REEFKEEPERS FAQ: Organisms (2/3)

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Reef Keepers Frequently Asked Questions (part 2 of 3)

Note: This header is copied into all three parts

(Well, more or less. Actually, this is a composite document written
by many folks. It contains information each participant felt was
basic information required for anyone considering maintaining a reef
tank. In reality, it's turned into a bit of a reference document.
Some of the information has been taken from public forums like the
Internet UseNet *.aquaria groups. Credit to the authors of such
information is given next to their contribution.)

Note that starting with 1.12, new and/or changed items are marked with
an "*" in the far left column.

*Release 1.12 - 17 Aug, 1994 (more corrections and minor area expansions)
Release 1.11 - 18 Apr, 1994 (some corrections and minor area expansions)
Release 1.10 - 9 Sep, 1993 (Significant additions to test kit and protein
skimming sections. Many spelling and grammar
corrections, some style and format alterations.)
Release 1.02 - September 1st, 1993 (Reorganized, split into 3 pieces)
Release 1.01 - July 1st, 1993 (First Public Release)
Release 1.00 - May 12th, 1993
*Copyright 1993, 1994, ReefKeepers, All Rights Reserved

ReefKeepers, for purposes of the copyright, is the group of authors
listed at the end of this 3-part document. Permission is granted for
it to be copied (unmodified) in either electronic or hardcopy form by
nonprofit organizations if it is copied in its entirety and used in
stand-alone form. This document may not otherwise be published,
posted, uploaded, replicated or copied by any method, electronic or
physical, without the explicit permission of ALL of the listed
contributors.

The authors of this document have kindly spent the time to bring you
their opinions. They are not liable in any form or fashion, nor are
their employers, for how you use this information. Their opinions
should not be construed as fact; don't blame them if your tank has
problems.

You may get a copy of this FAQ via FTP from the following sites:

percula.acs.uci.edu (128.200.34.15) /reefkeepers/faq
*ftp.cco.caltech.edu (131.215.48.151) /pub/aquaria/FAQfiles/Reefkeepers

/---------------------------------------------------------------------------/

Table of Contents

Basic Sections:

Part 1)

1.0 Water (Filters/Additives/Test Kits)
1.1 Source Water - City Mains Water Is Not Good Enough
1.1.1 Background
1.1.2 DI Filters
1.1.3 RO Filters
1.1.4 Further Comments About Water
1.2 Additives
1.3 Testable Parameters
1.3.1 Alkalinity
1.3.2 Calcium
1.3.3 pH
1.3.4 Nitrate (NO3)
1.3.5 Phosphate (PO4)
1.3.6 Specific Gravity
1.4 Water Changes
2.0 Filtration and Equipment
2.1 Live Rock
2.2 Protein Skimmers
2.2.1 Counter Current Air Driven Protein Skimmers
2.2.2 Venturi Protein Skimmers
2.2.3 Protein Skimmer Considerations
2.3 Granular Activated Carbon (GAC)
2.4 Other Chemical Filter Media (X-Whatever)
2.5 Mechanical Filtration
2.6 Under Gravel Filters (UGF)
2.7 Reverse Flow UGFs (RUGF)
2.8 Trickle Filters
2.9 Algae Scrubbers (somewhat long)
2.10 Live Sand
3.0 Lights
* 3.1 General Discussion
* 3.2 Detail Discussion
* 3.3 Lighting Data
4.0 Cost Estimates

Part 2)

5.0 Stock
5.1 Common to Scientific Name Cross Reference
5.2 Coral Aggression Chart
5.3 Corals [Cnidaria (Anthozoa)]
5.4 Shelled Things
5.5 Algae
5.6 Possible Problems
* 5.7 Hermit Crabs

Part 3)

6.0 General Catalogs
7.0 Questions and Answers
8.0 Book Review
9.0 Useful Tables
10.0 Credits

============================================================================

5.0 Stock

5.1 Common to Scientific Name Cross Reference

The following cross reference was originally provided by Steve Rader:

Bubble coral Plerogyra sinuosa
Closed Brain coral Favia sp, sometimes Diploria sp.
Clubbed Finger coral Porites porites
Colony anemonies Telia sp
Common Star coral Montastrea annularis
Cup coral Turbinaria peltata
Dead brain coral Favia sp
Elegance coral Catalaphyllia jardinei (was plicata)
Elephant Ear coral Rhodactius sp
Elkhorn coral Acropora palmata
Fire coral Millepora alcicornis
Fire coral Sinalaris sp
Flower Pot coral Goniopora sp
Flower coral Eusmilia fastigiata
Frog's Spawn coral Euphyllia cristata, E. glabrescens
Euphyllia divisa (Veron)
Giant Mushroom polyps Rhodactius sp
Gorgonians Gorgonacea sp
Grape coral Physogyra lichensteini
Hammer coral Euphyllia ancora, E. fimbriata
Knobbed Brain coral Diploria clivosa, D. strigosa
Labyrinthine Brain coral Diploria labyrinthiformis
Large Flower coral Mussa angulosa
Large Star coral Montastrea cavernosa
Leather coral Sarcophyton sp
Lettuce coral Agaricia agaricites, Turbinaria sp
Mat anemonies Zoanthus pulchellus, other Z. sp
Moon coral Galaxea fascicalaris
Mushroom anemonies Actinodiscus sp
Mushroom coral Fungia actinoformis
Mushroom polyps Actinodiscus sp, Rhodactius sp, Sarcophyton sp
Open Brain coral Trachyphyllia geofroyi
Orange cup coral Balanophyllia elegans, Turbinaria sp
Pilar coral Dendrogyra cylindrus
Porous coral Porites astreoides
Rose coral Manicina areolata
Sea Mat anemonies Ricordia sp
Small Bubble coral Physosyra lichensteini
Staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis
Star polyps Clavularia sp
Strawberry anemonies Telia sp
Tooth coral Catalaphyllia jardinei (was plicata)
Torch coral Euphyllia ancora, E. glabrescens (Veron)
Tree coral Sinularis sp
Waving Hand coral Anthelia sp
Xenia coral Xenia sp

And going the other way...

