was accompanied by his son,
. Lothar, had the youths brought in singly and
. question them about their sex life and in
. particular, through clear and detailed
. questioning, he laid stress on determining
. whether and since when they masturbated. ... "
. "... The last one of these three boys he
. beat with his riding whip, with blows on the
. head and on the rest of the body." (1757-PS) '
. 'Streicher's authority as a Gauleiter was
. extensive. The Organization Book of the NSDAP for
. 1938 describes the duties and authority of
. Gauleiters as follows:
| "The Gauleiter bears overall
| responsibility for the Fuehrer for the sector
| of sovereignty entrusted to him. The rights,
| duties and jurisdiction of the Gauleiter
| result primarily from the mission assigned by
| the Fuehrer and, apart from that, from
| detailed direction." (1814-PS) . ' [Stein]
. 'Finally, a letter from von Schirach, the
. Reich Youth Leader, published in "Der Stürmer" of
. January 1938, had this to say:
| "It is the historical merit of 'Der
| Stürmer' to have enlightened the broad masses
| of our people in a popular way as to the
| Jewish world danger. 'Der Stürmer' is right in
| refusing to fulfill its task in the tone of
| the aesthetic drawing room. Jewry has shown no
| regard for the German people. We have,
| therefore, no cause to be considerate and to
| spare our worst enemy. What we fail to do
| today our youngsters of tomorrow will have to
| suffer for bitterly." (M-45). ' [Stein]
< the Streets : die Straßen >
. 'On special occasions, or when Streicher had
. some particular subject matter to put before
. Germany, he was in the habit of issuing special
. editions of "Der Stürmer." "Ritual murder" was
. such a special subject that he issued one of these
. special editions dealing solely with it, in May
. 1939. One of the photographs published in this
. issue shows a child having knives stuck into its
. side, from which blood is spurting; and below the
. pedestal on which the child stands are five
. presumably dead children bleeding on the ground.
. The caption beneath that picture reads as follows:
| "In the year 1476 the Jews in Regensburg
| murdered six boys. They drew their blood and
| tortured them to death in an underground vault
| which belongs to the Jew Josfel. The judges
| found the body of the murdered boys; and blood
| stains are on an altar." '
. 'Two other pictures are explained by their
. captions. One reads:
| "For the Jewish New Year celebrations in
| 1913, World Jewry published this picture. On
| the Jewish. New Year and on the Day of
| Atonement the Jews slaughtered a so-called
| 'kapores' cock; that is to say, dead cock,
| whose blood and death is intended to purify
| the Jews. In 1913 the 'kapores' cock had the
| head of the Russian Czar Nicholas II. By
| publishing this postcard the Jews intended to
| say that Nicholas II would be their next
| purifying sacrifice. On the 6th of July 1918,
| the Czar was murdered by the Jews Jurowsky and
| Goloschtschekin." '
. 'The other picture shows the Jews holding a
. similar bird:
| " ... the 'kapores' cock which has the
| head of the Fuehrer. The Hebrew script says
| that one day Jews will kill all Hitlerites.
| Then the Jews will be delivered from all
| misfortunes, but in due course the Jews will
| realize that they have reckoned without an
| Adolf Hitler." '
. 'In addition to reproductions of a number of
. previous articles on "ritual murder" beneath a
. picture of Streicher, another picture bears the
| "At the Passover Meal. The wine and
| Matzoh, unleavened bread, contains non-Jewish
| blood. The Jew prays before the meal. He prays
| for death to all non-Jews." '
. 'The fifth page of this same issue reproduces
. some of the European and American newspaper
. articles and letters protesting against this
. propaganda on "ritual murder." Among these is the
. "Stürmer's" answer to the letter from the
. Archbishop of Canterbury, written to the editor of
. the London Times in protest (M-10). '
. 'Page 6 contains another picture of a man
. having his throat cut; again the usual spurt of
. blood falling into a basin on the floor, with the
. following caption:
| "The ritual murder of the boy Heinrich. In
| the year 1345 the Jews in Munich slaughtered a
| non-Jewish boy. The martyr was declared holy
| by the church." '
. 'On page 8 appears another picture
| "The Holy Gabriel. This boy was crucified
| and tortured to death by the Jews in the year
| 1690. The blood was drawn off him ." '
. 'Page 11 reproduces a piece of sculpture on
. the wall of the Wallfahrts Chapel, representing
. the ritual murder of a boy named Werner. The
. picture shows the boy strung up by his feet and
. being murdered by two Jews. Page 12 reproduces
. another picture taken from the same place. The
. caption is:
| "The embalmed body of Trient who was
| tortured to death by the Jews." '
. 'Page 13 contains another picture; somebody
. else having a knife stuck into him; more blood
. coming out into a basin. On page 14 are two
. pictures. One is said to show the ritual murder of
. the boy Andreas. The other is the picture of a
. tombstone, and the caption reads as follows:
| "The tombstone of Hilsner. This is the
| memorial to a Jewish ritual murderer, Leopold
| Hilsner. He was found guilty of two ritual
| murders and was condemned to death by hanging
| in two trials. The emperor was bribed and
| pardoned him. Masaryk, the friend of the Jews,
| liberated him from penal servitude in 1918. On
| his tombstone lying Jewry calls this twofold
| murderer an innocent victim." '
. 'The next page produces yet another picture of
. a woman being murdered by having her throat cut in
. the same way. Page 17 produces a picture of the
. Archbishop of Canterbury together with a picture
. of an old Jewish man, with a caption reading:
| "Dr. Lang, the Archbishop of Canterbury,
| the highest dignitary of the English Church,
| and his allies, a typical example of the
| Jewish Race." '
| 'The last page contains a picture of "Holy
| Simon, who was tortured to death." '
. 'This issue of "Der Stürmer" is nothing but an
. incitement to the people of Germany who read it,
. an incitement to murder. It is filled with
. pictures of murder, murder alleged to be against
. the German people. It is an encouragement, to all
. who read it to avenge themselves in the same way.
