There are numerous ways to rig EVMs, and one given here is invented by
myself, but the basic idea came to me a small article written by
Prof. Alex Halderman of University of Michigan. But please note that I
have made many changes to what Prof. Halderman proposed.
Short Summary : The display of EVM is rigged by the display
manufacturer in collusion with top authorities in BEL, EC, PMO etc.
The EVM will register correct votes, the memory will have correct
votes, but on the counting day, EVM's display will show rigged
results. How? Pls read full description.
Full Description :
Please see Pages 3, 13 and 14 of Counting Agent's manual given at
. Page-3 has picture of EVM's module which displays number of votes
each candidate got. The Page-13 and Page-14 shows what display will
show on the counting day.
Such LED displays are often prefabricated units. One example of such
pre-farbricated unit is http://www.thelearningpit.com/lp/doc/7seg/7seg.html
. The exact unit or PCB used by actual EVM is not known to me at this
point, as CEC has not disclosed it in any public document as of yet.
Now lets say we are using BEL EVM. And say there are 9 candidates as
shown in the example in Page-14 of the Counting Agent's manual. When
the counting agent presses the "result" button, EVM will display first
line. When he presses result button again, EVM will display next line.
Then number of lines EVM will display will be nCandidates + 4 which is
9 + 4 = 13 lines in our example. The last line will be "END". If
result button is pressed again after 13th line, EVM will repeat the
same 13 lines again.
Now as seen at http://www.thelearningpit.com/lp/doc/7seg/7seg.html
the display housing is large enough to have a small circuit that can
receive radio waves and additional circuit to manipulate display. One
logic that can be implemented in the circuit is :
1. Till no radio signal comes, behave like a dumb display, so no
engineer/tester will see any foul play
2. When an appropriate radio signal comes, it will behave like a smart
display, and act as follows
2A. The radio signal will convey the candidate number to be favored
(say candidate number to be favored is candidate number 2 in the
example given on Page-14 on http://eci.nic.in/eci_main/ElectoralLaws/HandBooks/Handbook_for_Counting_Agents.pdf
2B. The display's circuit will wait for symbol "to", which says total
votes. From the signals coming to put contents on next 4 digits, the
circuit knows total number of votes.
2C. Now circuit will decrease 30% of the votes from candidate's count
and add 30% of total to candidate-2
Hence the memory of EVM has correct votes. CPU is sending correct
counts to display units. But the intelligent display interprets the
signals coming from CPU and alters the contents of the display in a
way that would add say 30% votes to preferred candidate.
So the CPU will ask EVM's display to show (pls see page-14)
to 0758 ; this is total number of candidate
The intelligent display's circuit will display the data as
to 0758 ; this is total number of candidate
01 0087 ; all candidate's votes decrease
02 0202 ; preferred candidate got 155 more votes
Now preferred candidates can be communicated in many ways. One way is
to keep a small radio receiving circuit in the display housing.
These days, circuits as small as 1mm * 1mm can receive radio waves
(though they cant send). In our application, we need only receive
facility, and no sending facility so a 1mm * 1mm circuit will suffice.
The signals can come from a van standing outside or inside the campus
of Collector's office which is generally used for counting. The wan
will have sufficient power to send a signal to a distance as far as
500 meters. So display unit will be able to get the preferred
candidate number from the radioo signals coming from the van
Now if a seasoned engineer opens the display housing and looks at the
circuit inside, he may be able to see that something is fishy. But no
manufacturing unit examines display for a hidden trojan circuit. All
they do is rudimentary power testing and functional black box testing.
So if display manufacturer, which could some company owned by CIA
sends rigged display to BEL, no BEL engineer will even notice that
display are rigged display.
How many people are needed in India to plant the display. Only a few :
BEL chief, Chief of EVM unit , Chief of Hardware unit, PM, CEC etc. No
engineer etc have to know.
On counting day, we need one van per Constituency. The person in van
need not be an agent - he can be mere accessory. The principals behind
rigging can buy a few media company, and put the radio signal sending
equipment in the van. The operators in the van will not even know that
their equipment are sending radio signals to EVMs. So number of
people, who know, needed to place vans around 500 Collectors' offices
are just 2-6. So with mere 5-12 persons, one can rig 10000s of EVMs.
Now why is such rigging possible? We know that USG, CIA and Missionary
badly needed Sonia Gandhi to win. Most BJP MPs are also US agents, but
Congress has now 100% American puppets and USG, CIA and Missionaries
will prefer Congress over BJP. So they can deploy this or one of the
countless other methods available to rig EVMs at industrial scale. And
making such display is child's play for any company in USA or China.
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