D.T. Suzuki in Europe: Nuremberg Zen +^

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Toxic Zen Story #15: Nuremberg Zen: D.T. Suzuki, et al, and the Corruption of European Academia.

| 1897: A Japanese student named Suzuki Daisetz
| ("D.T. Suzuki") comes to the United States, where
| he remains until 1908. In New York, Suzuki
| studied philosophy under a German émigré named
| Paul Carus, whose "Science of Religion" taught
| that religions should reject dogma, ritual, and
| formal organizations. During the Russo-Japanese
| War of 1904-1905, Suzuki also became fascinated
| with medieval Japanese warrior culture. So,
| although he himself formally studied neither Zen
| nor swordsmanship, Suzuki's best-known book, Zen
| and Japanese Culture, devoted several chapters to
| the putative relationship between Zen and
| swordsmanship. First given as lectures in 1936
| and published in 1938, this text's blend of
| philosophy and militarism struck a chord when
| reprinted in the United States in 1959, and
| therefore led many non-Japanese to study Buddhism
| and swordsmanship more closely.
|.
| 1900: Paul Carus [Open Court Publishing]
| publishes the first book of D. T. Suzuki,
| Ashvagosha's Discourse on the Awakening of Faith
| in the Majayana. [Carus was German, so he
| published in German as well...]

This fairly deluded underestimate of the catastrophe that was Suzuki, is typical of academic analyses of Suzuki.

____ Background for Toxic Zen Stories ____________________

https://groups.google.com/group/alt.zen/msg/b4ad0ce368728934?hl=en

____ Introduction ________________________________________

We know the basic story of D.T. Suzuki, and the fact that he had one face showing towards Japan's Imperial Way Zen, and a different face showing towards the West. And that, for obvious reasons, never the twain would meet.

We know that he went to America as a young man, to accompany his master, the Rinzai priest Soyen Shaku, to LaSalle-Peru, Illinois, at the behest of Dr. Paul Carus, a German who was the managing editor of Open Court Publishing, which was owned by Zinc magnate Edward Hegeler.

We know that he had a variety of collaborators, a flock of followers, and influenced many others:

Collaborators in the propagation of Soyen Shaku (D.T.'s Master)-D.T. Suzuki Zen:
Beatrice Lane (wife), Paul Carus, Edward Hegeler, Martin Heidegger, Frederic Spiegelberg, Father Thomas Merton, Alan Watts, Eric Fromm, Carl G. Jung, Richard de Martino, Karen Horney, and a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation to lecture extensively at Columbia University and other East Coast schools in the 1950's.

Followers of Shaku-Suzuki Zen:
John Cage, Jack Kerouac, Alan Ginsberg, Gary Snyder, and Philip Whalen.

Those strongly affected by the Shaku-Suzuki Zen Influence:
Aldous Huxley, Karl Jaspers, Arnold Toynbee, Gabriel Marcel, Herbert Read, and Lynn White Jr.

____ Toxic Zen Story ______________________________

Zen came to Europe, as the Church was being thrown out of Japan.

The infiltration of Zen into Europe, before the Second World War, was only into academic circles.

As Alioune Koné writes in his utterly Zen-biased thesis "Zen in Europe: A Survey of the Territory" :

| '1.1. Early Developments (1787-1930s)'
|.
| 'European conversions to Zen Buddhism occurred
| before the twentieth century. A notable example
| is Christovao Ferreira (1580-1650), a Portuguese
| missionary in Japan who renounced his faith
| during the Christian persecutions and became a
| Zen priest, publishing a pamphlet against
| Christianity in 1636. More reliable information
| on Japanese Zen Buddhism reached Europe in the
| seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Letters
| from Francis Xavier prior to his departure for
| Japan exhibited some knowledge of Buddhist
| practices. Later, Kaempfer's History of Japan
| (published in 1727) contained accurate
| description of Zen's seated meditation (zazen).
| However, there was no concept of a coherent
| Buddhist religion before the second half of the
| nineteenth century, let alone of a distinct Zen
| school. The first Europeans to embrace Buddhism
| were attracted to Theravada, often praised at the
| times as the purer Buddhism. None of the
| organizations created in the 1920s to support
| Buddhist practice in Europe centered on Zen. The
| important figures of this first period for the
| reception/reinvention of Zen in Europe were
| writers and intellectuals; this first period is
| one of literary interest.'
|.
| 'Christmas Humphreys's (1901-1983) itinerary
| epitomizes the growth of a new perception of Zen
| schools outside of academic circles in the 1930s.
| An Englishman from a prominent family of lawyers,
| he had adopted Buddhism as early as 1918,
| professing in a theosophist approach that all
| schools of Buddhism should be drawn upon.
| However, he grew fascinated by Zen teachings,
| writing by 1951: "Zen is the apotheosis of
| Buddhism." For Humphreys, as for many Europeans
| during the first half of the twentieth century,
| the shift from Theravada Buddhism to Zen Buddhism
| was heavily influenced by the writings and
| charisma of Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki (1870-1966).
| D. T. Suzuki was a scholar and lay disciple of
| the Rinzai master Soen Shaku (1859-1919). He was
| not only -- as he modestly labeled himself --
| "the first to make a special study on Zen in
| English." His interest in Western philosophy and
| psychology enabled him to present Zen to a wider
| public.'
|.
| 'D. T. Suzuki's definition of Zen, informed by
| Western thought and philosophy, made it both
| familiar and fascinating to his Western audience.
| German scholars were at the forefront of interest
| in Zen practices, just as they had been in the
| process of translating Buddhist texts. Rudolf
| Otto (1869-1937) prefaced the first translation
| of Zen texts into German, pointing out the
| existential changes fostered by the practice of
| Zen meditation. Another influential figure of
| these early developments was the philosophy
| professor Eugen Herrigel (1884-1955). His
| approach to Zen through archery is still one of
| the most quoted readings in contemporary European
| Zen circles. '
|.
| 'Zen came to be seen in the Western circles as
| one of the purest forms of Buddhism, an idea with
| a nationalistic ring in pre-war Japan. The "Zen
| experience" described by Suzuki and his epigones
| -- compatible with reason although of higher
| status, universal yet quintessential to Japanese
| culture -- was a philosophy that appealed to both
| "romantic" and "rationalist" interest in
| Buddhism.'
|.
| 'Even though Suzuki brought Zen Buddhism to a
| wider audience, the technical nature of his
| writing made his version difficult to access.
| Alan Watts (1915-1973), once called the "Norman
| Vincent Peale of Zen", paved the way for Zen
| teachings to a larger public, inspiring many
| young Europeans and Americans to consider Zen
| practice. '
|.
| 'Other writers, less famous, have been also
| instrumental in the popularization of Zen in
| different circles. Their accounts expressed Zen
| ideas through various lenses, often borrowing
| from D. T. Suzuki's approach. Dr. Hubert Benoît
| (1904-1992), the translator of Suzuki's work in
| French, went on to give his own exposition of Zen
| that reflected his interest in psychology and the
| influence of George Gurdjieff (1912-1949). Robert
| Raam Linssen founded the Center for New
| Philosophies and Sciences in Brussels in 1935.
| His writings provide popular accounts of Zen
| along with Taoism that reflect his long-time
| involvement with Krishnamurti. '

__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

In trying to understand how such great trouble occurred in Europe in the 20th Century, and the movement of Zen and its variants into Europe and the West, I came across the following very interesting posting on a site called "The Forum", under the subject: "D.T. Suzuki and the Unconscious". Poster Name: Stephen Regan:

. 'Comments:'
.
. '..... The presence of Zen as a group mind has
. forced us into spending every hour trying to
. bring our mind back into it's natural focus and
. self center. This is neurosis. To lose this
. battle could result in schizophrenia where the
. mind is divided in half. I would speculate that
. this is a good description of the transition from
. depression era Germany to Fascist Germany. This
. Fascism is a face schism or a face behind a face.
. In that case Hitler's.'
.
. '..... If Zen is a totalitarian system that
. takes hold by parasiting in people's psyche, it
. would be propitious for us to have look at Freud
. and his world: early 20th century Europe. It is
. very interesting to note right up front that the
. "founding father" of modern psychology appeared
. out of the same conditions that produced Nazi
. Germany. By examining Freud's description of the
. psyche we will have an excellent model for
. understanding the conditions preceding a
. totalitarian takeover of a modern society. This
. is just a short look to stimulate some inquiry by
. experts in psychology.'
.
. '..... This in Germany led to development of
. the superman complex called Nazism. It is the
. introduction of this second center in the form of
. an archetype being; the superman; which paves the
. way for the formation of totalitarianism. The ego
. itself is formed as an opposing self center
. against this imposition.'
.
. '..... We have in our current society just the
. same psyche (Freudian model) that Europeans had
. before WW2 and there is in our presence a new
. and very obscure organization offering a super
. being as the "true nature" of human beings.'
.
. 'His superman is the buddha of Zen.'
.
. 'We have the "superego" of this "buddha"
. already in our mind and it is inexorably moving
. toward complete control of our society and our
. citizens.'
.
. 'I am witnessing the degradation of the right
. to self-determination before my eyes and people
. are stopped from bringing this matter forward.'
.
. 'Psychiatry in particular has a total
. blindness to this issue and sit is one of the
. major reasons Zen has gotten this far.'
.
. 'I think it is safe to say they are suffering
. some mind control.'
.
. 'It is really up to the average American to
. take responsibility for insuring our freedom.'
.
. 'Totalitarianism does not abate by itself.'
.
. 'It has to be brought into the daylight'
.
. 'Our freedom and health depend on Zen being
. unmasked as a master race.'

__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

These thoughts reveal some fascinating insights by Stephan Regan.

Psychiatry, as every expert will say, is originally based on Freud's observations of patients under hypnosis. Hypnosis is a phenomenon which reveals the group mind directly, and has something very occult as its basis. To be blunt, one exerts an occult power over the subject in hypnosis.

If the infiltration of occultism into every aspect of European society, masked the approach of Zen into Western culture, would there be traces of this?
______________________________________________________

As an interesting experiment, I took the jam-packed Chronological History of Martial Arts and Combative Sports, by Joseph R. Svinth, from the website
http://collection.nlc-bnc.ca/100/201/300/ejmas/kronos/2002/12-03/index3.html
and reduced it to include only that which was both Zen-Shaolin based and related to the movement of those traditions to the West (Americas and Europe).

With that was merged the Zen-Shaolin related elements from the Timeline, from the website http://awakening.to/timeline.html

With that was merged the large conflicts that plagued the Western world, from the website
http://www.thehaus.net/history.php

This reduction-merge reveals an interesting trend. Things are moving slowly, where every 5 years or so, on the average, something happens, until the late 1890's when D.T. Suzuki and his master Shaku Soen arrive in LaSalle-Peru, Illinois: where the West mind meets the Eastern mind in a deep way for the first time.

Suzuki joins Open Court Publishing under Dr. Paul Carus, and they start to generate a lot of Westernized Buddhist texts, principally Zen, that become somewhat popular. The U.S.S. Maine is blown up in Cuba, and the Spanish American War occurs briefly.

After that a crescendo of infiltration of Shaolin-based Martial Arts begins to swell, with a wave peaking a few years before the beginning of the First World War, which occupies humanity preventing more growth in Zen and the Martial Arts.

Then after the First World War, the infiltration of Martial Arts and Zen is constant until the Second World War, which occupies humanity, preventing more growth in Zen and the Martial Arts.

It would appear that World Wars limited the spread of Zen and the Martial Arts, up to the end of the Second World War. After the War, the trend changes.
______________________________________________________

Here's the reduction-merge chronology:

1860:
1861:
1862:
1863:
1864:

A 57-year old Chinese boxer named Heung Chan begins teaching choy-li-fut ch'uan fa to Chinese immigrants living in San Francisco. (The style was named after Heung's instructors, a Buddhist monk called Green Leaf and a pair of Shaolin boxers named Choy Ah-fok and Lee Yau-san.) Heung supported anti-government activities in China, and his system was notorious for teaching people how to kill using wooden benches, iron opium pipes, and assorted farm tools. So he was probably an enforcer for a gambling syndicate or prostitution ring rather than a priest or monk.

1865:
1866:
1867:
1868:
1869:
1870:
1871:
1872:
1873:
1874:
1875:

The Russian mystic Helena Blavatsky and the American lawyer Henry Olcott establish the Theosophical Society in New York and London. While Blavatsky was something of a charlatan and Olcott is important mainly for supporting Sri Lankan Buddhism during a time of profound Christian oppression, together they were among the first Europeans or Americans to systematically mine Vedic and Buddhist philosophies for religious truths. The Theosophists' purported universalism was hardly universal, either, as Theosophists downplayed orthodox Christianity and Judaism, scorned Confucianism, Islam, Sikhism, and Taoism, and ignored animism. Still, Theosophist Katherine Tingley did introduce yoga into Southern California in 1899.

1876:
1877:
1878:
1879:
1880:
1881:

A Swedish woman named Martina Bergman-Österberg becomes the Superintendent of Physical Education for London's public schools, and by 1886, she had trained 1,300 English schoolteachers in the methods of Pehr Ling. However, physical fitness was not her sole purpose. Instead, said Bergman-Österberg, who was also a feminist, "I try to train my girls to help raise their own sex, and so accelerate the progress of the race."

1882:
1883:
1884:

The British polymath Captain Richard Francis Burton publishes The Book of the Sword. An idiosyncratic discussion of swordsmanship in Europe, north Africa, and southwest Asia, it was originally intended as part of a trilogy. Unfortunately it was released the same year as Egerton Castle's better-received work and sold poorly, and as a result Burton never completed the other two books. This is too bad, too, as the Burton was a man of far-flung interests who delighted in esoteric footnotes. One, for example, mentioned that the Chinese enjoyed betting on fights between praying mantises. I suspect, but cannot prove, that these insect battles, which Burton compared to battles between human saber fencers, were a source of inspiration for the Chinese martial art known as t'ang-lang ch'uan, or northern Praying Mantis. (While tradition says that a Shantung master named Wang Lang created this style during the late seventeenth century, there is no documentary evidence of the style's existence before the 1850s.)

1885:

Japanese sugar cane workers stage a sumo match for King David Kalakaua of Hawaii. The players were local, but in 1914 ranked rikishi from Tokyo stables also gave exhibitions in Hawaii.

1886:
1887:
1888:

Frederick Nietzsche publishes The Anti-Christ, which includes comparisons between Christianity and Buddhism.

Van Gogh (1853-1890) paints a self-portrait depicting himself as a Japanese Buddhist monk.

1889:
1890:
1891:
1892:
1893:

Swami Vivekananda and Soyen Shaku appear in Chicago at the first World Parliament of Religions. It sparks the major exposure of Eastern faiths in American media. Accompanying Shaku to America as his translator is D.T. Suzuki, later to become a most influential spokesperson himself.

1894:

A Philadelphia man named James J. O'Brien accepts a job working for the foreign settlement police at Nagasaki, Japan. In December 1895 he was appointed a constable and attached to the Umegasaki Station, a position he held until leaving for Boston in January 1900. In the United States in April 1902, O'Brien showed some jujutsu tricks to President Theodore Roosevelt. This brought him to the attention of sportswriters such as Robert Edgren, and in April 1905 O'Brien helped prepare the professional wrestler George Bothner for his contest with the vaunted Katsukuma Higashi. Other Americans who trained in jujutsu at Nagasaki before 1910 included Risher Thornberry, who trained scouts attached to the 91st US Infantry Division during World War I and afterwards established the American School of Jiu-Jitsu in Los Angeles.

