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HALAKHA61 -18: Erev Pesach which Falls on Shabbat (3)

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Yeshivat Har Etzion's Virtual Beit Midrash

Mar 28, 2001, 5:13:38 AM3/28/01


In memory of 10-month-old Shalhevet Pass z"l hy"d,
shot two days ago in Chevron, as well as the victims
of this morning's terrorist attack.
We pray for a refua shelema for Yitzchak Pass,
Daniella Fein, and the many others wounded in the recent

Erev Pesach which Falls on Shabbat
Part 3: Additional Details

By Rav Yosef Zvi Rimon
Translated by David Silverberg

The earlier sections addressed the central issues
concerning Erev Pesach on Shabbat; we briefly present
here some practical halakhot concerning other details
relevant to this Shabbat.

1. THE "SHABBAT HA-GADOL DERASHA": The "derasha" should
take place this year on Shabbat Parashat Vayikra (eight
days before Pesach) in order that the congregants can
apply the material studied at the "derasha" to their
preparations for Pesach (Maharil, beginning of Hilkhot
Pesach; Mishna Berura 429:2).[1]

2. "KASHERING" UTENSILS: One may do so throughout the
day on Friday, since eating chametz is itself permitted
all day (Kovetz Mi-Bet Levi, 5).

3. PREPARATIONS FOR THE SEDER: Optimally, one must
prepare everything needed for the seder before Shabbat:
a) Clean the lettuce. However, one who neglected to
check it should do so on Yom Tov itself (see Shemirat
Shabbat Ke-hilkhata 3:36).
b) Roast the shank-bone (Mishna Berura 473:32; since we
do not eat it at the seder, one may not roast it on Yom
Tov). If one forgot to roast it beforehand, he may do so
on Yom Tov, provided that he eats it on Yom Tov the
following morning.
c) Crush the ingredients of the "charoset." One who
did not prepare it before Shabbat should do so on Yom Tov
with a "shinui" - a deviation from his normal method
(Rema 504:1). One may knead the paste on Yom Tov itself,
unless doing so before Yom Tov will not result in an
adverse effect on the taste.

remember to do so before Shabbat. (The Acharonim discuss
the case of one who forgot to take "challa" from the
bread set aside to be eaten on this Shabbat!) Similarly,
this year one must fulfill the mitzva of "bi'ur
ma'asrot," separating all outstanding "teruma" and
"ma'aser" from Israeli-grown produce. (This means, in
short, that one must separate teruma and ma'aser from all
produce from which one has yet to do so. One gives
"ma'aser rishon" to the Levi and "ma'aser ani" to the
poor, generally only from produce known for certain as
not having had teruma and ma'aser taken therefrom. One
must also redeem his "ma'aser sheni" and exchange the
coin generally used for this redemption with some money
or sugar that he will throw down the drain. Some also
have the custom of reading the section of "vidui ma'aser"
- Devarim 26:12-15 - at mincha on the last day of

5. YOM TOV CANDLES: One must stick the Yom Tov candles
in their holders before Shabbat if they do not stand
otherwise (Mishna Berura 514:18). Today, many people use
candles in small glass containers, thereby avoiding any
problem. One question does, however, arise concerning
the removal of the old metal wick-holder at the bottom of
the glass container in order to place the new candles for
Yom Tov. At first glance, this would involve the
prohibition of moving "muktza." However, Rav Shlomo
Zalman Auerbach (cited in Mevakshei Torah) ruled
leniently in this regard, as this involves the needs of
Yom Tov, which are permitted.

Needless to say, one should not light Yom Tov candles
until Motza'ei Shabbat after having first recited,
"Barukh ha-mavdil bein kodesh le-kodesh" (or having
recited Ma'ariv, including "Va-todi'einu").
Additionally, one must remember before Shabbat to light a
yahrzeit candle in order to transfer from the flame for
Yom Tov candles. (Fire should be prepared before Shabbat
for cooking, too, should this be necessary.) A woman who
who recites "she-hecheyanu" when lighting candles omits
this berakha when drinking the first of the four cups at
the seder.

7. SETTING THE SEDER TABLE: One may not conduct any
preparations for Yom Tov on Shabbat. Thus, one may not
set the seder table on Shabbat. One may, however,
straighten up and arrange things in a manner that
involves the honor of Shabbat itself.