. ' [Stein]
< the Streets : die Straßen >
. 'A later passage shows the authority and power
. which Streicher held in his Gau: '
| "According to reports of reliable
| witnesses Gauleiter Streicher is in the habit
| of pointing out on the most varied occasions
| that he alone gives orders in the district of
| Franconia. For instance, at a meeting in the
| Colosseum in Nuremberg in 1935 he said that
| nobody could remove him from office. In a
| meeting at Herkules Hall, where he described
| how he had beaten Professor Steinruck, he
| emphasized that he would not let himself be
| beaten by anybody, not even by an Adolf
| "For, this also must be stated here, in
| Franconia the Gau acts first and then orders
| the absolutely powerless authorities to
| approve." (1757-PS) '
. 'That report shows the kind of treatment and
. persecution which the Jews were receiving in the
. Gau over which Streicher ruled. It further shows
. the absolute authority with which Streicher acted
. in his district. '
. 'As a result either of that investigation or
. of some other matter, Streicher was relieved of
. his position as Gauleiter in February 1940, but he
. did not cease from propaganda or from control of
. his newspaper. ' [Stein]
Julius Streicher suspended as Gauleiter of Franconia.
. 'In March 1940 Streicher was suspended from
. his post as Gauleiter of Franconia, following an
. investigation by the supreme court of the Nazi
. party concerning his involvement in bribery
. related to the "Aryanization" of plants and
. enterprises. Even so, Streicher remained one of
. the leading protagonists of militant
. antisemitism.' [Wiesenthal]
. 'The Nazi German revolution, like all
. revolutions, had two fundamental, related thrusts:
. a destructive enterprise, which was a
. thoroughgoing revolt against civilization, and a
. constructive enterprise, which was a singular
. attempt to make a new man, a new body social, and
. a new Nazified order in Europe and beyond. It was
. an unusual revolution in that, domestically, it
. was being realized -- the repression of the
. political left in the first few years
. notwithstanding -- without massive coercion and
. violence. The revolution was primarily the
. transformation of consciousness -- the inculcation
. in the Germans of a new ethos. By and large, it
. was a peaceful revolution willingly acquiesced to
. by the German people. Domestically, the Nazi
. German revolution was, on the whole, consensual.'
. 'While it was consensual at home, the Nazi
. German revolution was the most brutal and
. barbarous revolution of modern western history for
. those who would be excluded from the new Germany
. and Europe, namely the tens of millions whom the
. Germans marked for subjugation, enslavement, and
. extermination. The essential nature of the
. revolution -- how it was transforming the mental
. and moral substance of the German people and how
. it was destroying, to use Himmler's formulation,
. the "human substance" of non-Germans -- was to be
. discerned in Germany's emblematic institution
. during its Nazi period: the camp.'
. 'THE CAMP WAS NOT merely the paradigmatic
. institution for the Germans' violent domination,
. exploitation, and slaughter of those whom they
. designated as enemies, for the Germans' most
. uninhibited self-expression of mastery, and for
. the Germans' molding of their victims according to
. their "subhuman" image of them. The camp's essence
. was not reducible to these particular features
. (which were discussed in Chapter 5), because the
. camp was above all else a revolutionary
. institution, one that Germans actively put to ends
. that they understood to be radically
. 'The revolution was one of sensibility and
. practice. As a world of unrestrained impulses and
. cruelty, the camp system allowed for the
. expression of the new Nazi moral dispensation, one
. which was in its essential features the antithesis
. of Christian morality and Enlightenment humanism -
. - "those, stupid, false, and unhealthy ideals of
. humanity," as Göring called them. The camp system
. denied in practice the Christian and Enlightenment
. belief in the moral equality of human beings. In
. the Nazi German cosmology, some humans, by reason
. of their biology, ought to be killed; others were
. fit for slavery, and they too could be killed if
. the Germans deemed them to be superfluous. The
. camp system was predicated upon the existence of
. superiors and inferiors, of masters and slaves.
. Both its theory and practice mocked the Christian
. admonition to love one's brother, to feel pity for
. the downtrodden, to be guided by empathy. Instead,
. the ethos of the camp preached and was animated by
. the hatred of others, banished pity from its
. discourse and practice, and inculcated not an
. empathetic emotional reverberation for the
. suffering of others, but a hardened disdain, if
. not a gleeful enjoyment of it.'