Acropora cervicornis Staghorn coral
Acropora palmata Elkhorn coral
Actinodiscus sp Mushroom anemonies
Actinodiscus sp Mushroom polyps
Agaricia agaricites Lettuce coral
Anthelia sp Waving Hand coral
Balanophyllia elegans Orange cup coral
Catalaphyllia jardinei Elegance coral, Tooth coral
Clavularia sp Star polyps
Dendrogyra cylindrus Pilar coral
Diploria clivosa Knobbed Brain coral
Diploria labyrinthiformis Labyrinthine Brain coral
Diploria strigosa Knobbed Brain coral
Euphyllia ancora Hammer coral, Torch coral
Euphyllia cristata Frog's Spawn coral
Euphyllia divisa Frog's Spawn coral (Veron)
Euphyllia fimbriata Hammer coral
Euphyllia glabrescens Torch coral (Veron), Frog's Spawn coral
Eusmilia fastigiata Flower coral
Favia sp Closed Brain coral, Dead brain coral

Fungia actinoformis Mushroom coral
Galaxea fascicalaris Moon coral
Goniopora sp Flower Pot coral
Gorgonacea sp Gorgonians
Manicina areolata Rose coral
Millepora alcicornis Fire coral
Montastrea annularis Common Star coral
Montastrea cavernosa Large Star coral
Mussa angulosa Large Flower coral
Physogyra lichensteini Grape coral, Small Bubble coral
Plerogyra sinuosa Bubble coral
Porites astreoides Porous coral
Porites porites Clubbed Finger coral
Rhodactius sp Elephant Ear coral, Giant Mushroom polyps
Ricordia sp Sea Mat anemonies
Sarcophyton sp Leather coral, Mushroom polyps
Sinularis sp Fire coral, Tree coral
Tubastrea sp Orange Cup coral
Turbinaria peltata Cup coral
Telia sp Colony anemonies, Strawberry anemonies
Trachyphyllia geofroyi Open Brain coral
Xenia sp Xenia coral
Zoanthus pulchellus Mat anemonies
Zoanthus sp Mat anemonies

5.2 Coral Agression chart

Also provided by Steve Rader:

I've typed in a useful table from SeaScope (winter, '92) in which
Michael Paletta discusses coral aggression in reef aquaria. It
describes the two major aggressive mechanisms of corals: the release of
terpenoid compounds and the use of sweeper tentacles or mesenteric
filaments. I found it useful because it includes a majority of
imported live corals.

The entries marked with a tilde are my additions--Telia anemonies are
placed above open brain coral because I've observed them burn my red
open brain coral. Both types of colonial zooanthid anemonies listed seem
to release terpenoids that keep mushroom polyps at bay somewhat. Also,
I've included other common names I know of in quotes.

Relative Aggressiveness of Commonly Kept Reef Invertebrates

MOST AGGRESSIVE...

1) Elegance Coral (Catalaphyllia jardinei, "Tooth coral")
2) Hammer Coral (Euphyllia ancora, E. fimbriata, "Torch coral")
3) Other Euphyllia (E. glabrescens, E. cristala., "Frog's spawn coral")
4) Bubble Coral (Plerogyra sinuosa)
5) Grape Coral (Physosyra lichensteini, "Small bubble coral")
6) Mushroom Coral (Fungia actinoformis)
7) Flower Pot Coral (Goniopora sp.)
~) Telia Anemonies (Telia sp, "Strawberry anemonies; Colony anemonies")

8) Open Brain Coral (Trachyphyllia geofroyi)
9) Cup Coral (Taxbinaria peltata)
10) Moon Coral (Galaxea fascicalaris, )
11) Closed Brain Coral (Favia sp, "Dead brain coral")
12) Star Polyps (Clavalaria sp.)
13) Leather Coral (Sarccphyton sp.)
14) Tree Coral (Sinalaris sp., "Fire coral")
15) Gorgoniana (Gorgonacea sp.)
16) Waving Hand (Anthelia sp.)
17) Xenia (Xenia sp.)
18) Giant Mushrooms (Rhodactius sp., "Elephant ear coral")
~) Sea Mat Anemonies (Zooanthus sp., "Sea mat rock")
~) Ricordia Anemonies (Ricordia sp. "Sea mat rock")
19) Mushroom Anemonies (Actinodiscus sp., "Mushroom polyps")

...LEAST AGGRESSIVE

5.3 Key to Stock detail
Key sp. - generic species description.
cdf - captive difficulty
0-9 0=beginner, 5=experienced, 9=advanced
fll - florescent lighting (50% tri-color white and 50% actinic)
0-9 0=1.5 watts/gal, 5=4.5 watts/gal, 9=7.5 watts/gal
Multiply [fll] values with applicable inefficient factors.
* non-48" tubes ((watts/gal) * 1.3)
* HO tubes ((watts/gal) * 1.3)
* VHO tubes ((watts/gal) * 1.7)
* non-tricolor tubes ((watts/gal) * 1.3)
dff - distance from florescent 0-36 inches
mhl - metal halide lighting
0-9 0=1 watt/gal, 5=3 watts/gal, 9=5 watts/gal
dfm - distance from metal halide 0-36 inches
wcu - water current level
0-9 0=stagnant, 5=medium, 9=turbulent
hac - hair algae comptatability.
0-9 0=none, 5=some algae, 9=heavy algae
fod - food source
sym - symbiotic algae nutrients
mpl - microplankton
zpl - zooplankton (baby artemia)
lfd - liquid coral foods
chf - chunk frozen foods
add - additives required
str - strontium iod - iodine
cal - calcium irn - iron
vit - vitamins mlb - molybendium
ptm - potassium
note - This is not a listing of all known corals. Just those for which
some data is known concerning captive requirements.