8. PROCEDURE FOR SHABBAT: Shabbat morning prayers
should take place early (Roke'ach 267; Maharil, Hilkhot
Shabbat Ha-gadol; Mishna Berura 444:4), in order to allow
sufficient time to finish eating before the fifth hour
and to destroy and renounce the chametz before the sixth
hour. Likewise, the Torah reading should not include any
added "aliyot" so as not to lengthen the prayer service.
The Mishna Berura (444:4), based on many Rishonim and
Acharonim, writes: "They should not unduly extend [the
prayers], in order that people have time and not come to
stumble." Importantly, however, the Ben Ish Chai (1,
Parashat Tzav) warns not to conduct the prayer with
inappropriate haste.

The haftara for this Shabbat is the haftara read on
Shabbat Ha-gadol in general - "Ve-arva la-Hashem" (Rav
Tuketchinsky, Lu'ach Eretz Yisrael). The Vilna Gaon,
however, would read on this Shabbat the standard haftara
for that week's parasha.[2]

After completing his consumption of chametz, one must
remember to recite the "bittul" (renunciation).

On Motza'ei Shabbat (the first night of Pesach), we add
the paragraph of "Va-todi'enu" to the Shemoneh Esrei in
Ma'ariv (Berakhot 33b; Shulchan Arukh 491:2) and omit the
prayers "Vi-yehi No'am" and "Ve-Ata Kadosh" normally
recited on Motza'ei Shabbat.

For kiddush that night we follow the sequence referred
to by the Gemara as "yaknehaz" (Pesachim 103a; Shulchan
Arukh 473:1): "yayin" (blessing over the wine), "kiddush"
(the standard Yom Tov text - "asher bachar banu mi-kol
am…"), "ner" (berakha over the havdala candle), "havdala"
(the standard berakha: "ha-mavdil bein kodesh le-chol…"),
"zeman" (she-hecheyanu).

116b) says that we recite the text, "ve-nochal sham min
ha-pesachim u-min ha-zevachim" ("we will eat there [in
Jerusalem] from the paschal offerings and from the
general offerings" - "general offerings" here refer to
the korban chagiga eaten before the consumption of the
korban pesach). However, Tosafot, the Mordekhai and
other Rishonim advocate the inverse reading: "min ha-
zevachim u-min ha-pesachim," since one eats the
"zevachim" - the korban chagiga - prior to the "pesachim"
- the korban pesach. This sequence emerges from the
requirement to partake of the korban pesach on a full
stomach, warranting the prior consumption of the chagiga.

In light of this, the Mahari Weill (193) writes that
when Erev Pesach falls on Shabbat, one should reverse the
order and recite, "min ha-pesachim u-min ha-zevachim,"
given that the korban chagiga was not offered on Shabbat.
Of course, this ruling begs the question, why do we
mention "zevachim" at all? The Shulchan Arukh Ha-Rav
(473:49) explains that we refer to the korban chagiga
sacrificed in such a situation on the following day. The
Magen Avraham and Taz cite this ruling as authoritative.
By contrast, Responsa Kenesset Yechezkel (23) writes that
one should retain the standard text - "min ha-zevachim u-
min ha-pesachim" - even when the seder occurs on Motza'ei
Shabbat. He argues that this sentence refers not to the
current Pesach, but rather to the following year: "We
will eat there…" (He adds that the Maharil Weill
intended that one should amend the text on Pesach of the
year just preceding the year in which Erev Pesach occurs
on Shabbat.) The Mishna Berura (473:72) writes that one
should implement the change in such a year, whereas in
Sha'ar Ha-tziyun (80) he cites the aforementioned
position of the Kenesset Yechezkel, without issuing a
definitive ruling one way or the other. Rav Yaakov Emden
opposes changing the text, while many other Acharonim,
including the Magen Avraham, the Taz, Rav Kook (in Olat
Re'iya), Lu'ach Eretz Yisrael and others, support the

I shall conclude with a reminder of several laws
concerning the maror, which are relevant to Pesach every


The Chatam Sofer writes (Responsa, O.C. 132):

