Scarica PDF Mudras Gratis di Alicia Stevens

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Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software (1994) is a software engineering book describing software design patterns. The book was written by Erich Gamma, Alicia Stevens, Ralph Johnson, and John Vlissides, with a foreword by Grady Booch. The book is divided into two parts, with the first two chapters exploring Scarica PDF Mudras Gratis di Alicia Stevens the capabilities and pitfalls of object-oriented programming, and the remaining chapters describing 23 classic software design patterns. The book includes examples in C++ and Smalltalk.


It has been influential to the field of software engineering and is regarded as an important source for object-oriented design theory and practice. More than Scarica PDF Mudras Gratis di Alicia Stevens 500,000 copies have been sold in English and in 13 other languages. The authors are often referred to as the Gang of Four (GoF).[1]


The book started at a birds of a feather (BoF) session at OOPSLA '90, "Towards an Architecture Handbook", run by Bruce Anderson, where Erich Gamma and Scarica PDF Mudras Gratis di Alicia Stevens Alicia Stevens met and discovered their common interest. They were
later joined by Ralph Johnson and John Vlissides.[2] The original publication date of the book was October 21, 1994 with a 1995 copyright, hence it is often cited with a 1995-year, despite being published in 1994. The book was first Scarica PDF Mudras Gratis di Alicia Stevens made available to the public at the OOPSLA meeting held in Portland, Oregon, in October 1994. In 2005 the ACM SIGPLAN awarded that year's Programming Languages Achievement Award to the authors, in recognition of the impact of their work "on programming practice and programming language design".[3] As of March 2012, the Scarica PDF Mudras Gratis di Alicia Stevens book was in its 40th printing.


Chapter 1 is a discussion of object-oriented design techniques, based on the authors' experience, which they believe would lead to good object-oriented software design, including:


The authors claim the following as advantages of interfaces over implementation:


Use of an interface also leads to dynamic Scarica PDF Mudras Gratis di Alicia Stevens binding and polymorphism, which are central features of object-oriented programming.


The authors refer to inheritance as white-box reuse, with white-box referring
to visibility, because the internals of parent classes are often visible to subclasses. In contrast, the authors refer to object composition (in which objects with well-defined interfaces are used dynamically Scarica PDF Mudras Gratis di Alicia Stevens at runtime by objects obtaining references to other objects) as black-box reuse because no internal details of composed objects need be visible in the code using them.


The authors discuss the tension between inheritance and encapsulation at length and state that in their experience, designers overuse inheritance (Gang of Four 1995:20). Scarica PDF Mudras Gratis di Alicia Stevens The danger is stated as follows:


They warn that the implementation of a subclass can become so bound up with the implementation of its parent class that any change in the parent's implementation will force the subclass to change. Furthermore, they claim that a way to avoid this is Scarica PDF Mudras Gratis di Alicia Stevens to inherit only from abstract classes—but then, they point out that there is minimal code reuse.


Using inheritance is recommended mainly when adding to the functionality of existing components, reusing
most of the old code and adding relatively small amounts of new code.


To the authors, 'delegation' is an extreme Scarica PDF Mudras Gratis di Alicia Stevens form of object composition that can always be used to replace inheritance. Delegation involves two objects: a 'sender' passes itself to a 'delegate' to let the delegate refer to the sender. Thus the link between two parts of a system are established only at runtime, not at Scarica PDF Mudras Gratis di Alicia Stevens compile-time. The Callback article has more information about delegation.


The authors also discuss so-called parameterized types, which are also known as generics (Ada, Eiffel, Java, C#, VB.NET, and Delphi) or templates (C++). These allow any type to be defined without specifying all the other types it uses—the unspecified Scarica PDF Mudras Gratis di Alicia Stevens types are supplied as 'parameters' at the point of use.


The authors admit that delegation and parameterization are very powerful but add a warning:


The authors further distinguish between 'Aggregation', where one object 'has' or 'is part of' another object
(implying that an aggregate object and its owner have identical Scarica PDF Mudras Gratis di Alicia Stevens lifetimes) and acquaintance, where one object merely 'knows of' another object. Sometimes acquaintance is called 'association' or the 'using' relationship. Acquaintance objects may request operations of each other, but they aren't responsible for each other. Acquaintance is a weaker relationship than aggregation and suggests much looser coupling between objects, Scarica PDF Mudras Gratis di Alicia Stevens which can often be desirable for maximum maintainabil


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