Cnidaria [Anthozoa]
a SubClass Zoantharia [Hexacorillia]
Order Scleractinia [Madreporaria] (true stony corals) ~2,000 species.
Family Poritidae
Porites (pore)
sp. - (xmas rocks) Encrusting growths. Extremelly small polyp.
Most are brown but can be green, blue, pink and purple.
Massive, branched or encrusting.
cdf=6, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >10
wcu=1-6, hac=0, fod=sym, add=cal/str
Goniopora (flowerpot or daisy)
Goniopora are similar to Alveopora, except that Goniopora
have 24 tentacles on each polyp, and Alveopora have 12.
lobata - (flowerpot) Medium-polyp. Skeleton shapes are varied.
Very difficult and rarely kept more then two years.
Flower-like polyps extend out from base.
cdf=9, fll=5-9, dff= <20, mhl=1-7, dfm= <30
wcu=2-6, fod=sym
stokesi - (flowerpot) Medium-polyp. Longer polyps than lobata
(10-15cm). Polyps extend out very far. Brown, gray,
green or blue. Skeleton is spherical or half spherical
in shape.
cdf=9, fll=5-9, dff= <20, mhl=1-7, dfm= <30
wcu=2-6, fod=sym
Alveopora (flower)
sp. - Medium-polyp. Very similar to goniopora but polyp ten-
tacles are shorter. Brown or bluish. Stung by Euphyllia
and Plerogyra. Alveopora has 12 tentacles on each
polyp while Gonipora have 24.
cdf=7, fll=5-9, dff= <20, mhl=1-7, dfm= <30
wcu=2-6, fod=sym/zpl

Family Pocilloporidae
Pocillopora (cauliflower stony)
sp. - Very small polyp. UV pigments green, turquoise or pink.
Most are arborescent, ocassionally massive or encrust-
ing. Branched ecomorphs have rounded tips.
cdf=9, mhl=5-9, dfm= <15, wcu=3-7, hac=0,
fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str
Seriatopora (bush)
sp. - Small polyp. Pink, white, brown or green. Long, slender
and tapered btanches. Stung by Actinodiscus and
Cladiella. Can be propagated by fragmentation.
cdf=5, mhl=4-9, dfm= <15, wcu=3-7, hac=0,
fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str

Family Acroporidae
Acropora (finger and branch)
sp. - Small-polyp. Most have branching ecomorphs. Rare
massive and encrusting growths occur. Branching forms
include staghorns, clusters, plates and tables. Colors
include blue, green, purple, pink, cream, yellow, brown
or red. Well over 100 species exist. Can be propagated
by fragmentation. Stung by Actinodiscus
cdf=8, mhl=4-9, dfm= <15, wcu=4-9, hac=0,
fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str
palmata - (elkhorn) Atlantic. Stout thick branches or encrust-
ing. Flattened horizontally. Can be fragmented.
cdf=8, mhl=4-9, dfm= <15, wcu=4-9, hac=0,
fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str
cervicornis - (staghorn) Atlantic. Long thin branches. Very
rapid growth rate.
cdf=8, mhl=4-9, dfm= <15, wcu=4-9, hac=0,
fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str

Family Faviidae
Favia (moon or star)
sp. - Medium-polyp. Leaf, flat or half-sphere forms. Polyps in
large cups. Tentacles unfold at night. Brown, white or
yellow. UV pigments green. Can sting other corals with
tentacles or secretions.
cdf=4, fll=4-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-6, dfm= <24, wcu=3-7,
hac=2, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str
Favites (moon or star)
sp. - Medium-polyps. Leaf, flat or half-sphere forms. Polyps in

large cups. Tentacles unfold at night. Brown, pink or
red. UV pigments green. Can sting other corals with ten-
tacles or secretions.
cdf=4, fll=4-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-6, dfm= <24, wcu=3-7,
hac=2, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str
Leptoria (closed brain)
phrygia - Small polyps. Massive growths. Tentacles retracted
during day. Brown or green. Patterned valleys.
cdf=5, fll=5-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3 dfm= <36, wcu=2-7,
hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str
Diploria (closed brain)
sp. - Massive and rounded. Can be flattened or encrusted.
Yellow, brown, greenish or gray-brown. Tentacles ex-
pand out at night.
cdf=5, fll=5-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=2-7,
hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str
Manicina (folded)
areolata - Large-polyps. Very similar to Trachyphyllia geofroyi.

Tentacles extend at night.
cdf=3, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=4-8,
hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str
Caulastrea (tooth)
sp. - Large-polyp. Branching coral. Each branch end has a
large rounded polyp. Tentacles extend out a night.
Green, brown, gray and blue. Similar to some Euphyllia
species.
cdf=5, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=4-8,
hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str

Family Oculinidae
Galaxea (crystal or scapel)
fascicularis - (crystal or galaxy) Medium-polyps. Small rounded
heads. UV pigments green. Tentacles extended during
the day.
cdf=7, mhl=0-6, dfm= <36, wcu=4-8,
hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str

Family Agariciidae
Pachyseris (phonograph-record)
speciosa - Large-Polyp. Valleys form grooves. Green or red
natural pigment.
cdf=4, fll=4-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=4-8,
hac=0, fod=sym/mpl, add=cal/str

Family Caryophylliidae
Euphyllia (bouquet)
fimbriata - (hammer or anchor or ridge) Large-polyp. Straight
tentacles with u-shaped or hammer shaped tips. Can
extend tentacles out very far and sting other corals.
cdf=6, fll=4-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-7, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7,
hac=1, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str
crista - (bubble-tentacled) Large-polyp. Beige or light brown.
Some are green. Tentacles branch into 3 or more twigs
at end. Rounded tips are white. Can extend tentacles
out very far and sting other corals.
cdf=5, fll=4-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-7, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7,
hac=1, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str
glabrescens - (torch) Large-polyp. Straight tentacles with
white tips. Can extend tentacles out very far and
sting other corals.
cdf=7, fll=4-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-7, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7,
hac=1, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str
divisa - (frogspawn or wall or vase) Large-polyp. Green or
light brown.Tentacles sub-branch with numerous rounded
bumps. These are white or yellow. Can extend tentacles
out very far .
cdf=5, fll=4-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-6, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7,
hac=1, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str
Catalaphyllia (wonder or scalloped)
jardinei - (elegance, meat, wonder) Large-polyp. Tentacles alway
s
extended. Have white or red tips. UV pigment green. Can
sting very strongly.
cdf=2, fll=4-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-7, dfm= <36, wcu=2-7,
hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str
Plerogyra (bladder)
sinuosa - (bubble or bladder) Large-polyp. Expand to bubble
polyps in day and tentacles at night. Natural pigment
white. Can be green or pink.Very strong sting.
cdf=1, fll=3-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-5, dfm= <36, wcu=2-7,
hac=1, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str