. 'Suffering and torture in the German camp
. world was, therefore, not incidental, episodic, or
. a violation of rules, but central, ceaseless, and
. normative. Gazing upon a suffering or recently
. slaughtered Jew or, for that matter, a suffering
. Russian or Pole, did not elicit and, according to
. the moral life of the camp, should not have
. elicited sympathy, but was indeed greeted, as it
. ought to have been according to the Nazi German
. morality, by German hardness and satisfaction in
. having furthered the reconstructive destructive
. vision for the new Germany and the new German-
. ruled Europe.'
. 'The ideal guiding the Germans' treatment of
. the most hated of the camp world's prisoners, the
. Jews, was that it ought to be a world of
. unremitting suffering which would end in their
. deaths. A Jew's life ought to be a worldly hell,
. always in torment, always in physical pain, with
. no comfort available. It is worth emphasizing that
. this was a profound alteration, a revolutionary
. alteration, in sensibility occurring in mid-
. twentieth-century Europe. So brutal was the German
. revolutionary practice that Chaim Kaplan was
. already struck by it in late 1939 -- before the
. formal program of extermination had begun:'
. "The horrible persecutions of the Middle
. Ages are as nothing in face of the terrible
. troubles in which the Nazis enmesh us. In
. primitive times, methods of torture were also
. primitive. The oppressors of the Middle Ages
. knew only two alternatives: life or death. As
. long as a man lived, even if he were a Jew,
. they let him live. He also had an opportunity
. to live out his days by choosing conversion or
. exile. The Nazi inquisition, however, is
. different. They take a Jew's life by
. throttling his livelihood, by 'legal'
. limitations, by cruel edicts, by such sadistic
. tortures that even a tyrant of the Middle Ages
. would have been ashamed to publicize them. It
. was part of the concept of that generation to
. burn a sinning soul, but it was not their
. habit to torture a man because he was born 'in
. sin,' according to the hangman's ideas. "
. 'The regression to barbarism, the logic of
. modern German antisemitism, and the tasks to which
. the Nazi leadership put it were such that Kaplan
. and, presumably, many other Jews would have
. preferred to live not in this German twentieth
. century, with its exemplary institution of the
. camp, but under some benighted medieval tyrant.'
. 'The second goal for which the Germans
. employed the camp world was the revolutionary
. transformation of society in a manner that denied
. basic premises of European civilization. The Nazi
. German revolution sought to reconstitute and
. reshape the European social landscape according to
. its racial biological principles, by killing
. millions of people deemed, according to its racial
. fantasies, dangerous or expendable, and thereby to
. increase the proportion of the "superior races"
. and strengthen the overall biological stock of
. humanity and, complementing this, to reduce the
. danger to the "superior races" by the more
. numerous "Inferior" ones. The ethos of the vast,
. regressive reconstructive enterprise that Nazism
. envisaged for a German-dominated Europe was
. frequently declaimed by Himmler, who was
. spearheading the revolution: "Whether nations live
. in prosperity or starve to death interest me only
. insofar as we need them as slaves for our Kultur,
. otherwise it is of no interest to me." Eastern
. Europe would become a German colony populated by
. German settlers and Slavic slaves.'
. 'The camp world was revolutionary because it
. was the main instrument for the Germans'
. fundamental reshaping of the social and human
. landscape of Europe. The camp world and the system
. of German society which it composed was understood
. to have been guided by principles which stood on
. its head the body of principles that had
. previously informed the public morality and (the
. many exceptions notwithstanding) the conduct of
. German and European society. The establishment of
. this new world would have meant the end of western
. civilization as it was known, which would have
. included and been symbolized by the destruction of
. Christianity itself. The camp system was also
. revolutionary because it was itself already a
. microcosm of that world, the social model that was
. to be imposed on a large part of Europe and the
. moral model that was to become the foundation for
. the European society which the Germans were
. forging. Indeed, the ever-growing camp system was
. the embryo of the new Germanic Europe, which
. essentially would have become a large
. concentration camp, with the German people as its
. guards and the remaining European peoples (with
. the exception of the "racially" privileged) as its
. corpses, slaves, and inmates.'
. 'Already in the fall of 1940, Hans Frank, the
. German Governor of Poland outlined clearly this
. vision of Europe, though he spoke directly only of
. his jurisdictional area of Poland. "We think here
. in imperial terms, in the most grandiose style of
. all times. The imperialism that we develop is
. incomparable with those miserable attempts that
. previous weak German governments have undertaken
. in Africa." Frank reported to his audience that
. "the Führer has further said explicitly" that
. Poland is (in Frank's paraphrase) "destined" to be
. a "gigantic work camp, where everything that means
. power and independence is in the hands of the
. Germans." No Pole would receive higher education,
. and "none may rise to a rank higher than foreman."
. In Hitler's and Frank's view, the Polish state
. would never be restored. The Poles would be
. permanently "subjugated" to the master race.
. Frank's elaboration upon this vision of the
. concentration camp as the model for Poland was not
. done in secret but expressed in two speeches to
. the heads of the departments of his
. administration. Frank was imparting the governing
. ethos to the people who were governing Poland.'
. 'The camp system was a defining feature of
. German society during its Nazi period, and the
. camp was the society's emblematic institution. It
. was the institution that most prominently set
. Germany apart from other European countries, that
. to a large extent gave it its distinctive
. murderous character. The camp system was also the
. largest and most important institutional
. innovation of Nazism, forming an entire new
. subsystem of society. The first few camps of 1933,
. set up shortly after Hitler's ascension to power,
. laid the foundation for this new system of
. society, which continually expanded geographically
. in the number of its installations (reaching over
. ten thousand) and in the size of its population.
