Мои ответы к учебнику Голдмана

146 views
Skip to first unread message

Konstantin I.

unread,
Jan 19, 2022, 7:06:06 AMJan 19
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
Первая часть - перевод на англ., вторая - перевод на санскрит.
По англ. только читаю, так что перевод корявый. Санскрит и читать то не умею =)

Урок 4

I

śrīrāmasya caritam - Rāma's adventures.
asti nṛpo daśaratho nāma - There is a king named Daśaratha.
so 'tīva dhārmiko bhūmipaḥ sukhaṃ jīvati – He, Rāma's father, king, live very happily.
nṛpasya duḥkhaṃ nāstīti bhāṣante janāḥ – People say the king has no sorrow.
ekadā daśaratho vanaṃ gacchati – Once Daśaratha goes to the forest.
tasminvane brāhmaṇasya putro vasati – In that forest dwells brāhman's son.
aho sundaraṃ mṛgaṃ paśyāmyahamiti cintayati nṛpaḥ – “Aha! I see beautiful deer”, thinks the king.
bālakaṃ ca tīkṣṇena śareṇa hanti – And he kills the boy with a sharp arrow.
brāhmaṇa āgacchati hataṃ putraṃ paśyati ca – Brāhman comes and sees the killed son.
so 'tīva kupito bhavati – He becomes very angry.
nṛpaṃ ca śapati – And he curses the king.
he mūrkha - “O, fool!”
tvaṃ kimiti mama putraṃ haṃsi – “Why have you killed my son?”
tava duṣkṛtenāhaṃ duḥkhamanubhavāmi – I feel misery because of your evil act.
putreṇa vinā na jīvāmi – I can't live without son.
tvamapyahamiva putrācchokamanubhavasīti – Like me, you also will feel the grief because of a son, like me.
nṛpo vadati – The king says.
hā hā naśyāmīti – “Ah, ah, i'm perishing."
śokena pīḍito gṛham gacchati – He goes home oppressed.

II

1. The brāhman's son sees the angry king - brāhmaṇasya putraḥ kupitaṃ nṛpaṃ  paśyati
2. The people say that our king is a fool – asmākaṃ nṛpo mūrkho 'stīti bhāṣante janāḥ
3. The king and the brāhman see our son - nṛpaśca brāhmaṇaścāsmākaṃ putraṃ paśyataḥ
4. The king kills the beautiful deer with your arrow – sundaraṃ mṛgaṃ tava śareṇa hanti nṛpaḥ
5. The brāhman says again that the king does an evil act – nṛpo duṣkṛtaṃ karotīti brāhmaṇo punar vadati
6. Rāma, the son of king Daśaratha, dwells there without sorrow – nṛpasya daśarathasya putraḥ śokeṇa vinā tatra rāmo vasati
7. King Daśaratha, afflicted with sorrow, thinks, “How will I live without a son?” - kathaṃ putreṇa vinā jīvāmyahamiti śokeṇa piḍito nṛpo daśarathaḥ manyate
8. The angry brāhman sees and curses the righteous king – kupito brāhmanaḥ dhārmikaṃ nṛpaṃ paśyati ca śapati
9. The king, though a young man, experiences grief – bālako 'pi nṛpaḥ śoko 'nubhavati
10. “Oh! Rāma is afraid,” thinks the fool – aho rāmo bhīto 'stīti mūrkhaścintayati
11. The fool sees the two slain deer and again becomes very angry – mūrkho hatau mṛgau paśyati punaśca 'tīvo kupito bhavati
12. The beautiful boy and the righteous king live in the forest – sundaro bālako dhārmiko nṛpaśca vane vasataḥ
13. I have a sharp arrow. You have (two) sharp arrows. We have (many) sharp arrows. - mama tīkṣṇaḥ śaro 'sti | tava tīkṣṇau śarau staḥ | asmākaṃ tīkṣṇāḥ śarāḥ santi
14. We both think that the king is angry – nṛpaḥ kupito 'stīti cintāvaḥ
15. How do you (all) afflicted with misery speak to righteous people – kathaṃ yūyaṃ duḥkheṇa pīḍitā dhārmikāñ janān vadatha

Konstantin I.

unread,
Jan 26, 2022, 5:02:58 AMJan 26
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
Урок 5

A

daśarathastasya kupitasya brāhmaṇasya vacanaṃ śrṇoti – Daśaratha hear the words of the angry brāhman.
kiṃtu kālena taṃ śāpaṃ vismarati – However, after some time, he forget that curse.
ayodhyāyāṃ bhāryābhiḥ saha sukhaṃ vasati rājyaṃ karoti ca – He dwells happily in Ayodhya with his wifes and rules the kingdom.
sukhitasya nṛpasyaikaṃ duḥkham – The happy king has one misery.
tasya putro nāstīti – He has no son.
tato brāhmaṇaiḥ saha sa prajāyai yajñaṃ karoti – Then he makes ritual with brāhmanas for the purpose of obtaining children.
atha kālena putrāṇāṃ catuṣṭayamudbhavati – Now, after some time, four sons are born.
rāmaśca lakṣmaṇaśca bharataśca śatrughnaśceti putrāṇāṃ nāmadheyāni – Names of the sons are: Rāma, Lakṣmaṇa, Bharata and Śatrughna.
pārthivasya putrāḥ sundarāḥ śāntā vīrāśca – The king's sons are handsome, calm and they are the heroes.
teṣu jyeṣṭho rāmo guṇaiḥ śreṣṭho bhavati – Rāma, eldest among them, is the best in qualities.
tasmānnṛpo rāme snihyati viśeṣataḥ – Therefore king especially loves Rāma.

B
                   
prathama*                  puṃliṅga                                                      napuṃsakaliṅga                                       strīliṅga        
vibhakti/vacana        eka*              dvi*                  bahu*             eka*             dvi*                  bahu*            eka*            dvi*                 bahu*
prathamā                   pūrvaḥ          pūrvau             pūrve             pūrvam        pūrve               pūrvāṇi         pūrvā           pūrve              pūrvāḥ
dvitīyā                         pūrvam        pūrvau             pūrvān           pūrvam        pūrve               pūrvāṇi         pūrvām       pūrve              pūrvāḥ
tṛtīyā                           pūrveṇa        pūrvābhyām   pūrvaiḥ         pūrveṇa        pūrvābhyām   pūrvaiḥ        pūrvayā       pūrvābhyām  pūrvābhiḥ
caturthī                      pūrvasmai    pūrvābhyām   pūrvebhyaḥ  pūrvasmai   pūrvābhyām   pūrvebhyaḥ pūrvasyai    pūrvābhyām  pūrvābhyaḥ
pañcamī                    pūrvasmāt    pūrvābhyām   pūrvebhyaḥ  pūrvasmāt   pūrvābhyām   pūrvebhyaḥ pūrvasyāḥ  pūrvābhyām   pūrvābhyaḥ
ṣaṣṭhī                         pūrvasya       pūrvayoḥ        pūrveṣām      pūrvasya      pūrvayoḥ        pūrveṣām     pūrvasyāḥ  pūrvayoḥ        pūrvāsām
saptamī                     pūrvasmin     pūrvayoḥ        pūrveṣu        pūrvasmin    pūrvayoḥ        pūrveṣu        pūrvasyām  pūrvayoḥ        pūrvāsu

prathama*                  napuṃsakaliṅga        
vibhakti/vacana        eka*             dvi*                 bahu*
prathamā                   anyat           anye                anyāni
dvitīyā                        anyat           anye                anyāni
tṛtīyā                          anyena        anyābhyām     anyaiḥ
caturthī                     anyasmai     anyābhyām   anyebhyaḥ
pañcamī                   anyasmāt     anyābhyām    anyebhyaḥ
ṣaṣṭhī                        anyasya        anyayoḥ        anyeṣām
saptamī                    anyasmin      anyayoḥ        anyeṣu