Family Mussidae
Lobophyllia (umbel)
sp. - Large-polyp. Fleshy mantle. Olive to dark green. Some-
times pinkish or red.
cdf=3, fll=4-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-2, dfm= <36, wcu=4-8,
hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str
Isophyllia (atlantic folded)
sp. - Large-polyp. Deep red natural pigment for deep specimens.
Green, beige or turquoise for shallow water.
cdf=3, fll=4-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-2, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7,
hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str
Scolymia (caribbean goblet)
vitiensis - Large one polyp coral. Fleshy mantle. Tentacles out
at night. UV pigments green.
cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=2-5,
hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str
Cynarina [Acanthophyllia] (goblet)
lacrymalis - Large one polyp coral. Fleshy mantle. Tentacles out

at night. UV pigments green.
cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=2-5,
hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str

Family Dendrophylliidae
Tubastrea (red or yellow cup)
aurea - (red or yellow cup) Natural pigment yellow to shiny
orange. Medium large polyp. Tentacles partially extend-
ed during day and fully at night.
cdf=1, fll=0-4, dff= <30, wcu=4-8,
hac=0, fod=zpl/chf, add=cal/str
Turbinaria (dish or crater)
sp. - Large-polyp. Vase shaped, leaf, fans or folds. Brownish,
yellow, white or green. Tentacles partially or fully
extended during the day.
cdf=5, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=2-7,
hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str

Family Trachyphylliidae
Trachyphyllia (large polyp or open brain)
geofroyi - (open-brain or crater or puff) Large-polyps. Natural
pigment color gray-green, beige-brown, rust brown to
deep red. UV pigment green, torquoise or blue. Ten-
tacles extend at night.
cdf=3, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=2-6,
hac=3, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str

Family Fungiidae
Fungia (mushroom stony corals)
sp. - Single large-polyp. Pale-brown, pink, purple, blue and
green. Short tentacles are usually retracted during
the day. Usually round but can take on different eco-
morphs. Elongated forms have groved mouth.
cdf=8, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-5, dfm= <36, wcu=3-8,
hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str
Heliofungia (plate)
actiniformis - Single large polyp. Gray, blue or green long
tentacles always extended during the day. Paler tips.
Prefers sandy substrate.
cdf=7, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-4, dfm= <36, wcu=2-7,
hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str
Polyphllia (boomerang)
talpina - Large-polyp. Extremelly elongated. Tentacles extend-
ed during the day and short Has central groove. Brown
or paler in color.
cdf=4, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-5, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7,
hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str
Herpolitha (hedgehog)
limax - Large-polyp. Extremelly elongated. Tentacles extended
during the day and short Has central groove. Brown or
paler in color. Very similar to Polyphyllia talpina.
cdf=4, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-5, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7,
hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str

- Order Corallimorpharia (mushroom or false corals)
Family Actinodiscidae
Actinodiscus (disk anemones or mushroom coral)
malaccensis - (brown or fuzzy) Surface covered with small bush
like forms. Light or beige brown and gray green. Brown
specimens found in deeper water. Gray green will fade
if light to low.
cdf=1, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-4, dfm= <36
wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
mutabilis - (color changing) Light to dusty brown. They are
often speckled with green and with irridescent edges.
Can change some color. Smooth surface with wide bumps.
In nature, below 10 meters.
cdf=1, fll=3-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
ferrugatus - (red-brown) Color is from red-brown to rust-brown.
Smooth surface with wide bumps. Do not like direct metal

halide. In nature exist at around 10 meters.
cdf=1, fll=3-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
ruber - (reddish-fluorescent or mettalic red mushrooms) Pink to
bright fluorescent red due to UV pigments. Do not like
direct metal halide light. Radial groves and very small
bumps on smooth surface.
cdf=1, fll=3-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
nummiferus - (burled) From light pink through reddish brown to
a dusty violet. Darker ones occur in shallow waters.
Slightly fluorescent. Small bumps on smooth surface.
cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
cardinalis - (shiny red) Deep red. Darker red bumps over smooth
surface. Expensive and rare. Like actinic light but not
direct metal halide.
cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
marmoratus - (marbled or green marble mushrooms) Found in less
than 5 meters. Slightly rough surface with numerous
bumps of different color. Do not like direct metal
halide light.
cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
wcu=1-3, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
coeruleus - (shiny blue or metallic blue mushrooms) Smooth blue
surface with faint radial lines. Very small bumps can
occur. Very deep dwelling > 20 meters. Never tolerates
direct metal halide light. Can expand very large.
cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
striatus - (striped) Many different color patterns. Beige-green
ones have symbiotic algae pigment dominate the uv pig-
ment and assimilation pigment. Can have perfectly smooth
disk or contain small bumps. All have radial brightly
colored stripes.
cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
wcu=1-4, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
punctatus - (dotted) Main surface body smooth and brown. Have
very large colorful bumps with uv pigment. Direct metal
halide light could be fatal.
cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
wcu=1-4, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
Ricordia (caribbean disk anemones)
florida - (caribbean or flower anemones) Colors range from light
green to a very beautiful dark green to blue and orange.
Surface is covered with short tentacles which can in-
flate to become bubble-like. Usually found between 10
and 40 feet in the ocean. When tentacles on rim of disk
extended will accept small peices of brine shrimp, etc.
cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= <36
wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/chf, add=iod/vit
Rhodactis [Discosoma] (elephant ear)
viridis - (green elephant ear) Luminescent turquoise-green ten-
tacle disk. Like a giant fuzzy mushroom.
cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-4, dfm= <36
wcu=2-6, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/chf, add=iod/vit
neglecta - (caribbean elephant ear) Green with some surface.
Radial lines and bumps along with sharp points on edge.
Can become ballon shaped greedy eaters. Do not like
direct metal halide light.
cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
wcu=1-5, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/chf, add=iod/vit
maeandrinea - (large or folded elephant ear) Very large with a
diameter greater than 15 cm. Can grow to 40 cm in cap-
tivity. Sandy to dark brown or gray green. Smooth disk
with vertical smooth tenatcles. Do not like strong
current or direct metal halide light. Can catch fish or
shrimps in ballon-like trap.
cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
wcu=1-5, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/chf, add=iod/vit
plumosa - (carpet elephant ear or carpet mushrooms) Large fuzzy
coral with bushy tentacles. Will eat some chunk food.
Can form bubble trap.
cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
wcu=2-5, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/chf, add=iod/vit