. The camp system was the greatest growth
. institution during this period of German history,
. and it would only have increased in size and
. importance had Germany not been defeated. Finally,
. it was defining and emblematic because manifold
. features of camps represented and symbolized
. distinctive central aspects of Germany during its
. Nazi period. The camp system was the site where
. the Nazi German world was most unreservedly, most
. unabashedly being created. Nazi ideology, which
. cannot be doubted to have been the source of and
. the driving force behind the murderous and
. transformative German policies under Hitler, was
. most fully expressed in the camp world. The type
. of society and values which Nazi ideology called
. for, which the German educational system was
. inculcating in Germany's young, and which Hitler
. and Himmler made clear they were working to
. create, was realized first and found its closest
. empirical referent in the camp world. Thus, it was
. in the camps that the essential features of the
. Nazi German revolution and the revolution's new
. German man, the character of its refashioned body
. social, and the nature of the intended European
. order could most clearly be seen.'
. 'The camp world taught its victims firsthand
. lessons and therefore teaches us secondhand
. lessons about the essential nature of Germany
. during the Nazi period. The camp system exposes
. not just Nazism's but also Germany's true face.
. The notion that Germany during the Nazi period was
. an "ordinary," "normal" society which had the
. misfortune to have been governed by evil and
. ruthless rulers who, using the institutions of
. modern societies, moved people to commit acts that
. they abhorred, is in its essence false. Germany
. during the Nazi period was a society which was in
. important ways fundamentally different from ours
. today, operating according to a different ontology
. and cosmology, inhabited by people whose general
. understanding of important realms of social
. existence was not "ordinary" by our standards. The
. notion, for example, that an individual's defining
. characteristics were derived from his race and
. that the world was divided into distinct races-
. whose respective capacities and moral worth were
. biologically determined and widely variable-was,
. if not quite an axiom of German society during the
. Nazi period, then an extremely widespread belief
. That the world ought to be organized or
. reorganized according to this conception of an
. immutable hierarchy of races was an accepted norm.
. The possibility of peaceful coexistence among the
. races was not a central part of the cognitive
. landscape of the society. Instead, races were
. believed to be inexorably competing and warring
. until one or another triumphed or was vanquished.
. Life within the camp system demonstrated how
. radically ordinary Germans would implement the
. racist, destructive set of beliefs and values that
. was the country's formal and informal public
. ideology. The camp-Germany's distinguishing,
. distinctive, indeed, perhaps, central institution
. -- was the training ground for the masterly
. conduct of the ordinary new German "superman," and
. it revealed his nature. The camp reveals that
. Himmler's Kultur had, to a great extent, already
. become the Kultur of Germany.'
. 'The ever-expanding camp world was the
. principal site of central aspects of the Nazi
. German revolution. The Germans' mass murder, their
. reintroduction of slavery on the European
. continent, their adoption of free license to treat
. "subhumans" however they wished without any
. restraints all suggest that the camp was the
. emblematic institution of Germany during its Nazi
. period and the paradigm for the Thousand Year
. Reich. The camp world reveals the essence of the
. Germany that gave itself to Nazism, no less than
. the perpetrators reveal the slaughter and
. barbarism that ordinary Germans were willing to
. perpetrate in order to save Germany and the German
. people from the ultimate danger-DER JUDE.'
. [Goldhagen p. 456-461]
1941, December 25th
< the Streets : die Straßen >
| 'In an article from his own pen that he
| published ... Streicher stated: "If one really
| wants to put an end to the continued prospering of
| this curse from heaven that is the Jewish blood,
| there is only one way to do it: to eradicate this
| people, this Satan's son, root and branch." '
< the Streets : die Straßen >
. 'In an article written in "Der Stürmer," on 4
. November 1943, Streicher declared:
| "It is really the truth that the Jews, so
| to speak, have disappeared from Europe and
| that the Jewish reservoir of the East, from
| which the Jewish plague has for centuries
| beset the peoples of Europe, has ceased to
| exist. However, the Fuehrer of the German
| people at the beginning of the war prophesied
| what has now come to pass." (1965-PS). '
. 'That article, signed by Streicher, shows that
. he had knowledge of the Jewish exterminations
. which were going on in the East. Streicher's
. article was written in November 1943. In April
. 1943 the Warsaw ghetto was destroyed. Between
. April 1942 and April 1944 more than 1,700,000 Jews
. were killed in Auschwitz and Dachau. It seems
. clear from this article that Streicher knew what
. was happening, perhaps not the details, but the
. fact that Jews were being exterminated. ' [Stein]
< the Streets : die Straßen >
. 'When the war ended, Streicher tried to hide
. under a different identity. Disguised as a house
. painter, he was recognized and taken prisoner by
. American soldiers on May 23, 1945. He was among
. the major Nazi criminals tried by the
. International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg.'
AFTER THE WAR
< Academia : Akademie >
Postwar Historical Revision by the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen.