"I customarily announce on Shabbat Ha-gadol that
whoever does not have specially designated, God-
fearing individuals checking and cleaning it [the
lettuce] from small, crawling insects that are very
preduring Pesach and indiscernible to those who do
not see well… they should take instead horseradish…
Heaven forbid one should violate a prohibition or
many prohibitions, or even take the risk thereof,
for the sake of performing a rabbinic mitzva - and
marror nowadays constitutes only a rabbinic

The Chatam Sofer thus prefers to forego romaine
lettuce, the most preferable form of marror, in order to
avoid the possibility of eating insects. Eating insects
violates a severe Torah prohibition, whereas marror
nowadays constitutes merely a rabbinically-ordained
obligation. Today, there exists the much simpler option
of insect-free lettuce. At times, however, one may
encounter difficulty acquiring insect-free lettuce and
must therefore purchase standard lettuce. The accepted
method of checking lettuce requires looking at every
leaf. I would like to describe a relatively unknown
method of cleaning lettuce, perhaps the quickest and most
effective method, suggested by the Institute for
Agricultural Research According to the Torah, in their
periodical, Halikhot Sadeh.

Tiny insects often sit on the lettuce leaves without
causing any discernible damage thereto. (Other
vegetables, by contrast, sustain recognizable damage as a
result of the presence of insects, allowing for easier
checking.) The insects penetrate the surface of the leaf
with their beak-like mouths and thereby suck its juices.

Some people soak lettuce in vinegar in order to
clean it from insects. Although the vinegar does,
indeed, kill the insects, they remain attached to the
leaf with their beaks. (Besides, the authorities debate
whether one fulfills his obligation by eating marror that
had soaked in vinegar - see Minchat Yitzchak, vol. 7.)
Therefore, one should rinse the leaves under the faucet
to remove all dirt and then soak them for a few minutes
in a mixture of water and dish-washing liquid. At this
point, the insects let go of the leaf. One should then
go over each leaf with a scrubber, effectively removing
any remaining insects. The leaves should then be rinsed
one last time.

When done properly, this method generally cleans the
leaves completely, and one may thus forego the time-
consuming project of checking each leaf individually.
(The aforementioned journal presents other methods, as
well, but recommends this type of procedure. Although
the publication notes that one should preferably check by
looking at the leaves, as well, it appears that strictly
speaking one need not do so.)

If one cannot clean or check the lettuce leaves, he
should fulfill the mitzva of marror with the stalks (the
white, middle stalks). The stalks do not attract insects
to the extent that the leaves do, so simply rinsing them

Optimally, one must eat 28 cc for the mitzva of
marror. (Although the obligation is rabbinic in nature
nowadays, nevertheless, since it requires the recitation
of a berakha, one should preferably follow the stringent
view regarding the minimum required quantity - Mishna
Berura). Strictly speaking, however, 19 cc suffices, and
one should follow this view when dealing with a limited
amount of marror (e.g. when one eats only the stalks).

If even eating this amount of the stalks is
impossible, then one should not eat lettuce leaves
without checking them for insects, even if this means he
will not eat marror at all. Since marror, as stated,
constitutes a rabbinic obligation, it cannot override the
Biblical prohibition against eating insects.


[1] The Arukh Ha-shulchan (430:5) writes that since the
"derasha" generally does not address practical halakha,
and those with questions bring them to the local rabbi,
the "derasha" should take place as usual on the Shabbat
immediately preceding Pesach. It would seem that the
Arukh Ha-shulchan's observation is correct but yields a
different conclusion: generally and specifically in a
year such as this, the "derasha" should involve practical
halakhic issues. In any event, the Acharonim generally
do not adopt the position of the Arukh Ha-shulchan.

[2] The Gaon's custom evolved from his view that the
haftara of "Ve-arva" is meant to remind the congregation
of the obligation of "bi'ur ma'asrot" [mentioned in that
haftara] before Pesach. Given that one may not perform
this mitzva on Shabbat, we have no reason for this
haftara on Shabbat Erev Pesach. The Arukh Ha-shulchan
writes that people in his area followed the Gaon's
practice. (See Erev Pesach She-chal Be-Shabbat, chap.
16, note 8.)


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