- Order Zoanthiniaria [Zoantharia][Zoanthidea] ~300 species
(Encrusting anemones)
Family Epizoanthidae
Parazoanthus (yellow polyps)
sp. - Small polyps with very long thin tentacles. Bright yel-
low to dark yellow. Polyps not connected.
cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= <24
wcu=4-7, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/vit
Epizoanthus
sp. - Medium sized small colonial polyp disks with medium sized
tentacles. Fedd mostly on zooplankton. Brown to cinna-
mon colored.
cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= <24
wcu=4-7, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/vit
Family Zoanthidae
Zoanthus (encrusting anemones)
sp. - Small circular colonial polyps which have a ring of short
tentacles around the rim. Shallow water species have
UV pigmentation from red, green, turquoise, lemon yel-
low to orange. The mouth, disk and tentacles can be of
different coloration. Polyps connected at base.
cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= <24
wcu=3-7, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
sociatus - Small circular colonial polyps which have a ring of
short tentacles around the rim. Turquoise to yellow-
green. UV coloration will remain under metal halide or
actinic lighting. Polyps connected at base.
cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= <24
wcu=3-7, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/vit
Palythoa
sp. - Larger polyp disk than Zoanthus with long pointy tentacles
around the rim. Beige-brown, cinnamon to dar "milk cof-
fee" brown, graygreen or shiny green. Might not tole-
rate direct metal halide. Polyps connected at base.
cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-4, dfm= <36
wcu=3-7, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/vit

SubClass Alcyonria [Octocorallia]
Order Alcyonacea (leather and soft corals)
Family Alcyonidae
Alcyonium
fulvum - (yellow encrusting leather) Encrusting beige-yellow to
ivory-colored leather coral often many millimetres thick.
Finger-like projections develop which have 2 to 5 cm long
polyps with 8 flower tentacles. Polyps resemble Sarcophyton
species polyps.
cdf=2, fll=7-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >10
wcu=3-6, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod
Sarcophyton
sp. - (mushroom leather) Mushroom shaped leather coral. Grow better
in fluorescent lighting. Need adaption time to tolerate long
photoperiods of metal halide lighting. Can be propagated via
cuttings. Long polyp stems with small flower-like tentacles.
cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >12
wcu=4-7, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod
trocheliophorum - (trough leather) Very attractive. Folding lobes
of leather coral with short polyps. Can double size in one
year. May not tolerate extended metal halide photoperiods and
need adaption time. Will shed skin regularly. Can be propagted
via cutting from edge lobe. Lives primarily in reef pools and
can reach a diameter of more than one meter.
cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >12
wcu=4-7, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod
lobulatum - (leather) Flat, mushroomed-shaped leather. Medium brown
base. Similar to mushroom leather coral with very small polyps
and larger overall size. Can be propagated via cuttings of
base. Will become lighter under adequate lighting.
cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >12
wcu=4-7, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod
latum - Dish-like with thick, lobate projections. Polyps are beige-
yellow to shiny green. Shallow water coral. Can be propagated
via cuttings. Also similar to trocheliophorum in morphology.
Will grow fast under metal halides.
cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-8, dfm= >12
wcu=5-8, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod
glaucum - Common mushroom shaped leather coral. Beige to sandy color-
ed or olive to bottle-green. May need to be slowly acclimated
to bright metal halides. Can be reproduced by cutting of
entire mushroom cap.
cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >12
wcu=5-8, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod
sp. - Mushroom based leather coral with high, upward-arching lobate
edges. Long pure-white polyps. Mushroom from light beige to
sandy grey or light yellow in color. Need lots of light for
polyps to extend. When acclimated to metal halides, polyps will
extend to 5 cm and have star shaped tentacles. Can be cultivat-
ed with cuttings.
cdf=3, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-8, dfm= >12
wcu=3-6, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod
ehrenbergi - Similar to glaucum. Mostly pure white, occasionally
yellowish or greenish gray secondary polyps. Tentacles of
polyps easily distinguished. Skin shed less often. Needs slow
acclimation to metal halide lighting. Can be fragmented via
cuttings bu is more sensitive.
cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >12
wcu=4-7, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod
Carotalcyon
sagamianum - Carrot-like leather coral. Deep water orange to crim-
son red. Has a carrot like body appearance with large polyps
which extend out from the body.
cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >12
wcu=5-8, hac=1, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod
Sphaerella
krempfi - (christmas tree) Resemble evergreen tree and lack symbio-
tic algae. Brown color. Like strong current and do best on
substrate.
cdf=3, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= >15
wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod
Lobophytum
pauciflorum - Encrusting leather with lobed, finger-shaped and occa-
sionally bushy projections or folds. Can be propagated via cut-
tings. Grow well under flouorescent lights. Have calcareous
needle growths.
cdf=2, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-3, dfm= >12
wcu=4-7, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod/cal/str
crassum - An encrusting leather coral similar to pauciflorum. Thick-
er polyps. Very robust coral. Can also be propagated via cut-
tings.
cdf=2, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-3, dfm= >12
wcu=4-7, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod/cal/str
Sinularia
sp - Branching soft coral with a flat body on a thick column 3-4 cm
tall. Finger-like appendages extend from body and have polyps.
Prefer to grow out horizontally. Color is ivory to light gray
but under intense light will become symbiotic brown. Occasion-
ally sheds skin.
cdf=3, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= >15
wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str
macropodia - Branching soft coral with thick-fleshed foot and base.
Thick branches rise from this base and branch into finger like
projections. These are densly covered with polyps. Color is
light-beige or grayish white to light brown. Shed skin once a
week. Do not like direct halide lite. Can be propagated via
cuttings. Contain calcareous needles.
cdf=3, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= >15
wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str
notanda - This corals morphology lies between the above generic
species and macropodia. Grows well but introduce to halides
slowly. See sp. for info.
hirta -(dark brown sea hand) Similar to generic species with stubby
fingers and fat nobbed appendages. From shallow water. Grow
rapidly under metal halides. Color is ivory to cream white when
retracted, turn milk coffee brown when extended.
cdf=3, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >8
wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str
prodigiosa - Similar to macropodia but fingerlobes branch out twice
into secondary branches. These are thickly set with polyps. See
macropodia for info.
frondosa - Flat crusts with nobbed extensions. Will produce finger
like appendages in low current areas. Under intense light will
grow long fingers with large polyps. Like metal halide.
cdf=3, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >8
wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str
dura - Solid cushion like bodies with burled to stubby finger pro-
jections. See sp. for info.
brassica - Colonies resemble cauliflower heads. Dark brown polyps
on short stalks. Branches and base are creamy white to light
beige.
cdf=2, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >8
wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str
asterolobata - Morphology that resembles macropodia. Strong polyp-
less base column splits itself into two or more secondary co-
lumns from which long finger like branches protrude. These
branches can divide again. Branches are round and thickly
covered with delicate polyps. Will shed skin. Base color from
ivory, light grey or light olive. Will develop uv protection
matter under halides which is yellowish to greenish and slight-
ly luminescent.
cdf=2, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >8
wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str
polydactyla - (many fingered) Squat column from 20 to 50 mm tall
is polypless. On upper side of column is a flat polyparywith
40-50 mm long fingers which are thickly polyped. Base color is
gray-white to creamy-yellow. Polyps are light to dark brown.
Under halides polyps will become darker and then symbiotic
algae are released which lightens the color. Grows well under
fluorescent lighting.
cdf=2, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >8
wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str
Cladiella
sp - Squat column from which many branches extend and divide fur-
thur upward. Base column lacks polyps while they become more
dense closer to the ends of branches. Polyps are 3 to 4 cm
large. Can be propagated via branch "pinching". Can be acclimat-
ed to halides. Will grow very fast toward surface of captive
reef. Do not shed skin but will release mucus. Not very com-
patable with hexacorillia.
cdf=4, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >8
wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str
Alcyonium
sp. - Bushy or crusty short tree like soft coral. Color is bright
yellow, orange or red. Shady locations. Reach 40 to 50 mm tall.
cdf=3, fll=2-7, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= >15
wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str
sp. - Encrusting orange colored bushy soft coral. Very small orange
polyps on bushy orange base. Can be propagated via cuttings.
cdf=3, fll=2-7, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= >15
wcu=5-9, hac=4, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str

