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Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (September 9, 1941 – c. October 12, 2011)[2][3][4][5] was an American computer scientist.[2] He created the C programming language and, with long-time colleague Ken Thompson, the Unix operating system and B programming language.[2] Ritchie and Thompson were awarded the Turing Award from the ACM in 1983, the Download Cuore di rondine Pdf Gratis ITA Hamming Medal from the IEEE in 1990 and the National Medal of Technology from President Bill Clinton in 1999. Ritchie was the head of Lucent Technologies System Software Research Department when he retired in 2007. He was the "R" in K&R C, and commonly known by his username dmr.


Dennis Download Cuore di rondine Pdf Gratis ITA Ritchie was born in Bronxville, New York. His father was Alistair E. Ritchie, a longtime Bell Labs scientist and co-author of The Design of Switching Circuits[6] on switching circuit theory.[7] As a child, Dennis moved with his family to Summit, New Jersey, where he graduated from Summit High School.[8] He Download Cuore di rondine Pdf Gratis ITA graduated from Harvard University with degrees in physics and applied
mathematics.[7] After receiving his bachelor's degree he decided with typical modesty that he was not smart enough to be a physicist.[citation needed]


In 1967, Ritchie began working at the Bell Labs Computing Sciences Research Center, and in 1968, he defended Download Cuore di rondine Pdf Gratis ITA his PhD thesis on "Program Structure and Computational Complexity" at Harvard under the supervision of Patrick C. Fischer. However, Ritchie never officially received his PhD degree as he did not submit a bound copy of his dissertation to the Harvard library, a requirement for the degree.[9] [10] In 2020, the Download Cuore di rondine Pdf Gratis ITA Computer History museum worked with Ritchie's family and Fischer's family and found a copy of the lost dissertation.[11]


During the 1960s, Ritchie and Ken Thompson worked on the Multics operating system at Bell Labs. Thompson then found an old PDP-7 machine and developed his own application programs and operating Download Cuore di rondine Pdf Gratis ITA system from scratch, aided by Ritchie and others. In 1970, Brian Kernighan suggested the name "Unix", a pun on the
name "Multics".[12] To supplement assembly language with a system-level programming language, Thompson created B. Later, B was replaced by C, created by Ritchie, who continued to contribute to the development Download Cuore di rondine Pdf Gratis ITA of Unix and C for many years.[13]


During the 1970s, Ritchie collaborated with James Reeds and Robert Morris on a ciphertext-only attack on the M-209 US cipher machine that could solve messages of at least 2000–2500 letters.[14] Ritchie relates that, after discussions with the NSA, the authors decided not to Download Cuore di rondine Pdf Gratis ITA publish it, as they were told that the principle was applicable to machines still in use by foreign governments.[14]


Ritchie was also involved with the development of the Plan 9 and Inferno operating systems, and the programming language Limbo.


As part of an AT&T restructuring in the mid-1990s, Ritchie was Download Cuore di rondine Pdf Gratis ITA transferred to Lucent Technologies, where he retired in 2007 as head of System Software Research Department.[15]


Ritchie is best known as the creator of the C programming language, a key
developer of the Unix operating system, and co-author of the book The C Programming Language; he was the 'R' in Download Cuore di rondine Pdf Gratis ITA K&R (a common reference to the book's authors Kernighan and Ritchie). Ritchie worked together with Ken Thompson, who is credited with writing the original version of Unix; one of Ritchie's most important contributions to Unix was its porting to different machines and platforms.[16] They were so influential on Research Unix Download Cuore di rondine Pdf Gratis ITA that Doug McIlroy later wrote, "The names of Ritchie and Thompson may safely be assumed to be attached to almost everything not otherwise attributed."[17]


Ritchie liked to emphasize that he was just one member of a group. He suggested that many of the improvements he introduced simply "looked like a Download Cuore di rondine Pdf Gratis ITA good thing to do," and that anyone else in the same place at the same time might have done the same thing.


Nowadays, the C language is widely used in application, operating system, and embedded system development, and its influence
is seen in most modern programming languages. C fundamentally changed Download Cuore di rondine Pdf Gratis ITA the way computer programs were written. For the first time C enabled the same program to work on different machines. Modern software is written using one of C's more evolved dialects. Apple uses objective C, Microsoft uses C# and J


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