C

1. Therefore, the king loves all his sons – tasmāt tasya sarveṣu putreṣu snihyati nṛpaḥ
2. In Ayodhyā, all sons of the king are handsome – ayodhyāyāṃ nṛpasya sarve putrāḥ sundarāḥ
3. The angry brāhman does not hear the words of the king’s wife – kupito brāhmaṇo nṛpasya bhāryāyā vacanaṃ na śrṇoti
4. All righteous kings rule for the sake of their subjects – sarve dhārmikā nṛpās teṣaṃ prajānāṃ kṛte kurvanti
5. Kings do not perform sacrifices without brāhmans –  nṛpā yajñān brāhmaṇair vinā na  kurvanti
6. Because of those (two) sacrifices, the kingdom is peaceful – tābhyāṃ yajñābhyāṃ rājyaṃ śāntam asti
7. King Daśaratha loved especially his eldest offspring – nṛpo daśaratho jyeṣṭhāyāṃ prajāyāṃ snihyati sma viśeṣataḥ
8. But, in the course of time, the two wives forget the sacrifice – kiṃtu kālena bhārye yajñaṃ vismarataḥ
9. With those wives, the heroes dwell in Ayodhyā – ayodhyāyāṃ tābhir bhāryābhiḥ saha virā vasanti
10. Rāma goes to the forest for the sake of righteous people – rāmo dhārmikānāṃ janānāṃ kṛte vanaṃ gacchati
11. The hero hears the words of his wife and becomes angry – viras tasya bhāryāyā vacanaṃ śṛnoti ca kupito bhavati
12. Joyfully the girl thinks, “I am listenign to the adventures of Rāma.” – rāmasya caritaṃ śṛṇomīti kanyā sānandaṃ manyate

Serge A

unread,
Jan 26, 2022, 10:47:32 AMJan 26
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
> 11. The hero hears the words of his wife and becomes angry – viras tasya bhāryāyā vacanaṃ śṛnoti ca kupito bhavati

1. Здесь со словом tasya получается "жена того" (кого-то другого, а не своя).
2. Союз "и" не туда засунут.

Konstantin I.

unread,
Jan 26, 2022, 11:25:16 AMJan 26
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
tasya выбрасываем
viras bhāryāyā vacanaṃ śṛnoti kupitaśca bhavati

Konstantin I.

unread,
Jan 26, 2022, 11:37:39 AMJan 26
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
viro bhāryāyā...

Konstantin I.

unread,
Feb 3, 2022, 12:48:30 PMFeb 3
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
yadi tvaṃ na kaṃcana vīraṃ preṣayasi tarhi vayaṃ sarve naṣṭāḥ sma iti – Если ты не пошлешь какого-нибудь героя, то мы все будем уничтожены.

Как думаете, мб исправить на kaścana? kaścana vīraṃ

Евгений Уланский

unread,
Feb 3, 2022, 1:41:28 PMFeb 3
to nag...@googlegroups.com
Это тогда им.п. будет, а посылают ведь кого?/что?

чт, 3 февр. 2022 г., 20:48 Konstantin I. <andb...@gmail.com>:
yadi tvaṃ na kaṃcana vīraṃ preṣayasi tarhi vayaṃ sarve naṣṭāḥ sma iti – Если ты не пошлешь какого-нибудь героя, то мы все будем уничтожены.

Как думаете, мб исправить на kaścana? kaścana vīraṃ

--
Чтобы отменить подписку на группу, посвященную санскриту,
отправьте сообщение по адресу - мы поймем, простим даже:
Nagari-un...@googlegroups.com
---
Вы получили это сообщение, поскольку подписаны на группу "Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)".
Чтобы отменить подписку на эту группу и больше не получать от нее сообщения, отправьте письмо на электронный адрес nagari+un...@googlegroups.com.
Чтобы посмотреть обсуждение на веб-странице, перейдите по ссылке https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/nagari/16e44bb8-a3ef-4046-babe-786a80c92a7bn%40googlegroups.com.

Konstantin I.

unread,
Feb 3, 2022, 1:50:33 PMFeb 3
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
да, kaṃcana посылают, в Acc.

Konstantin I.

unread,
Feb 4, 2022, 8:53:39 AMFeb 4
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
Урок 6

A                                           

yadā yadā daśaratho jyeṣṭhaṃ putraṃ rāmaṃ paśyati tadā tadā paramānandamanubhavati – whenever Daśaratha sees his eldest son Rāma, then he experiences supreme bliss.
rāmo ‘pi matyā yutaḥ - Rāma is endowed with intelligence.
sa sarvānvedānavagacchati dhanurvedasyāpi pāraṃ gacchati – He understands all the vedas, and also fully comprehend the dhanurveda.
yadā sa bāṇamuddharati tadā devā api kampante svarge – When he lifts arrow up, then even gods tremble in heaven.
ekadā kaścana munirayodhyāṃ pratyāgacchati – Once, a some sage come to Ayodhyā.
daśarathaṃ prati vadati ca – And he tells to Daśaratha:
bho nṛpa – Hail, king!
vayaṃ munayo rākṣasairatyantaṃ pīḍitā bhavāmaḥ – We, the brāhmanas, are exceedingly oppressed by the demons.
tvameva prajānāṃ rakṣako ‘si – You are the people’s protector.
yadi tvaṃ na kaṃcana vīraṃ preṣayasi tarhi vayaṃ sarve naṣṭāḥ sma iti – If you’ll not send any hero, then we all will be dead.
daśaratho vadati – Daśaratha says:
bho mune – Heil, sage!
yebhyo rākṣasebhya ṛṣayo ‘pyudvijante teṣāṃ hanane kaḥ samartha iti – From which demons sages are too tremble, those [demons] who is competent to kill?
munirvadati – The sage says:
kaucana samarthau vīrau vartete ayodhyāyāmiti – Some, two competent heroes are living in Ayodhya.
kau tāviti pṛcchati daśarathaḥ - “Those two, who they are?”, asks Daśaratha.
tava putrau rāmo lakṣmaṇaṣceti bhāṣate dvijaḥ - “They are your sons, Rāma and Lakṣmana”, brāhman says.
yadā nṛpo munervacanaṃ śrṇoti tadā so ‘tīva duḥkhito bhavati – When king hear sage’s words, then he becomes very unhappy.
yato brāhmaṇo manuṣyeṣu devo bhavati tato nṛpo ‘pi brāhmaṇasya vacanaṃ karoti – Since brāhman is a god among the humans, then king does brāhman's will.
tataḥ priyau ca putrau vanaṃ preṣyati brāhmaṇena saha – And after that he sends his beloved two sons into forest accompanied by brāhman.

B

1. The woman with whom Rāma is speaking is Sītā – yayā nāryā saha bhāṣate rāmaḥ sā sītā
2. A certain brāhman told me that Viṣṇu is the supreme god – paramo devo viṣṇur astīti kaścana brāhmano mām vadati sma
3. When Rāma goes to the sage’s āśrama, the demons tremble – yadā rāmo muneraśramaṃ gacchati, tadā rākṣasāḥ kampante
4. Who is there? Who is there? Nobody at all. – kas tatrāsti | kas tatrāsti | na kaścana.
5. Whoever knows the highest bliss, he does not tremble – yo jānāti paramam ānandaṃ so na kampate
6. The sage of whom he is afraid is very clever – yasmād ṛṣeḥ so bibheti so ‘tīvo nipuṇo ‘sti
7. Whenever the gods speak, no one understands – yadā devā vadanti tadā na kaścana avagacchati
8. When the rākṣasa comes, all the women say “hā hā” – yadā rākṣasa āgacchati tadā sarvā nāryo bhāṣante hā hā
9. Rāma saw the demon on account of whom Sītā was distressed – yasmāt sītākulā bhavati sma taṃ rakṣasaṃ rāmaḥ paśyati sma
10. Since the sage is a protector of demons, what is the alternative? – yato ṛṣi rākṣasānāṃ rakṣako ‘sti kā gatir asti
11. A twice-born who is skilled (clever) in archery will no experience worry – dvijo yo dhanurvede nipuṇaḥ saścintaṃ nānubhavati
12. Who is that woman who goes quickly to the hermitage? – kā nārī yā aśramaṃ śighraṃ gacchati