So Professors Werner Elert (Former Rector and Department Head), and Paul Althaus (former Department Head) are somehow shielded from punishment after the war, for the crime of lighting the Theological match of the "Erlangen Report". It is with this match that Julius Streicher lit the fires of the Nuremberg Laws, which exploded into Kristallnacht, which fueled the ovens of Auschwitz.
How did they get away with this crime, even as the foot soldier Streicher swung by the neck at Nuremberg? There was great academic social pressure against being a "Denunziant", as we shall see below. It was sufficient to carte a conspiracy of intellectuals to protect each other.
This cover of evil was necessary to allow Eugen Herrigel's evil to come through, and the cover was good enough to protect a lot of other academic Nazis like Elert, Althaus, Heidegger, Heisenberg, Wagner, and on and on.
What follows is the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-related section of the biography of Hermann Sasse (http://www.logia.org/pdf/ref95.pdf
), page 8.
. 'When Sasse moved to Erlangen as a professor,
. it was a step in a definitely more conservative
. direction. The church of Bavaria was consciously
. Lutheran, and Bishop Meiser of Munich was to
. become very much influenced by Sasse, who wrote
. many of Meiser’s public statements in the struggle
. with the German State. Yet it did not mean the end
. of Sasse’s troubles.'
| "My salary at Erlangen was the lowest
| possible, corresponding to a country parson’s
| stipend. My criticisms of the party program in
| Kirchliches Jahrbuch für die evangelishen
| Landeskirche in 1932 was the main reason for
| the disgrace in which I was with the Nazis.
| Repeatedly it was demanded in the press or by
| men like Rosenberg that I should be dismissed.
| But the particular situation in Bavaria
| delayed my dismissal until in 1939 Elert as a
| dean told me that he could no longer keep me
| since I had disregarded his frequent requests
| that I should publicly confess my loyalty to
| Hitler. — A few weeks later the war broke out
| which changed the situation, especially since
| I was in the service of the army as a chaplain
| (May 20, 1961). "
. 'While a man like Professor [Paul] Althaus,
. who accepted the Hitler regime, could enjoy the
. advantage of having servants in his house, this
. was denied to the Sasse family, where Mrs. Sasse
. had to keep a large house in order herself. The
. anti-Hitler position that Sasse took was to cause
. him problems also after the war, strange to say.
. He was not only granted full pay for his
. professorship by the American military
. authorities, but even made a pro-rector of the
. University of Erlangen. To this was added a task
. that Sasse later describes in the following way:'
| "I had done what was expected from us who
| were appointed to administrative offices in
| the University by the Military Government—at
| that time the only lawful authority in the
| chaos of the complete breakdown —and given
| objective reports [on fellow professors] as
| also our colleagues of other faculties had
| done. There was nothing that could be regarded
| as unlawful or ungentlemanlike, as it was
| recognized by the university . . . (September
| 17, 1967). "
. 'Sasse’s description of his conduct has later
. been generally accepted and no shadow darkens his
. name. A careful survey is given by his colleague
. Walther von Loewenich in his memoirs, Erlebe
. Theologie (Munich, 1979), where it is pointed out
. that Sasse’s brilliant report was far above the
. intellectual level of the military government,
. which could hardly grasp the meaning of Sasse’s
. words. For example, Sasse reported as a defense
. that Althaus never could have been a Nazi being a
. typical Melanchtonnatur, lacking the ability to
. reject or affirm anything.'
Here, Sasse has sprung to the defense of one of the producers of the Erlangen Report in 1933, the very document that led the way for the Nuremberg Laws of 1935, and Kristallnacht in 1938, which was the gateway to the Holocaust. Obviously, there was great social pressure from the populace, still feverish from the plague of Nazism, trying to protect itself ...
. 'Sasse has, however, something important to
. say here that seems to explain why the silly
. accusation of his being a "Denunziant" was so very
. widespread. In 1948 all the German national
. churches formed together what was called The
. Evangelical Church of Germany (EKiD), where the
. different confessions actually were no more than
. varieties of the same Protestant faith. Actually
. it meant the introduction of a Union all over
. Germany. Sasse strongly opposed it and tried to
. get Bishop Meiser to follow him also on this
. point, but in vain. Sasse writes:'
| "Then came the EKiD. I explained to Meiser
| why I could not accept that and asked him to
| write to the Ministerium (state department for
| church affairs) that they should treat me as a
| member of a Catholic faculty was treated in
| the corresponding case of a doctrinal conflict
| with the Church: either being pensioned or
| transferred into the Philosophical Faculty. He
| refused to do that because he would not
| recognize that a Lutheran theologian could
| have justified scruples concerning the EKiD.
| On the contrary, after my emigration, when I
| was no longer able to do anything, he wrote a
| letter to all sorts of church governments,
| denying that I had to leave for theological
| and conscientious reasons, and claiming that
| [I] had left for political reasons because I
| had denounced my colleagues [to] the Military
| Government. This was not true (September 17,
| 1967). "
Having committed the evil cause of upholding and protecting a true villain like Paul Althaus, and by extension, Werner Elert and Eugen(ics) Herrigel, he undermined everything that was good in his life. He struggled greatly after that, as did the thoroughly undermined structure and function of the Lutheran Church. (But then, that is the purpose of Zen in the grand scheme of things, to undermine everything that is not perfectly true.)