1895:
1896:
1897:

A Japanese student named Suzuki Daisetz ("D.T. Suzuki") comes to the United States, where he remains until 1908. In New York, Suzuki studied philosophy under a German émigré named Paul Carus, whose "Science of Religion" taught that religions should reject dogma, ritual, and formal organizations. During the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, Suzuki also became fascinated with medieval Japanese warrior culture. So, although he himself formally studied neither Zen nor swordsmanship, Suzuki's best-known book, Zen and Japanese Culture, devoted several chapters to the putative relationship between Zen and swordsmanship. First given as lectures in 1936 and published in 1938, this text's blend of philosophy and militarism struck a chord when reprinted in the United States in 1959, and therefore led many non-Japanese to study Buddhism and swordsmanship more closely.

1898:

++ WAR ++++ WAR ++++ WAR ++++ WAR ++++ WAR ++++ WAR ++

02/15/1898: The Spanish-American War had its origins in the rebellion against Spanish rule that began in Cuba in 1895. The repressive measures that Spain took to suppress the guerrilla war, such as herding Cuba's rural population into disease-ridden garrison towns, were graphically portrayed in U.S. newspapers and enflamed public opinion. In January 1898, violence in Havana led U.S. authorities to order the battleship USS Maine to the city's port to protect American citizens. On February 15, a massive explosion of unknown origin sank the Maine in the Havana harbor, killing 260 of the 400 American crewmembers aboard. An official U.S. Naval Court of Inquiry ruled in March, without much evidence, that the ship was blown up by a mine but did not directly place the blame on Spain. Much of Congress and a majority of the American public expressed little doubt that Spain was responsible, however, and called for a declaration of war.

-- END ---- END ---- END ---- END ---- END ---- END --

1899:

An English engineer named Edward W. Barton-Wright publishes an article called "The New Art of Self Defence" in Pearson's Magazine. Barton-Wright had studied jujutsu while living in Japan, and his "New Art," which he immodestly called "Bartitsu," combined jujutsu with boxing and savate. Yet, while Barton-Wright was a good enough rough-and-tumble wrestler, he was no master of Japanese wrestling. This is hardly unusual in itself, but what was unusual was that Barton-Wright was honest enough to admit it, and to hire better-qualified teachers including Tani Yukio and Uyenishi Sadakazu as his instructors. That said, Sherlock Holmes was Bartitsu's most famous practitioner. In "The Adventure of the Empty House," published in Strand Magazine in October 1903, the Great Detective told Dr. Watson that, on the brink of a Swiss waterfall in 1894, the evil Moriarty "rushed at me and threw his arms around me. He knew that his own game was up, and was only anxious to revenge himself upon me. We tottered together on the brink of the fall. I have some knowledge, however, of baritsu [sic], or the Japanese system of wrestling, which has more than once been very useful to me. I slipped through his grip, and he with a horrible scream kicked madly for a few seconds and clawed the air with both his hands. But for all his efforts he could not get his balance, and over he went."

1900:

Paul Carus [Open Court Publishing] publishes the first book of D. T. Suzuki, Ashvagosha's Discourse on the Awakening of Faith in the Majayana

1901:

British journalist W.T.A Beare compares various forms of self-defense. A good Englishman, he concluded that while each of the "foreign" arts has some merit, jujutsu and Bartitsu worked best when applied as surprise attacks, La Canne was too "ornamental" and florid to be much good, and that any good boxer should be able to defeat a savateur.

1902:
1903:
1904:

The first Buddhist temple in the United States was established in Los Angeles, CA.

United States President Theodore Roosevelt starts studying judo -- then known as jiu-jitsu -- two afternoons a week. Sometimes he studied in a second-floor office in the White House; other times he studied in the basement. His training partners included his private secretary, William Loeb, Jr., and the Japanese naval attaché, Takeshita Isamu. Roosevelt's instructor was a Japanese named Yamashita Yoshiaki. Sam Hill, a son-in-law of railroader James J. Hill, had brought Yamashita to Seattle in September 1903. After a short stay in Seattle, Hill took Yamashita to Washington, DC, where Hill's estranged wife lived, so that Yamashita could teach judo to Hill's son. Young James Nathan Hill was not interested in judo, but the Japanese naval attaché, was. Through the attaché's influence, Yamashita received an invitation to demonstrate judo at the White House in March 1904, and almost immediately after began teaching judo to Roosevelt.

1905:

Hans Köck introduces "Yu-Yitsu" to Vienna. Köck's teachers included Britain's Uyenishi Sadakazu, and his students included a man named Henry Bauer, who in turn taught Austrian policemen. Following World War I, Franz Sager, alias "Willy Curly," established Austria's first freestanding "Jiu-Jitsu" school in Vienna, but Austria did not have any Kodokan yudansha until 1933, at which time judo founder Kano Jigoro graded Ottokar Klimek to 2-dan.

G.P. Putnam's Sons of New York publishes Nitobe Inazo's Bushido: The Soul of Japan. As Nitobe was a Quaker schoolmaster, and as his ghostwriter was a Canadian named Anna Hartshorne, it is not surprising that his book presented bushido ("Military-Knight-Ways") as a Japanese version of chivalry. It may surprise survivors of the Bataan Death March and the Rape of Nanking to learn that "Tenderness, Pity, and Love were traits which adorned the most sanguinary exploits of a samurai." Nitobe believed that judo, fencing, and archery were good character-builders. On the other hand, he downplayed mathematical skill, saying that "chivalry is uneconomical: it boasts of penury." Or at least public penury: the leaders of the ten largest zaibatsu ("financial cliques") that controlled Japanese land, labor, and industry were mostly former samurai. (With the notable exception of the Mitsui family, the traditional mercantile class resisted modernization.) And to give an idea of the wealth of these penurious former samurai, the wedding trousseau of 18-year Hitaro Shizue, who married a baron's son in 1914, was valued at over $10,000.

1906:

Erich Rahn of Berlin opens Germany's first jujutsu school; the style taught was probably Tsutsumi Hozan-ryu. Rahn taught police detectives in 1910 and German soldiers in 1913. Early students apparently included the German Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm, who wrote in 1919 that jujitsu had been of much use to him over the years. Jujutsu grew in popularity after the World War, and by 1930, there were three jujutsu federations and over 100 clubs in Germany and Austria. But, after British teams practicing Kodokan judo soundly thrashed the Germans in 1929, most of Germany's 5,600 male and 137 female judoka claimed to be practicing Kodokan judo rather than Rahn's "European jiu-jitsu". During the 1930s, judo was often taught in Hitler Youth gymnasiums because Adolf Hitler said that it was "not the function of the folkish state to breed a colony of peaceful aesthetes and physical degenerates." However, after World War II, Hitler's support proved embarrassing. So, although Rahn continued teaching jujutsu in East Berlin until the mid-1960s, the post-World War II German judo community prefers to date its origins to the establishment of the Deutsches Judo Bundes ("German Judo Union") in Hamburg in 1953.

Irving Hancock's Physical Training for Women by Japanese Methods is translated into French. Two years later, Hancock's even more profusely illustrated Complete Tricks of Jujitsu (Kano Method) is also translated into French; this book is mistitled, however, because the method shown is more likely a variant of Tsutsumi Hozan-ryu jujutsu. Pioneering French judo instructors included George Dubois, Guy de Montgrilhard, and Ernest Régnier. According to the European wrestling champion George Hackenschmidt, something jujutsu did better than any French wrestling system was teach wrestlers to attack with their legs. It also taught students better balance, and had some useful arm-bars and shoulder rolling techniques.