D.1

kaḥ-yaḥ                    kau-yau                           ke-ye                          kim-yat                 ke-ye                                kāni-yāni                 kā-yā                        ke-ye                                 kāḥ-yaḥ
kam-yam                 kau-yau                            kān-yān                     kim-yat                 ke-ye                                kāni-yāni                 kām-yām                 ke-ye                                 kāḥ-yāḥ
kena-yena                kābhyām-yābhyām       kaiḥ-yaiḥ                    kena-yena           kābhyām-yābhyām        kaiḥ-yaiḥ                 kayā-yayā                kābhyām-yābhyām        kābhiḥ-yābhiḥ
kasmai-yasmai       kābhyām-yābhyām       kebhyaḥ-yebhyaḥ    kasmai-yasmai   kābhyām-yābhyām        kebhyaḥ-yebhyaḥ   kasyai-yasyai          kābhyām-yābhyām        kābhyaḥ-yābhyaḥ
kasmāt-yasmāt       kābhyām-yābhyām       kebhyaḥ-yebhyaḥ   kasmāt-yasmāt   kābhyām-yābhyām        kebhyaḥ-yebhyaḥ  kasyāḥ-yasyāḥ        kābhyām-yābhyām        kābhyaḥ-yābhyaḥ
kasya-yasya            kayoḥ-yayoḥ                   keṣām-yeṣām         kasya-yasya         kayoḥ-yayoḥ                    keṣām-yeṣām        kasyāḥ-yasyāḥ        kayoḥ-yayoḥ                   kāsām-yāsām
kasmin-yasmin       kayoḥ-yayoḥ                   keṣu-yeṣu                kasmin-yasmin    kayoḥ-yayoḥ                   keṣu-yeṣu                kasyām-yasyām      kayoḥ-yayoḥ                  kāsu-yāsu

D.2
m                                                                      f                                                                                       n
śuciḥ         śucī                     śucayaḥ           śuciḥ                        śucī                     śucayaḥ            śuci           śucinī                śucīni
śucim        śucī                     śucīn                śucim                       śucī                    śucīḥ                 śuci            śucinī                śucīni
śucinā       śucibhyām        śucibhiḥ            śucyā                       śucibhyām        śucibhiḥ           śucinā        śucibhyām       śucibhiḥ
śucaye       śucibhyām        śucibhyaḥ        śucyai/śucaye        śucibhyām        śucibhyaḥ         śucine        śucibhyām      śucibhyaḥ
śuceḥ        śucibhyām        śucibhyaḥ         śucyāḥ/śuceḥ        śucibhyām        śucibhyaḥ         śucinaḥ      śucibhyām      śucibhyaḥ
śuceḥ        śucyoḥ                śucīnām           śucyāḥ/śuceḥ        śucyoḥ               śucīnām            śucinaḥ     śucinoḥ           śucīnām
śucau        śucyoḥ                śuciṣu               śucyām/śucau       śucyoḥ              śuciṣu                śucini        śucinoḥ             śuciṣu

m                                                                     n                                                                              f
guruḥ         gurū                    guravaḥ           guru                gurunī                 gurūni                guruḥ                     gurū                    guravaḥ
gurum        gurū                   gurūn                guru                gurunī                 gurūni                gurum                    gurū                    gurūḥ
guruṇā       gurubhyām       gurubhiḥ           gurunā           gurubhyām        gurubhiḥ           guryā                      gurubhyām        gurubhiḥ
gurave       gurubhyām        gurubhyaḥ       gurave            gurubhyām        gurubhyaḥ        gurvai/guraye        gurubhyām        gurubhyaḥ
guroḥ        gurubhyām        gurubhyaḥ        gurunaḥ         gurubhyām        gurubhyaḥ        gurvāḥ/gureḥ        gurubhyām        gurubhyaḥ
guroḥ        gurvoḥ                gurūnām          gurunaḥ          gurunoḥ             gurūnām           gurvāḥ/gureḥ        gurvoḥ                gurūnām
gurau        gurvoḥ                guruṣu              guruni             gurunoḥ              guruṣu               gurvām/gurau      gurvoḥ                guruṣu

Konstantin I.

unread,
Feb 15, 2022, 10:22:47 AMFeb 15
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
Урок 7

A
yadā nṛpasyānujñāmāpnoti rāmastadā muninā saha so ‘raṇyaṃ gaccati – When Rāma obtains king’s permission, he goes then with sage to the forest.
tatra vane bahava ṛṣayo vasantyāśrameṣu – In that forest in the shelters dwell sages.
te sarvadā dhyānamācaranti yajñānkurvanti ca – They always practice meditation and conduct sacrifices.
tasminneva kāle bahavo rākṣasāstānmunīnbādhante – At that time many demons harass those sages.
rākṣasebhyo munīnāṃ rakṣaṇāyāgacchati rāmaḥ - Rāma comes for protection of sages from demons.
bālako ‘pi sa vīro bahūnrākṣasāniṣubhirhanti – Though a young man, he, hero, kills many demons with arrows.
yatra yatrāyāti rāghavastatastato niśācarā bibhyati palāyante ca – To whichever places Rāghava come, there demons fear and run away.
yatra kutrāpi rākṣasānpaśyato rāmo lakṣmaṇaśca tatra teṣāṃ gātrāṇi chinttaḥ - Wherever Rāma and Lakṣmana see demons, they cut off limbs of those demons.
yadā sarve niśācarā hatā nirgatā vā santi tadā rāmo vanaṃ jahāti mithilāṃ cāgacchati – When all the demons are killed or departed then Rāma abandons forest and comes to Mithilā.
tasmindeśe ‘tīva paṇḍito nṛpo janako nāma rājyaṃ karoti – In that plase rules the kingdom wise king by name Janaka.
janakasyātīva ramaṇīyā kanyā sītā nāma – Janaka have a beautiful daughter by name Sītā.
sarvāsāṃ nārīṇāṃ śreṣṭhā seti cintayanti janāḥ - The people say that she is the best among the all women.
sītayā saha vivāhaṃ karomīti cintayanti sarve nṛpāḥ - I'm going to marry her, that's what all the kings think.
tataste mithilāyāṃ samāgacchanti – Then they assemble in Mithilā.

B
1. Where is the demon? I think he is in the asram – niśācaraḥ kutra vartate | so ‘śrame tiṣṭhatīti manye ‘ham
2. How does the hero cut off the limbs of the demon? I know! He does it with the arrow – kathaṃ vīro rākṣasasya gātrāṇi chinatti | jānāmyaham | sas tat iṣunā karoti
3. How do you know? Since the lady says it, therefore I know it - kathaṃ jānāsi tvam | yatas sā nārī tad vadati | tatas taj jānāmyaham |
4. Whenever Rāma comes, the demons are afraid, but Rāma is never afraid – yadā rāma āyāti tadā rakṣasā bibhyati | kiṃtu rāmo na kadācid bibheti
5. Lady! In this region there is another forest – nāri | tasmin deśe ‘nyat araṇyam asti
6. Then the sages of the hermitage obtained permission from the goddes – tadāśramasya munaya devyā anujñām āpnuvanti
7. The rākṣasas sit on the ground and perform meditation – rakṣasās tasyāṃ bhūmyāṃ sīdanti ca dhyānaṃ kurvanti ca
8. When Rāma picks up an arrow, the demon all flee – yadā rāma iṣum uddharati tadā sarve te rākṣasāḥ palāyante
9. The descendants of Raghu assembled for the protection of the city of Mithilā – rāghavā mithilāyā rakṣaṇāya samāgacchanti sma
10. The women of that region do not understand the bliss of marriage – tasya deśasya nāryo  vivāhasyānandaṃ nāvagacchanti
11. Heil, daughter! Where does the sage go? – bhoḥ kanye | muniḥ kutra gacchati
12. He went to Mithilā; and now, a rākṣasa is harassing me here in the forest – so mithilāṃ gacchati sma | idānīm ca rākṣaso mām iha bādhate tasmin araṇye