< the Streets : die Straßen >
Conclusion, by the Nuremberg Court, of the charges against Julius Streicher:
. 'It may be that Streicher is less directly
. involved in the physical commission of the crimes
. against Jews than some of his coconspirators. The
. submission of the Prosecution is that his crime is
. no less worse for that reason. No government in
. the world, before the Nazis came to power, could
. have embarked upon and put into effect a policy of
. mass Jewish extermination in the way in which they
. did, without having a people who would back them
. and support them, and without having a large
. number of people who were prepared to carry out
. the murder themselves. (See Chapter XII on
. Persecution of the Jews.) '
. 'It was to the task of educating and poisoning
. the people with hate, and of producing murderers,
. that Streicher set himself. For 25 years he
. continued unrelentingly the perversion of the
. people and youth of Germany. He went on and on, as
. he saw the results of his work bearing fruit. '
. 'In the early days he was preaching
. persecution. As persecution took place he preached
. extermination and annihilation and, as millions of
. Jews were exterminated and annihilated, in the
. Ghettos of the East, he cried out for more and
. more. '
. 'The crime of Streicher is that he made these
. crimes possible, which they would never have been
. had it not been for him and for those like him.
. Without Streicher and his propaganda, the
. Kaltenbrunners, the Himmlers, the General Stroops
. would have had nobody to do their orders. '
. 'In its extent Streicher's crime is probably
. greater and more far-reaching than that of any of
. the other defendants. The misery which they caused
. ceased with their capture. The effects of this
. man's crime, of the poison that he has put into
. the minds of millions of young boys and girls goes
. on, for he concentrated upon the youth and
. childhood of Germany. He leaves behind him a
. legacy of almost a whole people poisoned with
. hate, sadism, and murder, and perverted by him.
. That people remain a problem and perhaps a menace
. to the rest of civilization for generations to
. come. ' [Stein]
Judgement, by the Nuremberg Court, against Julius Streicher:
. 'Streicher is indicted on Counts One and Four.
. One of the earliest members of the Nazi Party,
. joining in 1921, he took part in the Munich
. Putsch. From 1925 to 1940 he was Gaukiter of
. Franconia. Elected to the Reichstag in 1933, he
. was an honorary general in the SA. His persecution
. of the Jews was notorious He was the publisher of
. " Der Stürmer," an anti-Semitic weekly newspaper,
. from 1923 to 1945 and was its editor until 1933. '
. 'Crimes against Peace '
. 'Streicher was a staunch Nazi and supporter of
. Hitler's main policies. There is no evidence to
. show that he was ever within Hitler's inner circle
. of advisers; nor during his career was he closely
. connected with the formulation of the policies
. which led to war. He was never present, for
. example, at any of the important conferences when
. Hitler explained his decisions to his leaders.
. Although he was a Gauleiter there is no evidence
. to prove that he had knowledge of those policies.
. In the opinion of the Tribunal, the evidence fails
. to establish his connection with the conspiracy or
. common plan to wage aggressive war as that
. conspiracy has been elsewhere defined in this
. Judgment. '
. 'Crimes against Humanity '
. 'For his twenty-five years of speaking,
. writing, and preaching hatred of the Jews,
. Streicher was widely known as "Jew-Baiter Number
. One." In his speeches and articles, week after
. week, month after month, he infected the German
. mind with the virus of anti-Semitism. and incited
. the German people to active persecution. Each
. issue of " Der Stürmer ", which reached a
. circulation of 600,000 in 1935, was filled with
. such articles, often lewd and disgusting. '
. 'Streicher had charge of the Jewish boycott
. of 1st April, 1933. He advocated the Nuremberg
. Decrees of 1935. He was responsible for the
. demolition on 10th August, 1938, of the Synagogue
. in Nuremberg. And on 10th November, 1938, he spoke
. publicly in support of the Jewish pogrom which was
. taking place at that time. '
. 'But it was not only in Germany that this
. defendant advocated his doctrines. As early as
. 1938 he began to call for the annihilation of the
. Jewish race. Twenty-three different articles of "
. Der Stürmer " between 1938 and 1941 were produced
. in evidence, in which the extermination " root and
. branch " was preached. Typical of his teachings
. was a leading article in September, 1938, which
. termed the Jew a germ and a pest, not a human
. being, but" a parasite, an enemy, an evildoer, a
. disseminator of diseases who must be destroyed in
. the interest of mankind." Other articles urged
. that only when world Jewry had been annihilated
. would the Jewish problem have been solved, and
. predicted that fifty years hence the Jewish
. graves" will proclaim that this people of
. murderers and criminals has after all met its
. deserved fate." Streicher, in February, 1940,
. published a letter from one of " Der Stürmer's"
. readers which compared Jews with swarms of locusts
. which must be exterminated completely. Such was
. the poison Streicher injected into the minds of
. thousands of Germans which caused them to follow
. the National Socialists policy of Jewish
. persecution and extermination. A leading article
. of "Der Stürmer" in May, 1939, shows clearly his
| "A punitive expedition must come against
| the Jews in Russia. A punitive expedition
| which will provide the same fate for them that
| every murderer and criminal must expect. Death
| sentence and execution. The Jews in Russia
| must be killed. They must be exterminated root
| and branch."