1907:

A reporter for the Seattle Times visits the Seattle Dojo, the oldest extant Kodokan judo school in the United States. (It was probably established in late 1903 or early 1904, and was first visited by the Japanese consul -- the club's honorary leader -- in early 1907.) The instructor was Kono Iitaro. Four months later, another judoka named Ito Tokugoro replaced Kono as head instructor, and as Ito became a famous professional wrestler while Kono faded into obscurity, the founding of the Seattle Dojo is often attributed to Ito.

Japanese national champion Hitachiyama becomes the first sumotori to visit the United States. Weighing over 300 pounds, and having a chest nearly as big as his 6' height, the giant Japanese wrestler never lost to a European or American opponent. But, as John Gilbey says, wherever did he find someone willing to play?

1908:

With the patronage of Colonel Sir Malcolm Fox, inspector of gymnasia, the British Brigade of Guards hires professionals to teach its enlisted men to box according to Queensberry rules. The boxing was supposed to develop aggressiveness in recruits while simultaneously improving their skills in bayonet fighting. Championships were held annually at Aldershot and other divisional training sites. The Canadian Army adopted the British program in 1916 and the United States followed suit in 1918. Around the same time, the Irish Guards also contracted for some jujutsu exhibitions. The Japanese instructor at Aldershot and Shorncliffe Camp was the professional wrestler Uyenishi Sadakazu.

1909:

Japanese physical educators begin calling shinai fencing kendo, meaning "the Way of the Sword." Pioneers included Takano Sasaburo of the Ona-ha Itto-ryu, who taught at the Tokyo Teacher's College where Kano Jigoro was president, and Torakichi Ozawa of the Hokushin Itto-ryu. Although the Ministry of Education preferred the name shinai kyogi, or bamboo stick competition, the older name gekken remained in use in Japan until 1928, when the newspaper magnate Noma Seija created the Zen Nihon Kendo Renmei ("All Japan Kendo Federation"), and in the Americas well into the 1930s. For example, a gekken tournament was held in Salt Lake City, Utah, in October 1931. In this latter tournament, the participants were mostly Nisei youth. Their teachers were men named Sasaki, Teshirogi, Narita, and Miura. Gekken tournaments were also held in Seattle, Portland, Los Angeles, and Steveston, British Columbia during the 1930s. About 30 of the 200 Seattle-area kendoka were female.

Kaneshige Naomatsu and Teshima Shigemi establish a judo club at Kaneshige's home in Honolulu. In 1913, Kano Jigoro visited Hawaii and named this school the Shunyo Kan. About the same time, Kitayama Yajiro and Mino Nakajiro established the Shobu Kan Judo Club in the basement of the Ono Bakery on Beretania Street. Hawaiian judo was technically good, and the Kodokan accepted the Hawaii Judo Yudanshakai (Black Belt Association) in September 1932. The Honolulu clubs also offered judo classes for women, and early female instructors included Shizuko Murasaki, Matsue Honda, and Yasue Kuniwake. Most Hawaiian judoka were of Japanese ancestry, and as a result the Hawaiian Black Belt Association's constitution, by-laws, and proceedings were all written in Japanese until 1963.

In his book called Complete Science of Wrestling, George Hackenschmidt writes that an amateur wrestler's training should include lifting weights three times a week, gymnastics or calisthenics another two to three times a week, and fast walking or jogging for ten miles daily. Hackenschmidt also recommended that wrestlers study jujutsu, as it included the leg sweeps, trips, and chokes that Greco-Roman wrestling lacked.

1910:
1911:
1912:
1913:

Briton Ernest J. Harrison, the third European to earn shodan ranking in Kodokan judo, publishes The Fighting Spirit of Japan. This was the first English-language book to describe judo and other modern Japanese martial arts from an insider's perspective.

1914:

Maeda Mitsuyo, a judo 5-dan who had wrestled professionally in the United States, Britain, Spain, Cuba, Panama, and Mexico, settles in Brazil. Around 1919, while working for a Brazilian circus, Maeda taught a mix of Kodokan judo and catch-as-catch-can wrestling to a 17-year old Brazilian named Carlos Gracie. In 1924 Gracie opened a commercial martial arts academy, first in Belém and then in Rio de Janeiro, and his students included his younger brother Hélio, who from 1932 to the mid-1950s was a well-known Brazilian professional wrestler. Hélio's sons Royce, Rorian, and Rickson continued in their father's profession, and during the 1990s they made Gracie Jiu-Jitsu® famous throughout the world. Carlos Gracie's nephews, meanwhile, introduced a related style called Machado Jiu-Jitsu® into the United States in 1990.

Ryukyuan cane cutters introduce Okinawan sumo into the Hawaiian Islands. Okinawan sumo was somewhat different from the Japanese game. For example, officials restarted bouts whenever one of the players was thrown to his stomach or knees. Also, in the Okinawan version, only falls to the back counted for points. By the 1930s, there were annual tournaments on all the major islands. The biggest tournament took place on Oahu, at Kapiolani Park. It started at 10:30 a.m. and went until 5:00 p.m., and drew several hundred spectators. There were three weight divisions, 150 pounds and over, 130-149 pounds, and 129 pounds and under. This being the Depression, most of the wrestlers were in the last two categories. The dress code required a pair of shorts and a red or white belt, 15-18 feet long and 20 inches wide, folded to four inches in width and tied in the front.

In Vladivostok, Vasili Sergevich Oshchepkov organizes Russia's first judo club; men who trained there included Britain's E.J. Harrison. Born on Sakhalin Island in 1892, in 1906 Oshchepkov was sent to a Russian Orthodox mission in Japan. Admitted to the Kodokan in 1911, he earned his dan ranking in about six months and his 2-dan grade in about two years. In 1914 he moved to Vladivostok, where he taught judo and did translations. In 1921 he went to work for the Red Army, and in 1929 he introduced judo to Moscow. In 1932 he organized Russia's first judo tournament and the following year he published judo's first Russian language rules. In 1936 the Leningrad Sport Committee prohibited a competition between the Moscow and Leningrad teams. Outraged, Oshchepkov wrote protests to various government offices. This led to his being arrested on the charge of being a Japanese spy, and in October 1937 he died from what the NKVD termed a "fit of angina." His students took the hint and in November 1938 Anatoli Arcadievich Kharlampiev announced the invention of "Soviet freestyle wrestling," which coincidentally looked a lot like Russian-rules judo. Following World War II, Stalin decided that the USSR would compete in the Olympics. Since the Olympics already had freestyle wrestling, in 1946 Soviet freestyle wrestling was officially renamed sambo, which was an acronym for "self-defense without weapons" (SAMozashcita Bez Oruzhiya). The acronym was the creation of Vladimir Spiridonov, who had studied catch-as-catch-can, Greco-Roman, and Mongol wrestling, but as he had been an officer in the Tsarist army, of course the Soviets downplayed his contributions, too. Due to Soviet influences, between 1921 and the present sambo has diverged significantly from judo. Technical differences include sambo players wearing tight jackets, shorts, and shoes; using mats instead of tatami (this in turn causes sambo coaches to stress groundwork and submission holds rather than high throws); and a philosophy that emphasized sport and self-defense rather than character development.