C
karoti        kurutaḥ          kurvanti               kurute        kurvāte          kurvate
karosi       kuruthaḥ        kurutha                kuruṣe       kurvāthe        kurudhve
karomi      kurvaḥ           kurmaḥ                kurme         kurvahe        kurmahe


Konstantin I.

unread,
Feb 20, 2022, 11:11:18 AMFeb 20
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
Как думаете, можно ли часть not easily перевести как  sulabhena vinā, типо, без легкости? Или na sulabham (Acc.) сделать?
A fool does not easily obtain the Self 

Konstantin I.

unread,
Feb 23, 2022, 12:37:04 PMFeb 23
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
Урок 8
A

yadā rāmaḥ sītāmapaśyattadā tasyāmanvarajyata – When Rāma saw Sītā then he liked her.

tasminkāle bahavo rājānaḥ sītāyāḥ svayaṃvarāyāgacchan - At that time many king came for Sītā’s svayaṃvara.

janako rājaivamavadacca – And the king Janaka said the following:

yaḥ ko ‘pi rājā śivasya cāpe bāṇaṃ saṃdadhāti sa mama kanyāṃ pariṇayatīti- The king who can nock an arrow to Śiva’s bow will marry my daughter.

nṛpā acintayan – Kings thought.

aho etena sulabhena karmaṇā sottamā nārī mamaiva bhāryā bhavatīti – “Aha, by this easy action she, the excellent woman, will be my wife.”

garvitāste mūrkhā nājānanyacchambhoścāpo ‘tīva gururiti – Those proud fools not knew that Śīva’s bow is very heavy.

athāpi sarve prāyatanta – However, all tried.

na kaścana rājā tasminkarmaṇi samartha āsīt- No one king was competent in this activity.

antataḥ śrīrāmo bālako ‘pi taṃ cāpamupāgacchat – Finally, Śrīrāma, though a young man, approached the bow.

rājānastamapaśyanprāhasaṃśca – King saw him and ridiculed.

aho eṣa bālako vīrāṇāṃ karmaṇi prayatata iti – “Aha! This boy trying to do hero’s activity.

sa na kimapyavadat – He said nothing.

kiṃtu cāpaṃ patramiva līlayodaharadabhanakca – However, he raised bow with no effort and broke it.

rājāno ‘krudhyankiṃtu janakaḥ sītā cātuṣyatām – The king became angry, but Janaka and Sītā were happy.

B

apaśyat > paśyati

anvarajyata > anurajyate

agacchan > gacchanti

avadat > vadati

saṃdadhāti > samadadhāt

pariṇayati > paryanayat

acintayan > cintayanti

bhavati > abhavat

ajānan >jānanti

prāyatanta >prayatante

āsīt > asti

upāgacchat > upagacchati

apaśyan > paśyanti

prāhasan > prahasanti

prayatate > prāyatata

avadat > vadati

udaharat > uddharati

abhanak > bhanakti

akrudhyan > krudhyanti

atuṣyatām > tuṣyataḥ

C

1. When Rāma came for Sītā’s svayaṃvara, all the kings ridiculed him – yadā rāmaḥ sītāyāḥ svayaṃvarāyāgacchat tadā sarve rājānaḥ prāhasaṃs tam

2. None of the kings (lit. no king at all) lifted Śiva’s bow – na kaścana rājā śivasya cāpaṃ udaharat

3. The saged did not understand what you said – yattvaṃ avadattad munayo nāvāgacchan

4. Janaka stood up in the assembly of the kings and said, “Rāma has won.” – janakaḥ rājñāṃ sabhāyām uttiṣṭhad avadacceti rāmo ‘bhyajayat

5. Finally the proud king became very angry – antato garvito rājākrudhyat

6. But the hero did not exert himself and did not break the bow – kiṃtu vīro na prāyatata abhanakcāpaṃca

7. The proud queen forgot the name of the angry sage – garvitā devī kupitasya muner nāmadheyaṃ vyasmarat

8. “O, Śambhu! You promised me a kingdom!” he said. – he śambho tvaṃ me rājyaṃ pratyajānā iti so ‘vadat

9. That woman never forgot her svayaṃvara –

10. The king’s son, by name Devadatta, reviled Śambhu – nṛpasya putro devadatto nāma śambhum apāvadat

11. A fool does not easily obtain the Self – mūrkho sulabhena vinā ātmānam āpnoti (?)

12. “Why did he eat grass?” they thought – kimiti sas tṛṇam abhunak iti te ‘cintayat

Constantine I.

unread,
Feb 25, 2022, 1:59:01 AMFeb 25
to nag...@googlegroups.com
11. A fool does not easily obtain the Self – mūrkho sulabhena vinā ātmānam āpnoti (?) ->11. A fool does not easily obtain the Self – mūrkho na sulabham ātmānam āpnoti

Konstantin I.

unread,
Mar 9, 2022, 9:08:56 AMMar 9
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
A

yadā janakasya kanyā paryaṇīyata daśarathasya putreṇa tadā sādhu sādhvityabhāṣyata sarvaiḥ - When Daśaratha's son married Janaka's daughter, then all the people said: “Wonderful! Wonderful!”
janakasyāparā kanyā paryaṇīyata lakṣmaṇena – Lakṣmana married another daughter of Janaka.
tato rāmeṇa lakṣmaṇena ca sukhamanvabhūyata – then Rāma and Lakṣmana lived happily.
anantaraṃ tau dvau vīrāvayodhyāṃ pratyāgacchatām – After that those two heroes came to Ayodhyā.
tatra ca sukhamuṣyate tābhyām – And they two live happily there.
kālena rājā daśaratha ātmānaṃ jarayā pīḍitaṃ jānāti – After some time king Daśaratha recognise himself oppressed by the old age.
api ca sa svasya jyeṣṭhaṃ putraṃ rāmaṃ rājye kṣamamamanyata – And he also thought that his eldest son Rāma is fit for kingly rule.
aho vṛddho ‘smi – “Aha! I’m old”.
rājyaṃ na punariṣyate mayā – I wanna kingly rule no more (Literally, “It is wanted kingly rule by me no more”).
vanaṃ mayā gamyate tatra ca tapaḥ kriyate – I’ll go to the forest and be making there asceticism.
mama rājyasya bhāraḥ putre nikṣipyata iti punaracintayannṛpaḥ - “I’ll entrust burden of mine kingly rule to son”, so further thought the king.
tadā rāmasyābhiṣekāyājñā rājñādīyata – Then king gave an order for coronation of Rāma.

B

1. yadā sādhavo vanaṃ gacchanti, tadā te bhāryāḥ parityajanti – Then the sages go to the forest, they abandon their wifes.
transformed: yadā sādhunā vanaṃ gamyate, tadā tair bhāryāḥ parityajyante.

2. yaḥ puruṣa ātmānaṃ jānāti, sa eva sarvāṃl lokāñ jayati – The man who knows himself, he wins the worlds.
transformed  : yena puruṣeṇa ātmā jñāyate, tenaiva sarve lokā jīyante.

3. yena loko ‘kriyata, tasmai namaskaromy aham – I’m making a bow of respect to the one, who created a world.
transformed  : yo lokam akarot, tasmai namaskaromy aham.

4. yac cakṣuṣā dṛśyate tan mithyā, yac chāntena manasā jñāyate tat satyam – What is visible with the eyes is false, what is known by the calm mind is true.
transformed  : ......................................................................

5. rājñaḥ sabhāyāṃ sarve vīrāḥ śatrūn apāvadan – All the heroes reviled enemies in the king’s assembly.
transformed  : rājñaḥ sabhāyāṃ sarvair vīraiḥ śatravaḥ apodyante.

6. yadā rāmo ‘nujñām upalabhate tadāraṇyaṃ gacchati – When Rāma attains the permission, then he goes to the forest.
transformed  : yadā rāmenānujñopalabhyate tadāraṇyaṃ tena gamyate.