. 'As the war in the early stages proved
. successful in acquiring more and more territory
. for the Reich, Streicher even intensified his
. efforts to incite the Germans against the Jews. In
. the record are twenty-six articles from " Der
. Stürmer", published between August, 1941 and
. September, 1944, twelve by Streicher's own hand,
. which demanded annihilation and extermination in
. unequivocal terms. He wrote and published on 25th
. December, 1941:
| "If the danger of the reproduction of that
| curse of God in the Jewish blood is to finally
| come to an end, then there is only one way-the
| extermination of that people whose father is
| the devil." '
. 'And in February, 1944, his own article
| "Whoever does what a Jew does is a
| scoundrel, a criminal. And he who repeats and
| wishes to copy him deserves the same fate,
| annihilation, death." '
. 'With knowledge of the extermination of the
. Jews in the Occupied Eastern Territory, this
. defendant continued to write and publish his
. propaganda of death. Testifying in this trial, he
. vehemently denied any knowledge of mass executions
. of Jews. But the evidence makes it clear that he
. continually received current information on the
. progress of the " final solution ". His press
. photographer was sent to visit the ghettos of the
. East in the Spring of 1943, the time of the
. destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto. The Jewish
. newspaper," Israelitisches Wochenblatt ", which
. Streicher received and read, carried in each issue
. accounts of Jewish atrocities in the East, and
. gave figures on the number of Jews who had been
. deported and killed. For example, issues appearing
. in the summer and fall of 1942 reported the death
. of 72,729 Jews in Warsaw, 17,542 in Lodz, 18,000
. in Croatia, 125,000 in Rumania, 14,000 in Latvia,
. 85,000 in Yugoslavia, 700,000 in all of Poland. In
. November, 1943, Streicher quoted verbatim an
. article from the "Israelitisches Wochenblatt "
. which stated that the Jews had virtually
. disappeared from Europe, and commented "This is
. not a Jewish lie." In December, 1942, referring to
. an article in the " London Times "about the
. atrocities, aiming at extermination, Streicher
. said that Hitler had given warning that the second
. World War would lead to the destruction of Jewry.
. In January, 1943, he wrote and published an
. article which said that Hitler's prophecy was
. being fulfilled, that world Jewry was being
. extirpated, and that it was wonderful to know that
. Hitler was freeing the world of its Jewish
. tormentors. '
. 'In the face of the evidence before the
. Tribunal it is idle for Streicher to suggest that
. the solution of the Jewish problem which he
. favoured was strictly limited to the
. classification of Jews as aliens, and the passing
. of discriminatory legislation such as the
. Nuremberg Laws, supplemented if possible by
. international agreement on the creation of a
. Jewish State somewhere in the world, to which all
. Jews should emigrate. '
. 'Streicher's incitement to murder and
. extermination at the time when Jews in the East
. were being killed under the most horrible
. conditions clearly constitutes persecution on
. political. and racial grounds in connection with
. war crimes, as defined by the Charter, and
. constitutes a crime against humanity. '
. 'Conclusion '
. 'The Tribunal finds that Streicher is not
. guilty of Count One, but that he is guilty on
. Count Four. ' [Stein2]
Streicher, Julius -
. Gauleiter of Franconia,
. Editor and Publisher of Der Stürmer,
. SA-Obergruppenfuehrer (General in the Sturmabteilung or Storm Troopers),
. Member of Reichstag.
Sentenced to death by the International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg, on October 1, 1946.
. 'He was among the major Nazi criminals tried
. by the International Military Tribunal at
. Nuremberg. In its judgment, the tribunal said of
. Streicher: "For twenty - five years he incited to
. hatred of the Jews, in speeches and in writing,
. and became widely known as the 'Number 1 enemy of
. the Jews.' ... The tribunal sentenced Streicher
. to death; he was executed by hanging.'
[Goldhagen] "Hitler's Willing Executioners - Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust", by Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, 1996, A Borzoi Book, Published by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.
[Grady] "Academic antisemitism: the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen and the Jews" by Tim Grady This essay (History Today, July 2002) was taken from his dissertation which was written before his graduation from Keele University in 2001. It was highly commended in the History Today/Royal Historical Society undergraduate award in 2001.
[Stein] "Individual Responsibility of Defendants - Julius Streicher"
Source: Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Vol. II. USGPO, Washington, 1946,pp.689-710
[Note: The characters in brackets, eg, (2233-N-PS) refer to the official document numbers included in the series Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. A list of legal references and documents relating to Julius Streicher is on pages 710-715. For information on the referencing of Internet sources see Chapter 4 of S D Stein Learning, Teaching and Researching on the Internet. Addison Wesley Longman 1999, published November 1998].
[Stein2] "Nuremberg Judgment - Julius Streicher"
Source:Judgment of the International Military Tribunal for the Trial of the German Major War Criminals, Nuremberg, 30th September and 1st October, 1946. London: HMSO, Cmd. 6964, Reprinted 1966, pp. 100-102.
[Wiesenthal] Museum of Tolerance Online - Multimedia Learning Center (Simon Wiesenthal Center)
The history of Julius Streicher is presented on the Wiesenthal website.
[Yamada] "The Myth of Zen in the Art of Archery", by Yamada Shõji, Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 2001 28/1–2
____ Epilog _______________________________________
The Buddha's highest teachings were the purpose of the Buddha's advent on this earth.