++ WW1 ++++ WW1 ++++ WW1 ++++ WW1 ++++ WW1 ++++ WW1 ++

. 06/28/1914: In an event that is widely regarded as sparking the outbreak of World War I, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian empire, is shot to death along with his wife by a Serbian nationalist in Sarajevo, Bosnia. Ferdinand had been inspecting his uncle's imperial armed forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina, despite the threat of Serbian nationalists who wanted the Austrian possessions to join newly independent Serbia.
.
. The archduke and his wife, Sophie, were touring Sarajevo in an open car with little security when Serbian nationalist Nedjelko Cabrinovic threw a bomb at their car. Ferdinand managed to deflect the bomb onto the street, but a dozen people, including Sophie, were injured. Later in the day, the archduke and his wife were driving through Sarajevo's streets again when their driver took a wrong turn onto a street named after the archduke's uncle, Emperor Franz Joseph. As the car slowed to change direction, another Serbian nationalist, Gavrilo Princip, fired his pistol into the car, fatally wounding the archduke and his wife.
.
. 07/28/1914: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, beginning World War I.
.
. 08/01/1914: Four days after Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Germany and Russia declare war against each other, France orders a general mobilization, and the first German army units cross into Luxembourg in preparation for the German invasion of France. During the next three days, Russia, France, Belgium, and Great Britain all lined up against Austria-Hungary and Germany, and the German army invaded Belgium. The "Great War" that ensued was one of unprecedented destruction and loss of life, resulting in the deaths of some 20 million soldiers and civilians.
.
. 08/02/1914: Germany invades Luxembourg.
.
. 08/03/1914: Germany declared war on France.
.
. 08/04/1914: Germany invades Belgium causing Great Britain to declare war on Germany.
.
. 08/04/1914: As World War I erupts in Europe, President Woodrow Wilson formally proclaims the neutrality of the United States; a position a vast majority of Americans favored.
.
. 08/19/1914: The British Expeditionary Force lands in France.
.
. 08/23/1914: Japan declared war on Germany in World War I.
.
. 09/03/1914: The French capital is moved from Paris to Bordeaux as the Battle of the Marne begins.
.
. 10/19/1914: The German cruiser Emden captures her thirteenth Allied merchant ship in 24 days.
.
. 10/22/1914: U.S. places economic support behind Allies.
.
. 11/02/1914: Russia declares war with Turkey.
.
. 11/05/1914: France and Great Britain declare war on Turkey.

1915:

. 01/01/1915: The German submarine U-24 sinks the British battleship Formidable off the coast of Plymouth Massachusetts.
.
. 03/09/1915: The Germans take Grondno on the Eastern Front.
.
. 04/22/1915: German forces shock Allied soldiers along the western front by firing more than 150 tons of lethal chlorine gas.
.
. 04/25/1915: Australian and New Zealand troops land at Gallipoli in Turkey.
.
. 05/07/1915: The Lusitania was torpedoed without warning just off the coast of Ireland. Of the 1,959 passengers, 1,198 were killed, including 128 Americans.
.
. 05/23/1915: Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary.
.
. 06/01/1915: Germany conducts the first zeppelin air raid over England.
.
. 08/06/1915: Austria-Hungary declared war against Russia, and Serbia declared war against Germany.
.
. 09/25/1915: An allied offensive is launched in France against the German Army.
.
. 12/18/1915: In a single night, about 20,000 Australian and New Zealand troops withdraw from Gallipoli, Turkey, undetected by the Turks defending the peninsula.
.
. 12/31/1915: The Germans torpedo the British liner Persia without any warning killing 335 passengers.

1916:

. 02/21/1916: The Battle of Verdun begins with an unprecedented German artillery barrage of the French lines.
.
. 03/18/1916: On the Eastern Front, the Russians counter the Verdun assault with an attack at Lake Naroch. The Russians lose 100,000 men and the Germans lose 20,000.
.
. 04/09/1916: The German army launches its third offensive during the Battle of Verdun.
.
. 09/01/1916: Bulgaria declares war on Rumania as the First World War expands.
.
. 11/18/1916: Douglas Haig, commander of the British Expeditionary Force in World War I, calls off the Battle of the Somme in the Somme River region of France after nearly five months of mass slaughter.
.
. 12/18/1916: The Battle of Verdun, one of the longest and bloodiest engagements of World War I, ends after ten months of massive losses of life to both sides.

1917:

. 02/03/1917: A German submarine sinks the U.S. liner Housatonic off coast of Sicily. The United States severs diplomatic relations with Germany.
.
. 02/26/1917: President Wilson publicly asks congress for the power to arm merchant ships.
.
. 03/18/1917: The Germans sink the U.S. ships, City of Memphis, Vigilante and the Illinois, without any type of warning.
.
. 04/02/1917: President Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to declare war against Germany, saying, "The world must be made safe for democracy."
.
. 04/06/1917: Two days after the U.S. Senate voted 82 to 6 to declare war against Germany, the U.S. House of Representatives endorses the declaration by a vote of 373 to 50, and America formally enters World War I.
.
. 04/15/1917: British forces defeat the Germans at the battle of Arras.
.
. 04/04/1917: The U.S. Senate votes 90-6 to enter World War I on the Allied side.

In Jiu-Jitsu: A Manual of the Science, Leopold McLaglan describes various throws and holds adopted for military use. Yet McLaglan did not understand the reality of patrolling no-man's land, and omitted descriptions of strangleholds, defenses against knife attacks, and the use of the steel helmet for attack and defense until the publication of his 1942 book called, appropriately enough, Unarmed Attack and Defence. By that time, Commandos had been learning such techniques for at least two years, so in this McLaglan was, as usual, simply following the crowd.

. 07/06/1917: Arab forces led by T.E. Lawrence, ``Lawrence of Arabia,'' captured the port of Aqaba from the Turks.
.
. 11/02/1917: The American expeditionary force in France suffered its first fatalities in World War I.
.
. 11/26/1917: The Bolsheviks offer an armistice between Russian and the Central Powers.

1918:

. 01/25/1918: Austria and Germany reject U.S. peace proposals.
.
. 04/04/1918: During World War I, the Second Battle of the Somme, the first major German offensive in more than a year, ends on the western front.
.
. 04/21/1918: In the skies over Vauz sur Somme, France, Manfred von Richthofen, the notorious German flying ace known as "The Red Baron," is killed by Allied fire.
.
. 04/29/1918: America's WWI Ace of Aces, Eddie Rickenbacker, scores his first victory with the help of Captain James Norman Hall.
.
. 06/06/1918: The first large-scale battle fought by American soldiers in World War I begins in Belleau Wood, northwest of the Paris-to-Metz road.
.
. 06/18/1918: Allied forces on the Western Front begin their largest counter-attack yet against the German army.
.
. 07/14/1918: German General Erich Ludendorff launched his fifth major offensive of the year against the Western Front, targeting the city of Reims west of Paris.
.
. 09/06/1918: The German Army begins a general retreat across the Aisne, with British troops in pursuit.
.
. 09/26/1918: The last major battle of World War I, the Meuse-Argonne offensive
.
. 10/01/1918: A combined Arab and British force captures Damascus from the Turks during World War I, completing the liberation of Arabia. An instrumental commander in the Allied campaign was T.E. Lawrence, a legendary British soldier known as Lawrence of Arabia.
.
. 10/23/1918: President Wilson feels satisfied that the Germans are accepting his armistice terms and agrees to transmit their request for an armistice to the Allies.
.
. 10/26/1918: Germany's supreme commander, General Erich Ludendorff, resigns, protesting the terms to which the German Government has agreed in negotiating the armistice. This sets the stage for his later support for Hitler and the Nazis, who claim that Germany did not lose the war on the battlefield but were "stabbed in the back" by politicians.
.
. 11/04/1918: Austria signs an armistice with the Allies.
.
. 11/09/1918: Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm II announced he would abdicate. He then fled to the Netherlands.
.
. 11/11/1918 05:00 AM: At the 11th hour on the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918, the Great War ends.