7. yadā munir lokaṃ paryatyajat tadā tapo ‘karot – When the sage abandoned the world, then he made an act of ascetism.
transformed  : yadā muninā lokaḥ paryatyajyate tadā tapo 'kriyate.

8. munes tejasā sūryo ‘py antardhīyate – Even the sun is hide by the sage’s splendor.
transformed  : munis tejasā sūryam api dadhāti.

9. yā nāryo niśācarebhyaḥ palāyante tā eva bibhyati – Those women who fear, they run from demons.
transformed  : yā nāryo niśācaraiḥ palāyyante tā eva bibhyati.

10. tadanantaraṃ vṛddho rājā havir ajuhod api cābhiṣekam akarot – After that the old king offered an oblation and also made a coronation.
transformed  : tadanantaraṃ vṛddheṇa rājñā havir ahūyata api cābhiṣeko 'kriyata.

Konstantin I.

unread,
Mar 16, 2022, 3:13:33 AMMar 16
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
Урок 10

A

yadā daśarathasyājñā janaiḥ śrutā tadāyodhyānandena pūrṇevābhavat – When Daśaratha’s order were heard, then Ayodhyā became full of bliss.
nagarasya mārgeṣu lokā gāyanti nṛtyanti ca – People sing and dance on the city’s streets.
tena ca svarge ‘pi devāstuṣṭā abhavan – And therefore also the gods were happy in heaven.
aho vṛddhena pitrā rāghavo rājā kṛta ityuktaṃ taiḥ - “Aha! The old father made Rāma king”, as they said.
kiṃ bahunā - What is the use of more words?
abhiṣekasya śravaṇādayodhyānandasya sāgare nimagnevābhavat – From the sounds of the coronation it was as if Ayodhyā was sunk in the ocean of bliss.
piturvacanaṃ śrūyate rāmeṇāpi – Rāma also heard father’s speech.
tena vacanena pramudito ‘pi sa duḥkhasya leśamanvabhavat – Even he was delighted because of that speech, he felt a light sorrow.
yadi rājyaṃ mayā kriyate tarhi priyaḥ pitā vanaṃ gacchati – If I rule the kingdom, then beloved father goes to the forest.
tadā bhrātṛbhiḥ saha kathamiha tiṣṭhāmyahamiti – “So, how can then I stay here with my brothers?”

B

1. I think that Śiva and Viṣṇu are the (two) fathers of the world. – śivo viṣṇśca lokasya pitarau sta iti mayā tat mata
2. If all the rākṣasas are slain by Rāma, how then do we see them in the hermitage? – yadi sarve rākṣasā rāmeṇa hatās tarhi kathaṃ vayaṃ tān āśrame paśyāmaḥ
3. Lakṣmaṇa never abandons his dear brother. If a brother is slain, whence comes another? – lakṣmaṇas tasya bhrātaraṃ na kadācij jahāti | yadi bhrātā hata kuto ‘nya āyāti
4. Sītā said, “If I am abandoned by my husband, how will I stay in Ayodhyā?” – yadyahaṃ me bhartṛā tyaktā katham ayodhyāyāṃ tiṣṭhāmaham iti sītāvadat
5. Gautama’s daughter is desired by the aged victor. – gautamasya duhiteṣṭā jīrṇena jetṛṇā
6. Bound and bowed, he was abandoned in the prison by mother and daughter, like an old pot. – naddho nataśca so mātrā duhitrā ca bandhanāgāre tyakteva jīrṇaḥ kumbhaḥ
7. The jewel was acquired by my brother, but in the course of time, it was forgotten by  him. – maṇir me bhrātrā labhdaḥ kiṃtu kalena sas tena vismṛtaḥ
8. The land was shaken by Indras thunder, and the people were overcome with fear. – bhūmir indrasya garjanena kṣubhdā ca janā bhītyābhibhūtā
9. The words were spoken to her father, but their truth was doubted by him. – tasyāḥ pitre vacanaṃ uktaṃ kiṃtu tasya satyaṃ tena śaṅkitam
10. The queen was served by my mother, and to her was given a gem as brilliant as the sun. – devī me mātrā sevitā ca tasyai maṇir datto dīpta iva sūryaḥ

Konstantin I.

unread,
Apr 3, 2022, 5:59:02 AMApr 3
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
Урок 11

A

śrīrāmasyābhiṣekaṃ śrutvā sarve janā nanditā abhavan – Having heard about coronation of glorious Rāma all the people became overjoyed.

vastuto ‘yodhyānandasya sāgare nimagnevādṛśyata – In fact Ayodhyā was looked like it was sunk in the ocean of bliss.

daśarathasya jyeṣṭhā bhāryā kausalyā nāma mama putro rājeti matvā paramaṃ sukhamanvabhavat – “My son is the king”, having thought in that way the eldest wife of Daśaratha by name Kausalyā was feeling supreme happiness

atha vṛddhasya rājño ‘nyā bhāryā kaikeyī nāmāsīd yasyāḥ putro bharataḥ - Moreover, the old king has another wife by name Kaikeyī whose son was bharata.

purā kasmiṃścitsamaye sā daśarathasya mahāntamupakāraṃ kṛtvā rājño dvau varau prāptavatī – Previously at the some time, she, having done a great Daśaratha’s favor, obtain from the king two boon.

tatastu tau varau na kadāpi kaikeyyā vṛtāvāstām – Then, however, those boons never was chosen by Kaikeyī.

adhunā tu sā varāvanusmṛtya daśarathasya samīpaṃ gatvā vacanamabravīt – But now, having remembered, she, having gone to the Daśaratha’s nearness, speaked words:

jayatvāryaputraḥ - May my lord be victorious.

apyanusmaratyāryaputro maddvau varau vṛṇīṣvetyātmano vacanam – Even don’t remember my lord – “give me two boons” – it’s your words!

rājā kṣaṇamekaṃ cintayitvāvadatsmarāmi priye smarāmi yadicchasi tadbrūhīti – The king, having immediately remembered and said: “I remember my dear, I remember, tell me  what do you want?

prathamena vareṇa mama putro bharato rājye ‘bhiṣikto bhavatu – Let my first boon be that my son Bharata be blessed for kingly rule.

dvitīyena ca rāmo ‘yodhyāṃ parityajya vanaṃ gacchatvityuktavatī kaikeyī – “The second one, that Rāma having abandoned Ayodhyā go to the forest”, said Kaikeyī.

tasyāstadvacanaṃ śrutvā daśaratho mūḍho iva kṣaṇamupaviśyāśanyā hato vṛkṣa iva bhūmāvapatat – Having heard that her words, Daśaratha like stupefied, immediately, having sat down, fell like a tree killed by bolt of lightning.

B

śrutvā > anuśrutya
matvā > anumanya
kṛtvā > anukṛtya
anusmṛtya, gatvā > smṛtvā, anugamya
cintayitvā>anucintya
parityajya>tyaktvā
śrutvā, upaviśya > anuśrutya, viśitvā

C

1. Having entered the house and having sat on the ground, he said to me, “Give me some food!” – gṛhaṃ praviśya bhumiṃ ca upaviśya māṃ kiṃcid bhojanaṃ dehīti so ‘bravīt

2. Upon hearing the words, “Mother, having left home, I am going to the forest,” Kausalyā said, “Let it not be!” – gṛhaṃ tyaktvā mato ‘raṇyaṃ gacchāmi vacanaṃ śrutvā tad na bhūyatām iti kausalyābravīt

3. Ah! Rāma, I am oppressed by great sorrow. Do not go, having left me! – aho rāma mahate śokeṇa pīḍitāhaṃ mā gaccha mām parityajya

4. My daughter is extremely intelligent and well-versed in the smṛti-s. Therefore let her be the wife of the king. – mama duhitātīva buddhimatī smṛtimatī cāsti tasmād bhavatu sā rājño bharyā

5. Stand up, you old fool! Does a man sit when the king enters? – uttiṣtha tvayi vṛddha mūrkha api puruṣa upaviśati yadā rājā praviśati