Family Xeniidae
Xenia (also Cespitularia)
sp. - Large polyps with thin stems connected at the base. Polyps
do not fully retract. Very tiny calcareous needles or complete-
ly lack skeleton. Polyps can be up to 15 mm long under intense
lighting. Tentacles are pinnated. Some will move polyps in
rhythmic motion to help exchange gases. Color is beige, cream
or light brown. Will develope uv protection matter under ha-
lides and color will be red, green, blue or irridescent. Can
be acclimated to halides well. Can do well under fluorescent
if high levels used. Can overgrow stony corals. Propagated
via cuttings.
cdf=5, fll=6-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= >10
wcu=5-9, hac=4, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/cal/str
umbellata - Mushroom shaped with seperate polyped branches up to
50 mm long. Polyps will open and close in rhythmic fashion.
Tentacles are short and wide and form little cups on thin
branches. Branches radiate out from base.
cdf=5, fll=6-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= >10
wcu=5-9, hac=4, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/cal/str
elongata - Similar to Xenia sp.. Has a more branched form. See
sp. for info.
Anthelia
glauca - Very similar to Xenia sp.. Has large polyps. Colonies
grow very fast.
cdf=5, fll=6-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= >10
wcu=5-9, hac=4, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/cal/str

Family Nephteidae
Litophyton
arboreum - Standard bushy and tree shaped soft coral. Must be
acclimated to halides slowly. Will do well under fluorescents.
Can be propagated via cuttings. Pale colors with symbiotic
algae. May not be compatable with hexacorillia.
cdf=3, fll=6-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-6, dfm= >10
wcu=5-9, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str
Nephthea
sp. - Tall bushy like soft coral. Smooth thick base with numerous
small thickly polyped smaller branches extending from main
trunks. May not be compatable with hexacorillia.
cdf=6, fll=6-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-6, dfm= >10
wcu=5-9, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str
Lemnalia
sp. - Tall tree-like soft corals. Polyps are not as dense as
Nephthea. Long finger branches extend out from main clolumn.
Must be slowly acclimated to halides. Might not be too com-
patable with hexacorillia.
cdf=7, fll=6-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-6, dfm= >10
wcu=5-9, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str
Dendronephythya
sp. - Very colorful tree-like corals. Deep water or cave corals
which require low lighting and frequent feedings of zooplank-
ton. Will collapse occasionally. Calcareous needles are visi-
ble in branches. Thin secondary branches extend from main stem.
cdf=9, fll=3-7, dff= >10, mhl=1-2, dfm= >20
wcu=5-9, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str
rubeola - Ployps are very thick on short secondary branches which
protrude from main column. Prefer sand or silt substrates.
Need frequent feedings and will open polyps if substrate
stirred up. Brightly colored coral from low light areas.
cdf=9, fll=3-7, dff= >10, mhl=1-2, dfm= >20
wcu=5-9, hac=2, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str
mirabilis - Snowy white polyps exist in thick groups protruding
from short secondary branches. Form similar to rubeola.
No symbiotic algae. Need very low light.
cdf=9, fll=3-7, dff= >10, mhl=1-2, dfm= >20
wcu=5-9, hac=2, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str

Order Gorgonacea (gorgonians)
Family Plexauridae
Anthoplexaura (also Euplexaura)
sp. - Flexible thin branched tree-like skeleton. Composed of
horny or calcareous skeletal elements. Polyps embedded in
crusty layer of living material which surronds skeleton. This
gorgonian species has few branches and are thickly polyped.
Some species from caribbean sea contain symbiotic algae. Will
shed skin. Polyps are up to 5 mm long. Only feed zooplankton
when polyps are open. Can stir up sediment to entice polyps
to open.
cdf=6, fll=3-7, dff= >10, mhl=1-2, dfm= >20
wcu=4-8, hac=0, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str

Family Gorgonidae
Eugorgia
sp. - Very similar to Plexauridae. Branches are thicker.
cdf=5, fll=3-7, dff= >10, mhl=1-2, dfm= >20
wcu=4-8, hac=0, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str