-- WW1 ---- WW1 ---- WW1 ---- WW1 ---- WW1 ---- WW1 -- ENDS

Koizumi Gunji establishes the Budokwai, Britain's first Kodokan judo school, at 15 Lower Grosvenor Place in London. (Barton-Wright's school was earlier, but it was not traditional.) Koizumi's chief instructor was Tani Yukio, the music hall wrestler whom Barton-Wright had brought to England in 1899. Tani spent four or five hours a day on the mats, and taught his students to constantly attack. "In one of my early contests at Cambridge I scored quickly with a foot throw," said Trevor Leggett, an early student, in an article published in Judo in 1955. "Then we went to the ground, where I got astride I clung on for the rest of the time, pretending to go for neck locks. With my one point I won my contest. Mr. Tani wouldn't speak to me after the contest or on the way back to London with the team. But just as we were all separately to go home, he said, 'Coward.' It took me some time to get over that, but it was a good lesson." When the Budokwai affiliated with the Kodokan in 1920, Tani was awarded a second-dan rank. One has to agree with Graham Noble that Tani was probably "a real strong second-dan."

1919:

Katherine White-Cooper becomes the first woman to join the London judo club called the Budokwai. "The memory of early days at the club brings back many happy occasions," said White-Cooper thirty years later. "Perhaps especially choice were those evenings set aside for the only lady member, who thereby enjoyed exclusive practice with the Founder [Koizumi Gunji], with periods of rest when there could be delightful and unhurried talks, sitting quietly on the mats. What fine practice! What good talks!"

1920:

In Georgia, a US Army officer named Allan Corstorphin Smith publishes The Secrets of Jujitsu: A Complete Course in Self Defense. The book, published as a series of pamphlets, was essentially Kodokan judo modified for a military recruit environment. Concepts introduced in this book included Stahara as an acronym for the Japanese shita hara, meaning abdomen. Stahara has since been replaced in most books by the more descriptive "centering," but it nevertheless remained in use in US military manuals until at least the 1950s.

1921:

Ueshiba Morihei opens a small dojo in Tokyo. There he taught aiki budo, or "The Unified Spirit Style Martial Way." Aiki budo differed from judo in several ways. First, it placed more emphasis on spirit than sport. (Ueshiba was a member of a heterodox religious group called Omotokyo.) Second, the players did not start out touching, but stayed apart. (The moment the aiki budo players touched, the outcome was supposedly almost determined.) Most importantly, aiki budo's movement was spiraling. (Karate and judo, by way of contrast, were essentially linear. The difference was that aiki budo developed from fencing and spear fighting whereas karate and judo developed from boxing and wrestling.) With patronage from several leading admirals, Ueshiba's fame grew, and during the winter of 1931-1932, Ueshiba moved to a larger eighty tatami hall, also in Tokyo. Admiral Takeshita Isamu made the art's first foreign demonstrations in the United States in October 1935.

1922:

After hearing a debate featuring the Russian mystic George Ivanovitch Gurdjieff, Alfred Orage starts publishing articles that introduce middle-class British readers to Sufism and other non-Western philosophies. Arcane blends of these philosophies then become known as "New Age," after the name of Orage's literary magazine.

A Norwegian diplomat named Lauritz Grønvold undertakes judo studies at the Kodokan in Tokyo. Upon leaving Japan six years later, Grønvold receives his black belt at a ceremony attended by the Emperor, making him the first (and perhaps only) European to be so honored. Other Scandinavian judo pioneers include Haakon Schonning, who started teaching Fairbairn's defendu system to Norwegian policemen in 1929; Knud Janson, who established a judo organization in Copenhagen in 1944; Viking Cronholm and Einar Thunander, who introduced judo into Sweden during the late 1940s; and Torsten Muren, who established a judo club in Helsinki in 1958. Early Scandinavian instructors were usually foreign: British at the Norwegian clubs, French at the Danish clubs, German at the Swedish clubs, and Japanese at the Finnish clubs.

1923:
1924:

A German professor named Eugen Herrigel begins teaching European philosophy at the Tohoku Higher School in Sendai. Shortly afterwards, Herrigel also began studying kyudo, or Japanese archery, under Awa Kenzo, as a way of learning more about Japanese culture. As he didn't speak Japanese well, his interpreter was a Japanese law professor named Komachiya Sozo. Upon returning home to Germany in 1929, Herrigel wrote a famous book called Zen in the Art of Archery. Ironically, neither Awa nor Komachiya had any training in Zen. Herrigel, though, was personally interested in mysticism, and so his imagination colored Awa's explanations. As a result, the much less pretentious book on ikebana, or flower arranging, written by Herrigel's wife Gustie is actually the more profound.

1925:
1926:
1927:

Zenshuji, a Soto Zen temple, is established in Los Angeles, for Japanese Americans but acts as a bridge between Japanese and European Americans.

Suzuki publishes "Essays in Zen Buddhism".

1928:

Dr. A. J. ("Jack") Ross introduces Kodokan judo to Brisbane, Australia. A physically imposing six-footer, Ross studied judo from the age of fourteen while living with his parents in Japan. Although Ross tried to popularize judo in Australia by holding fairground wrestling matches, he found little interest in his methods until World War II, when the Australian Army hired him to teach hand-to-hand combat. Sue Hendy, who took the gold in the 1978 world championships, is the perhaps the best-known post-WWII Australian judo practitioner.

An article in a Seattle newspaper called the Japanese-American Courier says that there are no non-Japanese who have ever learned judo to a successful degree. Therefore judo is an art peculiarly fitted for the Japanese. Continued the anonymous editorialist, "Judo is materially the same as jiu jitsu in practical methods but the difference lies in the theories of instruction and learning. Judo trains not only the physical, as jiu jitsu, but also the mental side of a person. This mental side of the training probably has a great deal to do in wrestlers of other nationalities not being able to become adept in the art." Curiously, the Japanese American editorialist didn't continue his argument to describe why Japanese and Japanese Americans were rarely as good at boxing as Koreans or Filipinos.

1929:

Seishiro "Henry" Okazaki of Kahului, Maui, publishes The Science of Self-defense of Girls & Women. The method shown was Kodenkan, or Danzan Ryu, jujutsu. (In Sino-Japanese, Danzan Ryu literally means "Sandalwood Mountain Old Flow," which in turn translates into "Hawaiian-style", while Kodenkan means "Old Traditions School".) Although Okazaki had 2-dan ranking in Kodokan judo, Kodenkan jujutsu combined techniques from Yoshin-ryu jujutsu, western boxing and wrestling, Okinawan karate, and Hawaiian lua. "In truth," admit members of the American Judo and Jujitsu Federation in the preface to the modern edition, "the techniques as portrayed here are not impressive. Neither do they reflect the comprehensive nature of the entire system. Perhaps their value is that they held the seeds of something better."

1930:

Ark Yuey Wong begins teaching southern Five Animals, southern Shaolin, and northern Praying Mantis ch'uan fa to the members of the Los Angeles-based Wong Wen-sun Chinese Benevolent Association. Although Wong had been giving private lessons since his arrival in San Francisco in 1922, this was the first known public ch'uan fa instruction in North America.

Seishiro "Henry" Okazaki establishes Danzan Ryu jujutsu on Oahu. (He had previously taught on Maui and Big Island.) His first class had six students, and to the disgust of many people, these classes were as interracially mixed as Hawaii itself. Classes were held six days a week, with a Sunday class at Okazaki's home for special students. Due to students such as Sig Kufferath offering classes at the Honolulu YMCA, modern Danzan Ryu stylists have asserted that Okazaki's methods influenced US Army Field Manual 21-150, Unarmed Defense for the American Soldier, dated June 30, 1942. However, this causality is not proved. Similar commercial texts appeared during World War II; among them were Unarmed Combat by Britain's James Hipkiss, Combat Without Weapons by Canada's E. Hartley Leather, and How to Fight Tough by New York's Jack Dempsey and Frank G. Menke. Although the military text was fairly matter of fact, the commercial texts were often lurid. For example, in Dempsey's How to Fight Tough, Dempsey (or, more likely, his ghostwriter Menke) wrote, "The Coast Guardsman who ... plunges his bayonet in a Jap's belly [does not do it] for the joy of seeing blood run -- an unbearable Nipponese pastime -- but to stop sooner the flow of blood from the veins of free and innocent men the world over."