D

jīyatām āryaputraḥ - May my lord be victorious.
ji(1P) win | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa, loṭ, karmaṇi prayoga

apyanusmaratyāryaputro maddvau varau vriyetām ityātmano vacanam – Even don’t remember my lord – “give me two boons” – it’s your words!
vṛ(9Ā) choose (as a boon) | ekavacana, madhyamapuruṣa, loṭ, karmaṇi prayoga

rājā kṣaṇamekaṃ cintayitvāvadatsmarāmi priye smarāmi yadicchasi tad ucyatām iti – The king, having immediately remembered and said: “I remember my dear, I remember, tell me  what do you want?
brū(2Ā) speak, tell | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa, loṭ, karmaṇi prayoga

prathamena vareṇa mama putro bharato rājye ‘bhiṣikto bhūyatām – Let my first boon be that my son Bharata be blessed for kingly rule.
bhū (1P) be, become | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa, loṭ, karmaṇi prayoga

dvitīyena ca rāmo ‘yodhyāṃ parityajya vanaṃ gamyatām ityuktavatī kaikeyī – “The second one, that Rāma having abandoned Ayodhyā go to the forest”, said Kaikeyī.
gam(1P) go | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa, loṭ, karmaṇi prayoga

1. Having entered the house and having sat on the ground, he said to me, “Give me some food!” – gṛhaṃ praviśya bhumiṃ ca upaviśya māṃ kiṃcid bhojanaṃ dīyatām iti so ‘bravīt
dā(3P) give | ekavacana,  prathamapuruṣa  , loṭ, karmaṇi prayoga

3. Ah! Rāma, I am oppressed by great sorrow. Let me be not abandoned by you! – aho rāma mahate śokeṇa pīḍitāhaṃ mā gamyatām aham tvayā
gam(1P) go | ekavacana,  prathamapuruṣa  , loṭ

4. My daughter is extremely intelligent and well-versed in the smṛti-s. Therefore let her be the wife of the king. – mama duhitātīva buddhimatī smṛtimatī cāsti tasmād bhūyatām sā rājño bharyā
bhū (1P) be, become | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa, loṭ, karmaṇi prayoga

5. Stand up, you old fool! Does a man sit when the king enters? – sthīyatām so vṛddho mūrkho ‘pi puruṣa upaviśati yadā rājā praviśati
ud+sthā(3P) stand up | ekavacana,  prathamapuruṣa, loṭ, karmaṇi prayoga 

Konstantin I.

unread,
Apr 10, 2022, 8:45:05 AMApr 10
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
A

kaikeyīvacanaṃ śrutvā mahārājo mahāvajrahatavṛkṣa iva patito bhūmitale – Having heard Kaikeī’s words, great king fell fell to the ground like a tree killed by the great thunderbolt.
sevakeiḥ saṃjñāṃ kathamapi prāpitaḥ so ‘vadat – By the attendants somehow restored to the consciousness, he said:
bharatamātastādṛśaṃ krūrakarma mā kriyatām – O mother of Bharata let such the cruel activity not be done.
jyeṣṭhaputro vanaṃ mā gacchatu – Let the eldest son not go to the forest.
yadi mama sukumārasuto ghorāraṇyaṃ gacchati tarhyahaṃ yamasadanamacirādgacchāmīti – If my tender son goes to the frightful forest, then I soon go to the Yama’s palace.
kiṃtu sā rājapatnī śokākulasya rājñaḥ karuṇavacanaṃ śrutvā kevalamahasadavadacca – Having heard pitiful words of king, overwhelmed with sorrow, she only laughted and said:
bho dharmajñarāja – “Oh, king, knowing the law,
pūrvaṃ svayaṃ pratijñāte vare ‘dhunā kathaṃ vicāraḥ - How could you now have a hesitation in yours previuosly promised boon?
asmadvaṃśe tanna kadāpi kriyata iti – In our lineage that is never has been done”.
punaḥ punarniṣaṇṇo nṛpastaccittaparivartane prayatnātiśayamakarot – Again and again king did great effort with respect to his change in mind.
antataḥ sa dharmajālabaddhanṛpo bhavatu pāpe matputro rāma āhūyatāmityuktvā punastīkṣṇaśarahatakhagavaddharātale patati sma – Finally he, king, bound by the law’s net, said: “Let it be, o, wicked woman, let my son Rāma be called”, and again fell to earth’s surface like a bird, killed by a sharp arrow.

B

kaikeyīvacanaṃ śrutvā mahārājo mahāvajrahatavṛkṣa iva patito bhūmitale – Having heard Kaikeī’s words, great king fell fell to the ground like a tree killed by the great thunderbolt.
kaikeyī (prop) + vacanam speech, words = kaikeyīvacanam Kaikeyi’s words (tatpuruṣa) | dvitīyā
mahant great, large + rājan(m) king = mahārājaḥ great king (karmadhāraya) | prathamā
mahant great, large + vajraḥ (vajram) thunderbolt, Indra’a weapon + hata killed + vṛkṣaḥ tree = mahāvajrahatavṛkṣaḥ tree killed by the great thunderbolt (karmadhāraya) | prathamā
bhūmiḥ(f) land, earth + talam surface, plane = surface of the earth (tatpuruṣa) | saptamī

bharatamātastādṛśaṃ krūrakarma mā kriyatām – O mother of Bharata let such the cruel activity not be done.
bharataḥ (prop) + mātṛ mother = bharatamātṛ Bharata’s mother (tatpuruṣa) | sambodhana
krūra cruel, terrible + karman(n) activity, religious act, grammatical object = krūrakarman (karmadhāraya) | dvitīyā

jyeṣṭhaputro vanaṃ mā gacchatu – Let the eldest son not go to the forest.
jyeṣṭha eldest + putraḥ son = jyeṣṭhaputraḥ eldest son (karmadhāraya) | prathamā

yadi mama sukumārasuto ghorāraṇyaṃ gacchati tarhyahaṃ yamasadanamacirādgacchāmīti – If my tender son goes to the frightful forest, then I soon go to the Yama’s palace.
sukumāra tender + sutaḥ son =sukumārasutaḥ tender son (karmadhāraya) | prathamā
ghora terrible, frightful + araṇyam forest = ghorāraṇyam (karmadhāraya) | dvitīyā
yamaḥ (prop) + sadanam palace = yamasadanam Yama’s palace (tatpuruṣa) | dvitīyā

kiṃtu sā rājapatnī śokākulasya rājñaḥ karuṇavacanaṃ śrutvā kevalamahasadavadacca – Having heard pitiful words of king, overwhelmed with sorrow, she only laughted and said:
rājan(m) king + patnī wife = rājapatnī king’s wife (tatpuruṣa) | prathamā
śokaḥ grief, sorrow + ākula distressed = śokākula overwhelmed with sorrow (tatpuruṣa) | ṣaṣṭhī
karuṇa pitiful, tender + vacanam speech, words = karuṇavacanaṃ pitiful words (karmadhāraya) | dvitīyā

bho dharmajñarāja – “Oh, king, knowing the law,
dharmaḥ law, duty, right, etc. + jña knowing + rājan(m) king = dharmajñarājaḥ king, knowing the law (karmadhāraya) | sambodhana

asmadvaṃśe tanna kadāpi kriyata iti – In our lineage that is never has been done”.
aham I + vaṃśaḥ raca, lineage = asmadvaṃśaḥ our lineage (tatpuruṣa) | saptamī

punaḥ punarniṣaṇṇo nṛpastaccittaparivartane prayatnātiśayamakarot – Again and again king did great effort with respect to his change in mind.
tat (pr) that + cittam heart, mind + parivartanaṃ change, reversal = taccittaparivartanaṃ his change in mind (tatpuruṣa) | saptamī with reference
prayatnaḥ effort + atiśayaḥ great degree, excess = prayatnātiśayaḥ great effort (karmadhāraya) | dvitīyā

antataḥ sa dharmajālabaddhanṛpo bhavatu pāpe matputro rāma āhūyatāmityuktvā punastīkṣṇaśarahatakhagavaddharātale patati sma – Finally he, king, bound by the law’s net, said: “Let it be, o, wicked woman, let my son Rāma be called”, and again fell to earth’s surface like a bird, killed by a sharp arrow.
dharmaḥ law, duty, right, etc. + jālam net, snare + baddha bound + nṛpaḥ king =  dharmajālabaddhanṛpaḥ king bound by the law’s net (karmadhāraya) | prathamā
aham I + putraḥ son = matputraḥ (tatpuruṣa) | prathamā
tīkṣṇa sharp + śaraḥ arrow + hata killed + khagaḥ bird + vat (ind) like (at the end of compound) = tīkṣṇaśarahatakhagavat like a bird killed by a sharp arrow (karmadhāraya) | ind
dharā earth + talam surface, plane = dharātalam earth’s surface (tatpuruṣa) | saptamī