The Buddha did not appear on this earth to drain people's compassion with discussions of the emptiness and meaninglessness of life which is just a void.
The Buddha did not appear on this earth to teach people to live in such a narrow and momentary way, that there would be no context for self-examination and conscience.
The Buddha did not appear on this earth to possess people's minds with such illogic as to befuddle their ability to choose correctly between what is good and what is evil.
The Buddha did not appear on this earth to teach people how to commit atrocities and genocide, in the exploration of their "infinite possibilities", or "new states of being".
The Buddha did not appear on this earth to teach people how to maim and kill with their hands efficiently, quietly, loudly, with increased terror inflicted, or to maximize their subjugation to control the public sentiments for political ends.
These are all profoundly evil distortions of the Buddha's true teachings, which introduce infinities in the variables holding good and evil, removing all shades of gray in the propositional calculus of value.
Simply stated, the Buddha made his advent on this earth with the purpose of teaching the compassionate way of the bodhisattva, which is at the heart of the true entity of all phenomena, which is the eternal Buddha at one with the eternal Law. Which is how to navigate the sea of sufferings of birth, aging, sickness and death. He originally set out on his path, because of his observation of the sufferings of common people and wanting to understand the source of those sufferings (enlightened wisdom) and how to transform those sufferings into unshakable happiness (enlightened action).
When you embrace the void and acausality, your initial intention to explore Being and essence doesn't matter ... the result is always the same: chaos and misery, and utter ruination and emptiness to you, your family, and your country.
But things don't have to be that way ...
Nichiren Daishonin writes (Encouragement to a Sick Person, WND p. 78):
. "During the Former and Middle Days of the Law, the
. five impurities began to appear, and in the Latter
. Day, they are rampant. They give rise to the great
. waves of a gale, which not only beat against the
. shore, but strike each other. The impurity of
. thought has been such that, as the Former and
. Middle Days of the Law gradually passed, people
. transmitted insignificant erroneous teachings
. while destroying the unfathomable correct
. teaching. It therefore appears that more people
. have fallen into the evil paths because of errors
. with respect to Buddhism than because of secular
Because Bodhidharma discarded the Buddha's highest teaching (the Lotus Sutra), and due to his lazy nature turned to shortcuts to enlightenment, he came to the distorted view that life is acausal and empty, that the true entity is the void.
This erroneous view really comes from a misunderstanding of the Sutra of Immeasurable Meanings, where the True Entity is described by negation (the only way it can be): "... neither square, nor round, neither short, nor long, ..."
The description of the True Entity is logically voidal, but the True Entity itself is not. Bodhidharma was simply confused, due to the slander of negligence (laziness), and false confidence. The truth of life is that at the heart of the True Entity is the compassion of a bodhisattva for others.
Non-substantiality does not mean empty. Life has value. Humans are respectworthy. There is a purpose to everything. And every cause has an effect, so we are responsible for our thoughts, words and deeds. Zen is acausal. Zen is the greatest poison, which compares to the even greater medicine of the Lotus Sutra.
Suffice it to say: the purpose of Zen in the world is to corrupt and undermine everything that is not based upon the truth and the true teaching. All religions, disciplines, institutions and organizations which are undermined by Zen will eventually fall after glaring revelation of their worst defects, sooner rather than later.
If there is some good in your family, locality, society and culture, or country that you would like to retain, then cease the Zen, and begin to apply the medicine of the Lotus Sutra to heal the Zen wound in your life.
"Zen is the work of devilish minds." - Nichiren
. a prescription for the poisoned ones:
. The only antidote for the toxic effects of Zen in your life ...
. be that from Zen meditation, or the variant forms: physical
. Zen in the martial arts, Qigong, Acupuncture, Falun Gong,
. Copenhagen Convention of Quantum Mechanics, EST,
. Landmark Education, Nazism, Bushido, the Jesuits,
. Al Qaeda, or merely from having the distorted view that life
. is acausal, and that the true entity of all phenomena
. is the void ...
. with the effects of the loss of loved ones, detachment,
. isolation or various forms of emptiness in your life ...
. is the Lotus Sutra: chant Nam-Myoho-Renge-Kyo
. at least 3 times, twice a day, for the rest of your life,
. in at least a whisper ...
. and if you can, chant abundantly in a resonant voice !!!
. The full 28 Chapters of the Lotus Sutra,
. Nichiren Daishonin's Gosho volumes I and II,
. the Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings
. (Gosho Zenshu, including the Ongi Kuden) and the
. SGI Dictionary of Buddhism are located at:
. To find an SGI Community Center:
LS Chap. 16 .....
At that time the World-Honored One, wishing to state his meaning once more, spoke in verse form, saying:
Since I attained Buddhahood
the number of kalpas that have passed
is an immeasurable hundreds, thousands, ten thousands,
millions, trillions, asamkhyas.
Constantly I have preached the Law, teaching, converting
countless millions of living beings,
causing them to enter the Buddha way,
all this for immeasurable kalpas.
In order to save living beings,
as an expedient means I appear to enter nirvana
but in truth I do not pass into extinction.
I am always here preaching the Law.
I am always here,
but through my transcendental powers
I make it so that living beings in their befuddlement
do not see me even when close by.
When the multitude see that I have passed into extinction,
far and wide they offer alms to my relics.