1931:

An English professional wrestler named Jack Robinson begins teaching judo and jujutsu by correspondence course in South Africa. During the 1950s, Robinson's son Joe returned to Britain, where he did show wrestling for Sir Atholl Oakeley. He also taught at a judo school in Brighton. While Joe Robinson claimed to be about equal to a third-degree black belt in Kodokan judo and almost as good in Cumberland wrestling, he was mostly just a show wrestler.

Two Rinzai monks, Nyogen Senzaki and Sokei-an, colleagues of Soen Shaku, teach Zen at a "floating zendo," in New York and L.A.

1932:

Dwight Goddard, following Protestant missionary work in Asia, publishes The Buddhist Bible.

1933:

After Kano Jigoro visits Moshe Feldenkrais's Jiu-Jitsu Club Franco-Israelite in Paris, the French start calling their sport "judo" instead of "jiu-jitsu."

The first karate club to allow Caucasian membership is formed in the basement of Honolulu's First Methodist Church. Its instructors were Mutsu Zuiho and Higaonna Kamesuke.

1934:

The former circus strongman Maurice Van Nieuwenhuizen starts teaching jujutsu in The Hague, Netherlands. Cartoonist Alfred Mazure was among his students, and so Van Nieuwenhuizen became the model for the Dutch cartoon and film hero "Dick Bos." Mazure also provided some of the illustrations for Van Nieuwenhuizen's three Dutch judo books. In 1947, Van Nieuwenhuizen and a former schoolteacher named Simon Van Harten became pioneers of the Netherlands judo federation. Van Nieuwenhuizen's postwar students included Olympic champion Anton Geesink.

Ogawa Tyuzo introduces Kodokan judo to Brazil. Ogawa's techniques supposedly influenced capoeira Regional. This is possible, as Ogawa's judo students and Mestre Bimba's capoeira Regional players came from similar middle and upper class backgrounds. However, the influence may have had a more pragmatic basis. In 1928, a judoka fought a capoeirista in a São Paulo fairground. Said the Japanese-American Courier's account of the match, the much larger Bahian easily knocked the Japanese down. But when he went to finish the fight by kicking the Japanese in the head, "The little oriental by the use of a Jiu Jitsu hold threw the Bahian and after a short struggle he was found sitting on the silent frame of the massive opponent."

In a lecture given to the Parnassus Society in Athens, Greece, Kano Jigoro says that judo has two aims. The first is to achieve one's goals through the most efficient use of mental and physical energy; the second is to maximize the progress and harmony of the group. Physical education, on the other hand, had four aims: health, strength, utility, and spiritual training. Spiritual training included intellectual, moral, and esthetic phases. Anything less was not judo. Unfortunately, said Kano, "Are not many of the promoters of physical education laying too much stress on strength and skill? Into such mistakes people naturally fall because the aim of physical education is not set forth and the inter-relation of those four items is not seriously studied."

Goju-ryu karate teacher Miyagi Chojun visits Honolulu, where he gives karate demonstrations to the Okinawan community. Among his students was a Hawaiian jujutsuka and professional wrestling champion named Oki Shikina, who after World War II became a well-known professional wrestling official in Japan.

Twenty-seven-year old Charles Kenn of Honolulu organizes a play featuring ancient Hawaiian games and sports. His goal was to replicate a traditional mahahiki festival, and this included replicating lua and other combative sports that had been virtually extinct since the arrival of missionaries and smallpox during the 1840s. Toward that end, he learned to read Hawaiian and trained with Danzan Ryu stylists. In 1950 Kenn received a personal account of the lua, in Hawaiian, from an 88-year old man that detailed the two schools of the nineteenth century. "To really do justice to the Oriental hand fighting arts," Kenn wrote Robert W. Smith in November 1964, "one must understand all phases of the culture and the place that the h.f. [hand fighting] arts have in that culture; they should not be taken apart from the culture which brought them into existence."

1935:

Kawaishi Mikonosuke introduces Butokukai judo to Paris. At the front of Kawaishi's school was a blackboard. On this board, Kawaishi wrote the names of his techniques. In front of each name was a number, like so:

Ashi-waza (Leg technique)
1. Osoto-gari
2. De-ashi-barai
3. Hiza-guruma

Kawaishi would then say, "I will teach you the first movement," and the students would follow along. As the numbers were in French, the students thus "learned by the numbers." Kawaishi's inspiration was probably American self-defense instruction, as by 1935, New York wrestling instructor Will Bingham had been teaching women "to dispose of a masher with neatness and dispatch [using] grip No. 7 followed by hold No. 9" for at least twenty years.

++ WW2 ++++ WW2 ++++ WW2 ++++ WW2 ++++ WW2 ++++ WW2 ++

. 07/18/1935: Ethiopian King Haile Selassie urges his countrymen to fight to the last man against the invading Fascist Italian army.

1936:

. 05/09/1936: Italy annexes Abyssinia (now Ethiopia).

1937:

. 10/05/1937: President Franklin Roosevelt called for a "quarantine" of aggressor nations.
.
. 11/05/1937: Adolf Hitler held a secret conference in the Reich Chancellery

1938:

. 03/12/1938: German troops march into Austria to annex the German-speaking nation for the Third Reich.
.
. 10/01/1938: German forces enter Czechoslovakia and seize control of the Sudetenland.

1939:

. 02/10/1939: Japanese occupy island of Hainan in French Indochina.
.
. 03/15/1939: Hitler's forces invade and occupy Czechoslovakia--a nation sacrificed on the altar of the Munich Pact.
.
. 04/07/1939: In an effort to mimic Hitler's conquest of Prague, Benito Mussolini's troops, though badly organized, invade and occupy Albania.

The Argentine government asks the Japanese government to send two qualified judo instructors to Buenos Aires. "According to the official message from the Japanese envoy," said an article in the North American Times on April 28, 1939, "the Buenos Aires Y.M.C.A. formed the Jiu Jitsu Department some time ago and has been sponsoring regular tournaments since last year." The men sent were Kotani Sumiyuki and Sato Chugo. When subsequently asked which of the South American judoka had impressed him the most, Kotani tactfully replied, "I cannot answer this, it's a very hard question. But when I was in the USA in 1932, most of the judoka were very competent ... So too was Mr. [Trevor] Leggett from England." Both Kotani and Sato returned to the USA in 1953 as part of a US Air Force instruction team.