C

karmadhāraya:

mahānto muhayaḥ -> mahāmunayaḥ (great muni-s)
lambamudaram ->lambodaram (pot-belly)
vivāhitā nārī -> vivāhitanārī (married woman)
bahavo brāhmaṇāḥ ->bahubrāhmaṇāḥ (many brāhmans)

D

tatpuruṣa:

rājñāṃ śatravaḥ ->rājaśatravaḥ (enemies of the king)
ātmano jñānam -> ātmajñānam (knowledge of the Ātman)
bhagavato gītā -> bhagavadgītā (the song of the Lord)
mūrkhāṇāṃ rājā -> mūrkharājaḥ (king of fools)
nidrayā bādhitaḥ -> nidrabādhitaḥ (overcome with sleep)
rāme rataḥ -> rāmarataḥ (devoted to Rāma)
viśvaṃ jayati -> viśvajit (conqueror of all)
tasyā vacanam -> tatvacanam (her speech)

E

1. Daśaratha, having heard the speech of the cruel woman, was overcome with grief. – daśarathaḥ krūranārīvacanaṃ śrutvā śokabādhito ‘bhavat
2. Ah! Let not the son of the old king go to the great forest. – aho vṛddharājaputro mahāvanaṃ mā gacchatu
3. You are a knower of truth, O sage-king, therefore do that which you previously promised. – ṛṣirāja tvaṃ satyajño ‘sti tato yat pūrvaṃ svayaṃ pratijñātaṃ tatkuru

Konstantin I.

unread,
Apr 22, 2022, 6:15:03 AMApr 22
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
Урок 13

A, B, C

1. nṛpaṃ draṣṭumāgacchatvāryaputra ityājñāṃ śrutvā śrīrāmaḥ samutpannakautūhalo vāyuvegena rājabhavanamāgacchat – “Let my lord come to see the king”, having heard so order, Śrīrāma with arisen curiosity went to the king’s palace with the speed of the wind.

samutpanna arisen + kautūhalam curiosity = samutpannakautūhalaḥ he who has an arisen curiosity (bahuvrīhi) | prathamā | vigraha: samutpannaṃ kautūhalaṃ yasya saḥ (samutpannakautūhalaḥ)
vāyuḥ (m) wind + vegaḥ speed = vāyuvegaḥ (tatpuruṣa) wind’s speed | tṛtīyā | vigraha: vāyovegaḥ
rājan(m) king + bhavanam palace = rājabhavanam king’s palace (tatpuruṣa) | dvitīyā | vigraha: rājñobhavanam


2. āgatya ca vivarṇamukhaṃ rājānaṃ dṛṣṭvā jātacinto vacanamabravīt – Having came and seen the king who had face devoid of color he, who has an arisen anxiety said the words:

vivarṇa devoid of color + mukham face = vivarṇamukhaḥ he who has a face devoid of color (bahuvrīhi) | dvitīyā | vigraha: vivarnaṃ mukhaṃ yasya saḥ (vivarṇamukhaḥ)
jāta born, arisen + cintā care, worry, anxiety = jātacintaḥ he who has an arisen anxiety (bahuvrīhi) | prathamā | vigraha: jātā cintā yasya saḥ (jātacintaḥ)


3. jayatvāryaḥ - May sir (i.e., “you”) be victorious.


4. bhavadājñayāgato ‘smi – I came by your order.
bhavant you (polite form of madhyama pronoun) + ājñā order, command | prathamā = bhavatajñā yours order (tatpuruṣa) | tṛtīyā | vigraha: bhavata ājñā


5. kuto bhavānaśrupūrṇalocanaḥ - Why you with eyes full of tears?

aśru (n) tear + pūrṇa full + locanam eye = aśrupūrṇalocanaḥ he whose eyes are full of tears (bahuvrīhi) | prathamā | vigraha: aśrunbhiḥ pūrṇe locane yasya saḥ (aśrupūrṇalocanaḥ)


6. mayi jātakrodha iva bhavān bhāti – there is arisen anger inside me then you look like this.

jāta born, arisen + krodhaḥ anger = jātakrodhaḥ arisen anger (karmadhāraya) | prathamā | vigraha: jātaḥ krodhaḥ


7. apyahaṃ kṛtāparādha iti – Am I an abuser?

kṛta done, made + aparādhaḥ sin, offense = kṛtāparādhaḥ one who has perfomed an offense (bahuvrīhi) | prathamā | vigraha: kṛto ‘parādho yena saḥ (kṛtāparādhaḥ)


8. putravacanaṃ srutvā daśarathaḥ kṛtaprayatno ‘pi kimapi bhāṣituṃ nāśaknot – Having heard son’s words Daśaratha made an effors and said nothing.

putraḥ son + vacanam speech, words = putravacanam son’s word (tatpuruṣa) | dvitīyā | vigraha: putrasya vacanam
kṛta done, made + prayatnaḥ effort = kṛtaprayatnaḥ one who has performed an effort (bahuvrīhi) | prathamā | vigraha: kṛtaḥ prayatno yena saḥ (kṛtaprayatnaḥ)


9. tadā rājakumāraḥ kaikeyīmapṛcchat – Then king’s son asked Kaikeyī

rājan(m) king + kumāraḥ boy = rājakumāraḥ king’s boy (tatpuruṣa) | prathamā | vigraha: rājñaḥ kumāraḥ


10. devi kimiti nṛpatiradya viṣaṇṇamanāḥ - O quenn, why king has dejected mind today?

viṣaṇṇa dejected + manaḥ(n) mind = viṣaṇṇamanāḥ one who has dejected mind (bahuvrīhi) | prathamā | vigraha: viṣaṇṇo mano yasya saḥ (viṣaṇṇamanāḥ)


11. sarvadā māṃ dṛṣṭvā mama pitā kupito ‘pi prasīdati – My father always having seen me, even he is angry, he calms down


12. adya tu māṃ saṃprekṣya rājñastasya khedaḥ kutaḥ pravartata iti – But today having seen me, why this king’s depression is proceeding?


13. evamuktā tu mahātmanā rāghaveṇa sā punaratidāruṇaṃ vacanamuktavatī – Addressed thus however by the noble Rāghava she said very cruel words again.

mahant great, large + ātman(m) self, Self, commonly used as reflexive = mahātman great-self (bahuvrīhi) | tṛtīyā | vigraha: mahānātman yasya tena (mahātmanā)


14. he rāma śrūyatām – “O, Rāma, let it be heard (by you).”


15. purā tava pitrā mahyaṃ dvau varau dattau – Long ago the two boons were given to me by your father.