Order Stolonifera (pipe corals)
Family Tubiporidae (organ pipe corals)
Tubipora
musica - (red organ pipe) Flower polyps in red tube-like calcareous
systems. Will do well under metal halides. Colonies should be
whole and not broken off (statement questioned by some).
cdf=2, fll=7-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >10
wcu=3-6, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd, add=cal/str

Family Clavulariidae
Clavularia
viridis - (green pipe, green star polyps) Encrusting colonies of
small pipe shaped flower polyps. The tentacles are very bright
green and a calcareous webbing connects the polyp stems. Coral
is found in fist sized colonies existing in shallow water.
Will maintain bright green color under metal halide lighting.
cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-9, dfm= >10
wcu=4-8, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd, add=cal/str

Family Cornulariidae
Cornularia
sp. - (brown pipe) Encrusting colonies of small pipe shaped flower
polyps. The tentacles are brown and lack the calcareous web-
bing found in Clavularia viridis. A horny protective shell is
built around stolon.
cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-9, dfm= >10
wcu=4-8, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd, add=cal/str

Order Telestacea (branched pipe corals)
Family Telestidae
Coelogorgia
palmosa - (branched pipe) Appears like branching gorgonian corals.
Branches have short stems from which polyps extend.
cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-9, dfm= >10
wcu=5-9, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str

Order Pennatulacea (sea pens)
Family Veretillidae
Cavernularia
obesa - (sea pen)Cylinder shaped coral from which large tentacles
extend. Color can be orange, yellow, buff or white. These
animals are not very compatable to reef tanks due to half-
sessile existence. Require thick substrate.
cdf=3, fll=3-8, dff= >5, mhl=1-3, dfm= >20
wcu=2-5, hac=0, fod=zpl, add=iod/cal/str

Order Coenothecalia
Family Helioporidae (blue coral)
Heliopora
coerulea - (blue coral) Beige to olive colored coral. Smooth sur-
face with small calices. Polyps are hair-thin tubes about 1 mm
long. Very small tentacles. Sheds skin. Grows very well under
metal halides. Shapes can consist of nobs, columns, fingers or
thick lobes. Dead corals are blue colored.
cdf=4, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-9, dfm= >10
wcu=3-7, hac=0, fod=sym/mpl, add=cal/str
d Anemones

5.4 Shelled things
a Clams

Tridacna Maxima (expensive)
Purple, blue, green, pink, or combination.
cdf=3, fll=5-9, dff <18, mhl=1-7, dfm= >8
wcu=1-5, hac=5, fod=sym, add=cal/str
Tridacna crocea
Purple, blue, green, or combination.
cdf=5, fll=5-9, dff <6 mhl=1-7, dfm= >5
wcu=1-5, hac=5, fod=sym, add=cal/str
Tridacna squamosa
brown, yellow, usually with green rim, black and red??.
cdf=3, fll=5-9, dff <18, mhl=1-7, dfm= >5
wcu=1-5, hac=5, fod=sym, add=cal/str
Tridacna derasa
brown, sometimes with green strips.
cdf=1, fll=5-9, dff <18, mhl=1-7, dfm= >5
wcu=1-5, hac=5, fod=sym, add=cal/str
Tridacna gigas
almost always brown with tiny blue dots,
very rarely green, blue or combination.
cdf=3, fll=5-9, dff <18, mhl=1-7, dfm= >5
wcu=1-5, hac=5, fod=sym, add=cal/str
Hippopus hippopus
Very light cream-color mantle with many short tan
lines. Shell is lighter in color and much smoother
than Tridacna clams. I believe the H.h clams are
at least as hardy has the hardy T. clams. They are also
supposed to be tank-raised. They are certainly the
cheapest costing at most 1/3 to 1/2 that of a similiar-sized
Tridacna (excepting derasa which are almost as cheap).
The mantle of Hippopus sp clams does not extend beyond
the shell as it does in Tridacna sp (Delbeek).

b Snails
c Crustaceans

5.5 A LISTING OF THE MORE COMMON coralline ALGAE (Rhodophyta)

FAMILY: Chaetangiaceae

GenSpec: _Galaxaura marginata_ (Lamouroux)
Des. Small, mounded seaweed of loosly compressed blades.
Dichotomous branches often show faint cross banding
near the tip. Lightly calcified .
Range: Caribbean

GenSpec: _Galaxaura oblongata_ (Lamouroux)
Des. Bushy, creamy red plant having cylindrical smooth
dichotomous branches with flexible joints. Well
calcified.
Range: Caribbean


GenSpec: _Galaxaura subverticillata_ (Kjellman)
Des. Cylindircal, dark red dichotomous branches ringed by
minute hairlike filaments, giving the algae a fuzzy
appearance. Moderatly calcified.
Range: Caribbean


FAMILY: Corallinaceae

GenSpec: _Jania adherens_ (Lamouroux)
Des: Fine, cylindrical, pink segments connected by flexible
joints. Dichotomous branching. Forms small tangled
clumps. Highly calcified.
Range: Caribbean

GenSpec: _Jania rubens_ (Lamouroux)
Des: Rose red somewhat straight segments tightly connected by
flexible joints. Branching is dichotomous with narrow
angles (branches almost parallel). Highly calcified.
Range: Caribbean

GenSpec: _Haliptilon subulatum_ (Johansen)
Des: Small, compressed plants, feather-like in appearance.
Composed of brittle, chalky segments connected by
flexible joints. Segments appear ringed. Heavily
calcified.
Range: Caribbean

GenSpec: _Amphiroa fragilissima_ (Lamouroux)
Des: Dense clumps of entangled, fragile, thin jointed
branches. Generally yellowish pink in color. The
dichotomous branches form very wide angles (broad
"Y"'s) at each joint. Highly calcified.
Range: Caribbean

GenSpec: _Amphiroa rigida var. antillana_
Des: Open, brittle species with thin, narrow cylindrical
branches. Light, off white clumps. Branches dichotomous.
Highly calcified.
Range: Caribbean

GenSpec: _Amphiroa brasiliana_ (Decaisne)
Des: Pink, joited, dichotomus, somewhat flattened branches.
Highly calcified
Range: Caribbean