. 05/22/1939: Italy and Germany agree to a military and political alliance, giving birth formally to the Axis powers, which will ultimately include Japan.
.
. 09/01/1939 04:45 AM: Some 1.5 million German troops invade Poland all along its 1,750-mile border with German-controlled territory.
.
. 09/03/1939 11:15 AM: In response to Hitler's invasion of Poland, Britain and France, both allies of the overrun nation declare war on Germany.
.
. 09/05/1939: The United States proclaimed its neutrality in World War II.
.
. 09/06/1939: South Africa declared war on Germany.
.
. 09/07/1939: French General Maurice Gamelin directed his Third, Fourth and Fifth armies to begin Operation Saar. The French armies marched into the Cadenbronn and Wendt Forest salients, where the German frontier jabbed uncomfortably into France.
.
. 09/08/1939: President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared a "limited national emergency" in response to the outbreak of war in Europe.
.
. 09/10/1939: Canada declared war on Nazi Germany.
.
. 09/18/1939: A German U-boat sinks the British aircraft carrier Courageous, killing 500 people.
.
. 09/27/1939: 140,000 Polish troops are taken prisoner by the German invaders as Warsaw surrenders to the superior mechanized forces of Hitler's army.
.
. 09/29/1939: Germany and the Soviet Union agree to divide control of occupied Poland roughly along the Bug River-the Germans taking everything west, the Soviets taking everything east.
.
. 09/30/1939: The French Army is called back into France from its invasion of Germany. The attack, code named Operation Saar, only penetrated five miles.
.
. 10/06/1939: In an address to the Reichstag, Adolf Hitler denied having any intention of war against France and Britain.
.
. 10/11/1939: The American Federation of Labor (AFL) declared its opposition to U.S. involvement in World War II.
.
. 10/18/1939: President Franklin D. Roosevelt bans war submarines from U.S. ports and waters.
.
. 10/21/1939: As war heats up with Germany, the British war cabinet holds its first meeting in the underground war room in London.
.
. 11/02/1939: Hitler's Minister of Propaganda, Josef Goebbels, visited Lodz, Poland. His words about the city's 200,000 Jews foreshadowed their bleak fate in the months to come: "It is indescribable," Goebbels wrote back to SS headquarters. "They were no longer people, but beasts. There is therefore not a humanitarian, but a surgical task. Here one must make a radical incision. Otherwise Europe will be ruined by the Jewish sickness."
.
. 11/03/1939: At the urging of President Roosevelt, Congress revised the Neutrality Act that prohibited the sale of munitions to belligerent countries.
.
. 11/04/1939: Two months after England and France declared war on Nazi Germany, Congress passes the Neutrality Act of 1939.

11/04/1939: President Franklin Roosevelt handed the U.S. Customs Service the duty of implementing the Neutrality Act of 1939.

. 11/28/1939: The Soviet Union scraps its nonaggression pact with Finland.
.
. 12/18/1939: As thousands watched from the shore, the Graf Spee was scuttled by her captain, who believed he was trapped in harbor of Montevideo, Uruguay by a large British force.
.
. 12/25/1939: Finnish troops enter Soviet territory.

1940: End of merged Chronology.
__________________________________________________

I'll make that observation again ...

World Wars limit the spread of Zen and the Martial Arts, up to the end of the Second World War. Then the trend changes.

Everything has its purpose. Good and evil come from the same source, and serve the purposes of that source. That's the big picture.

As individuals, we have to choose what we will serve, good or evil. Not choosing leads to evil. Switching sides leads to evil. You have to know what side you're on, and not knowing, or being confused leads to evil. That's the small picture.

I know this, I want to be on the right side.

I also know that D.T. Suzuki in Europe leads directly to Eugen Herrigel.

____ Epilog _______________________________________

The Buddha's highest teachings were the purpose of the Buddha's advent on this earth.

The Buddha did not appear on this earth to drain people's compassion with discussions of the emptiness and meaninglessness of life which is just a void.

The Buddha did not appear on this earth to teach people to live in such a narrow and momentary way, that there would be no context for self-examination and conscience.

The Buddha did not appear on this earth to possess people's minds with such illogic as to befuddle their ability to choose correctly between what is good and what is evil.

The Buddha did not appear on this earth to teach people how to commit atrocities and genocide, in the exploration of their "infinite possibilities", or "new states of being".

The Buddha did not appear on this earth to teach people how to maim and kill with their hands efficiently, quietly, loudly, with increased terror inflicted, or to maximize their subjugation to control the public sentiments for political ends.

These are all profoundly evil distortions of the Buddha's true teachings, which introduce infinities in the variables holding good and evil, removing all shades of gray in the propositional calculus of value.

Simply stated, the Buddha made his advent on this earth with the purpose of teaching the compassionate way of the bodhisattva, which is at the heart of the true entity of all phenomena, which is the eternal Buddha at one with the eternal Law. Which is how to navigate the sea of sufferings of birth, aging, sickness and death. He originally set out on his path, because of his observation of the sufferings of common people and wanting to understand the source of those sufferings (enlightened wisdom) and how to transform those sufferings into unshakable happiness (enlightened action).

When you embrace the void, your initial intent to bring tranquility and enlightenment to your life doesn't matter ... the result is always the same: chaos and misery, and utter ruination and emptiness to you, your family, and your country.

But things don't have to be that way ...
___________________________________________________

Nichiren Daishonin writes (Encouragement to a Sick Person, WND p. 78):

. "During the Former and Middle Days of the Law, the
. five impurities began to appear, and in the Latter
. Day, they are rampant. They give rise to the great
. waves of a gale, which not only beat against the
. shore, but strike each other. The impurity of
. thought has been such that, as the Former and
. Middle Days of the Law gradually passed, people
. transmitted insignificant erroneous teachings
. while destroying the unfathomable correct
. teaching. It therefore appears that more people
. have fallen into the evil paths because of errors
. with respect to Buddhism than because of secular
. misdeeds."

Because Bodhidharma discarded the Buddha's highest teaching (the Lotus Sutra), and due to his lazy nature turned to shortcuts to enlightenment, he came to the distorted view that life is acausal and empty, that the true entity is the void.

This erroneous view really comes from a misunderstanding of the Sutra of Immeasurable Meanings, where the True Entity is described by negation (the only way it can be): "... neither square, nor round, neither short, nor long, ..."

The description of the True Entity is logically voidal, but the True Entity itself is not. Bodhidharma was simply confused, due to the slander of negligence (laziness), and false confidence. The truth of life is that at the heart of the True Entity is the compassion of a bodhisattva for others.

Non-substantiality does not mean empty. Life has value. Humans are respectworthy. There is a purpose to everything. And every cause has an effect, so we are responsible for our thoughts, words and deeds. Zen is acausal. Zen is the greatest poison, which compares to the even greater medicine of the Lotus Sutra.

Suffice it to say: the purpose of Zen in the world is to corrupt and undermine everything that is not based upon the truth and the true teaching. All religions, disciplines, institutions and organizations which are undermined by Zen will eventually fall after glaring revelation of their worst defects, sooner rather than later.

If there is some good in your family, locality, society and culture, or country that you would like to retain, then cease the Zen, and begin to apply the medicine of the Lotus Sutra to heal the Zen wound in your life.

"Zen is the work of devilish minds." - Nichiren

-Chas.

. a prescription for the poisoned ones:
.
. The only antidote for the toxic effects of Zen in your life ...
.
. be that from Zen meditation, or the variant forms: physical
. Zen in the martial arts, Qigong, Acupuncture, Falun Gong,
. Copenhagen Convention of Quantum Mechanics, EST,
. Landmark Education, Nazism, Bushido, the Jesuits,
. Al Qaeda, or merely from having the distorted view that life
. is acausal, and that the true entity of all phenomena
. is the void ...
.
. with the effects of the loss of loved ones, detachment,
. isolation or various forms of emptiness in your life ...
.
. is the Lotus Sutra: chant Nam-Myoho-Renge-Kyo
. at least 3 times, twice a day, for the rest of your life,
. in at least a whisper ...
.
. and if you can, chant abundantly in a resonant voice !!!
.
. The full 28 Chapters of the Lotus Sutra,
. Nichiren Daishonin's Gosho volumes I and II,
. the Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings
. (Gosho Zenshu, including the Ongi Kuden) and the
. SGI Dictionary of Buddhism are located at:
.
http://www.nichirenlibrary.org/en/
.
. To find an SGI Community Center:
.
http://www.sgi-usa.org/sgilocations/
__________________________________

LS Chap. 16 .....

All harbor thoughts of yearning
and in their minds thirst to gaze at me.
When living beings have become truly faithful,
honest and upright, gentle in intent,
single-mindedly desiring to see the Buddha
not hesitating even if it costs them their lives,
then I and the assembly of monks
appear together on Holy Eagle Peak.
At that time I tell the living beings
that I am always here, never entering extinction,
but that because of the power of an expedient means
at times I appear to be extinct, at other times not,
and that if there are living beings in other lands
who are reverent and sincere in their wish to believe,
then among them too
I will preach the unsurpassed Law.
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