GenSpec: _Amphiroa tribulus_ (Lamouroux)
Des: Thin, brittle, flattened, sparse branches, forming
pinkish red bushy clumps. Edges of branches are often
flattened. Highly calcified.
Range: Caribbean

GenSpec: _Amphiroa hancockii_ (W. Taylor)
Des: Irregualr to dichotomous branching. Colour is pinkish
purple. Branches composed of thick, flattened segements.
Heavily calcified.
Range: Caribbean

GenSpec: _Neogoniolithon spectabile_ (Setchell and Mason)
Des: Hard, stony pink plant forming knobby hemispherical
clumps tighly attached to rocks. Branching is irregular
to dichotomous, and segments are thick. Heavily
calcified.
Range: Caribbean

GenSpec: _Neogoniolithon strictum_ (Setchell and Mason)
Des: Hard, brittle pinkish red plant with blunt branching
and no joints. Branches thick, and tend to grow
upright. Heavily calcified.
Range: Caribbean

GenSpec: _Lithophyllum congestum_ (Foslie)
Des: Pink to purplish branched, headlike plants that look
similar to coral. Branches are crowded, stout,
projections, and are wafer-like. Heavily calcifed.
Range: Caribbean

GenSpec: _Mesophyllum mesomorphum_ (Adey)
Des: An encrusting coralline algae. Dark red to pink over-
lapping shelves or lobes. Fragil. Heavily calcified.
Range: Caribbean, Indo-Pacific

GenSpec: _Titanoderma_ sp. (Chamberlain)
Des: An encrusting coralline algae found growing epiphytically
on many species of algae. Forms thin, pinkish crusts.
Heavily calcified.
Range: Caribbean

GenSpec: _Fosliella farinosa f. callithamnoides (Chamberlain)
Des: An articualted coralline algae found growing
epiphytically on many species of algae. Forms thin,
dichotomously branched colonies. Heavily calcified.
Range: Caribbean

GenSpec: _Titanoderma prototypum_ (Woelkerling)
Des: Cream coloured to red encrusting algae, often with
a circular pattern present. Heavily calcified.
Range: Caribbean

GenSpec: _Titanoderma bermudense_ (Foslie and Howe)
Des: A grayish to pale red encrusting algae consisting of
overlapping layers. Often with striations or greyish
lines present on the surface. Heavily calcified.
Range: Caribbean

GenSpec: _Porolithon pachydermum_ (Weber-van Bosse & Foslie)
Des: Pinkish grey encrusting algae often containing holes
(caused by a chiton). An important reef builder. Heavily
calcifed.
Range: Caribbean

GenSpec: _Sporolithon episporum_ (Dawson)
Des: A reddish brown encrusting algae, often growing in
layers that overlap each other. When broken, exposed
surface is white. Heavily calcifed.
Range: Caribbean

GenSpec: _Hydrolithon boergesenii_ (Foslie)
Des: A purple/lavender knobby encrusting algae. Highly
calcified.
Range: Caribbean

FAMILY: Squamariaceae

GenSpec: _Peyssonnelia_ sp.
Des: A dark red to maroon encrusting algae. Edges sometimes
raised above substrate.
Range: Caribbean

5.6 Possible Problems
a Mantis Shrimp
b bristle worms

*5.7 Hermit Crabs

************BY Gregory Schiemer*************************
The hermit crabs I'm listing are the ones that I know are safe inhabitants for
a
reef aquarium. They are all relatively small (less than one inch), eat algae,
will not bother other invertebrates or fish (although they occasionally
each other during molts), are mostly active at night, are generally
long-lived, and definitely fun to watch. All have been offered for sale at one
time or another, but never regularly. So, here they are:

>From the Caribbean and Tropical Atlantic:

-Red Hermit Crab (Paguristes cadenati)- A bright red body and legs with yellow
eye stalks. Very pretty, but active usually after the lights go out. Found onl
y
on the reef as solitary individuals, never in aggregations. My personal
favorite. They gently remove micro-algae from in and around corals and polyps.
Gr Usually stays on the rocks, but will sift through the
substrate.

-Orange-Claw Hermit (Calcinus tibicen)-Has a dark red or orange body with one
slightly enlarged claw. Found both on coral reefs and rocky substrates, never i
n
large numbers. Very good at eating micro-algae and some macro-algae. Bolder
than the Red Hermit, as it will be active during the day. Grows to one inch.
Spends almost all of it's time on the rocks.

-Polkadotted Hermit (Phimochirus operculatus)-Has a distinctive polkadot red an
d
white, greatly enlarged claw, and blue eyes. Found on coral reefs. This is
probably the most aggressive and active of the small hermits. Also eats algae
and sifts through the substrate. Grows to about one inch.

-Red-Stripe Hermit (Phimochirus holthuisi)-Similar to the Polkadotted Hermit.
Found on coral reefs. Active and bold. Will eat algae and anything else it ca
n
gets it's claws on, but doesn't seem to bother corals. Grows to about one inch.

-Red, White and Blue Hermit (Paguristes sp.?)-Blue legs with a touch of red,
white and black. Found in large aggregations in the sand along the shore line.
This is the crab that is being sold in quantity from Florida dealers. They are
active all day, but more so at night. They will feed on detritus and
micro-algae. Bolder and m not as
much as the Polkadotted Hermit. They will occasionally climb on corals, but
apparently cause no harm. It's strange that although they are collecin the
sand, mine have spent the majority of their time on the rocks in the aquarium.
Grows to about three-quarters of an inch.

>From the Pacific (including Mexico):

-Red-Leg Hermit (Calcinus californiensis)-Has rrange legs and a greenish
black body. Found on rocky inshore substrates in large aggregations. Will eat
micro-algae and other bits of food missed by the fish. More active at night,
but will forage when the lights are on. Relatively bold and aggressive. Grows
to about three-quarters of an inch.

-Blue-Eye Hermit (Paguristes sanguinimanus)-Orange body with bright blue eyes.
Found on sand flats and patch reefs in aggregations. Good micro-algae eater.
Grows to about one-half inch.

-Blue-Spotted Hermit (Clibanarius digueti)-Reddish-brown legs with bluish spots
.
Found on rocky inshore substrates where it feeds on algae. Grows to only
one-half inch.

***************************************************************

================== End of ReefKeepers FAQ Part 2 of 3 ==================

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