16. prathamena bharatābhiṣeko vṛto mayā dvitīyena ca tava daṇḍakāraṇyagamanam – Coronation of Bharata was first chosen by me, and the second was yours going to the forest Daṇḍaka.

bharataḥ (prop) + abhiṣekaḥ consecration, coronation = bharatābhiṣekaḥ Bharatas’s coronation (tatpuruṣa) | prathamā | vigraha: bharatasyābhiṣekaḥ
daṇḍakam, daṇḍakaḥ (prop) name of a forest + araṇyam forest + gamanam going = daṇḍakāraṇyagamanam going to the Daṇḍaka-forest (karmadhāraya) | dvitīyā | vigraha: daṇḍakam araṇyam gamanam


17. yadi pitaraṃ satyapratijñaṃ(???) kartumicchasi tarhi mama vacanena bhavānvanavāsī bhavatu bharaśca rājyaṃ praśāstu – If you want to make father’s true promise then, according to my word may you be a forest-dweller and may Bharata the kingdom rule.

satya real, true; (n) truth, reality + pratijñā vow, promise = satyapratijñā true promise (karmadhāraya) | dvitīyā | vigraha: satyā pratijñā
vanam forest + vāsin (m; inī) dweller, inhabitant = vanavāsin forest-dweller (karmadhāraya) | prathamā | vigraha: vane vāsin


18. rāmastu tasyā vajropamaṃ vacaḥ śrutvā kṣaṇamapi nāvyathata – But Rāma wasn’t immediately agitated having heard her speech similar to thunderbolt.

vajraḥ (vajram) thunderbolt, Indra’a weapon + upamā similarity, simile =vajropamā similar to thunderbolt (bahuvrīhi) | dvitīyā | vigraha: vajrasyopamā(???) yasya yat (vajropamam)


19. śāntamanā evamastu devyadyaiva vanaṃ gacchāmītyabhāṣata – He said, “Be calm, o, queen, today I go to the forest”

śānta calm, peaceful + manaḥ(n) mind +śāntamanāḥ she whose mind is calm (bahuvrīhi) | prathamā | vigraha: śānto mano yasyāḥ sā (śāntamanāḥ)


D

1. He whose mind is pure does not want to stay in the city. – śuddhamanā nagare sthātuṃ necchati

śuddha pure + manaḥ(n) mind = śuddhamanāḥ one who has pure mind (bahuvrīhi) | prathamā | vigraha: śuddho mano yasya saḥ (śuddhamanāḥ)


2. The demon with the face of a monkey is unable to kill the king. – kapimukho rākṣaso rājānaṃ hantuṃ na śaknoti

kapi (m) monkey + mukham face = kapimukhaḥ (bahuvrīhi) | prathamā | vigraha: kapermukhaṃ yasya saḥ (kapimukhaḥ)


3. I am unable to understand the meaning of those many-paged books. – teṣāṃ bahupatrāṇāṃ pustakāṇām arthaṃ na śaknomyavagantumaham

bahu many + patram page, leaf = bahupatraṃ something that has many pages (bahuvrīhi) | bahuvacana, ṣaṣṭhī | vigraha: bahūni patrāṇi yeṣāṃ teṣām (bahupatrāṇām)

4. Please tell me that, lady. I am one whose curiosity is great. – devi tad vaktum arhasi | mahākautūhalāsmi

mahant great, large + kautūhalam curiosity = mahākautūhalaḥ one whose curiosity is great (bahuvrīhi) | prathamā | vigraha: mahat kautūhalaṃ yasya saḥ (mahākautūhalaḥ)


5. “Today the king’s son must go to the forest.” Hearing that, all the inhabitants of Ayodhyā became (such that) their minds were afflicted with grief. – adya rājakumāro ‘raṇyaṃ gantumarhatīti tacchrutvā sarve ‘yodhyāyāṃ vasinaḥ śokabādhitā abhavan

rājan(m) king + kumāraḥ boy = rājakumāraḥ king’s boy (tatpuruṣa) | prathamā | vigraha: rājñaḥ kumāraḥ
śokaḥ grief, sorrow + bādhita afflicted, oppressed = śokabādhitaḥ one who overcome with grief (bahuvrīhi) | bahuvacana, prathamā | vigraha: śokena bādhitāni yeṣām te (śokabādhitāḥ)

Konstantin I.

unread,
May 4, 2022, 3:47:12 AMMay 4
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
Урок 14

A

jitendriyaḥ sukhaduḥkhasamo rāmo mātaraṃ draṣṭuṃ gaccheyamiti matvāntaḥpuramagacchat – Сonqueror of the senses and he, who is above happiness and sorrow, Rāma, having thought - “I should I go to see mother”, went to the inner apartment.

taṃ śokāvahavṛttāntaṃ śrutvā rāmamātā paraśucchinnakadalīva pṛthivyāṃ patitā – Having heard this received sorrow news Rāma’a mother fell to the ground like a tree that was cut down with an axe

tato bāṣpapūrṇanayanā sābravīt – Then she said with the eyes full of tears:

putra yadi tvaṃ śokāvaho na jāyethāstarhyahamaprajā na tādṛśaṃ duḥkhamanubhaveyam – “O, son, if you, bringer the grief, had not be born, then I, childless, would not feel such a grief.”

yā mātā putrasya pūrṇendusadṛśaṃ mukhaṃ na paśyetsā kathaṃ jīvet – “Mother, who can’t see son’s face, that looks like a full moon, how can she live?”

kathamahaṃ jīveyamiti – “How should I live?”

tacchrutvā sarve janā bhṛśaṃ vyalapan – Having heard that all the people lamented extremely.

kiṃtu lakṣmaṇastadbhrāturduḥkhaṃ dṛṣṭvājitakrodhaḥ koparaktanayana idaṃ vaco ‘bravīt – However, usually gentle Lakṣmaṇa, having seen this brother’s sorrow, became anger and said this words:

bho bhrātaridaṃ soḍhuṃ na śaknomi – “O, brother, I can’t bear that.”

bhavato vanagamanaṃ mahyaṃ na rocate – Your going to the forest is not pleasing to me.

śrūyatāṃ tāvat – Let it be heard (by you) meanwhile.

āvayorjarāhatabuddhiḥ pitā nārīvaśagataḥ kiṃ na brūyāt – What wouldn’t our silly father say under woman’s influence.

bhavato ‘parādhaṃ vinā nṛpastvāṃ rājyaṃ tyaktvā vanaṃ gaccheriti kathaṃ bhāṣate – How can the king say to you: “Having abandoned the kingdom you should go to the forest”, without insulting you?

kaḥ putro bhāryājitasya piturvacanaṃ hṛdaye kuryāt – What a son would take seriously speech of the father that subdueded by the woman?

āgacchatvāryaḥ - Let this sir come.

ahaṃ sarvāmayodhyāṃ tīkṣṇaśarairnirjanāṃ kuryām – I would make all the Ayodhyā unpeopled by the sharp arrows.

rājānaṃ pitaramapi hantuṃ samartho ‘smīti – I am able to kill the king, even father.

kupitasya bhrāturvacaḥ śrutvā rāmo ‘bravīttāta māstu kopaḥ - Having heard angry brother, Rāma said, - “My dear, let not be he (you) in rage”.

putro na kadāpīdṛśaṃ vākyaṃ brūyāt – Son should never say such words.

api ca puruṣo na kadāpi krodhavaśaṃ gacchet – Human should never undergo anger’s influence.

vigatakrodho bhavitumarhati bhavāniti – You should be with no anger.

antato lakṣmaṇastathāstvityuktvā manyuṃ parājitya yatra yatra tvaṃ gacchestatra tatra gaccheyamahamapītyuktavān – Finally Lakṣmaṇa having said – “Let it be”, and subdued the anger said: “Wherever you’d go I also would go there”.

B

vidhiliṅ -> loṭ
gaccheyam ->gacchāni
jāyethās -> jāyasva
anubhaveyam ->anubhavāni
paśyet -> paśyatu
jīvet -> jīvatu
jīveyam -> jīvāni
brūyāt ->bravītu
gacches -> gaccha
hṛdaye kuryāt ->hṛdaye karotu
gacchet ->gacchatu

C

1 . If a man would experience bliss, let him go to the forest and there sit long in meditation. – yadi puruṣaḥ ānandam anubhavet tarhi saḥ vanam gacchet ca ciram tatra dhyāne sīdet

2. Having left the city and become a muni, how then should I speak to you, friend. –
nagaraṃ parityajya munir bhūtvā ca kathaṃ mitraivaṃ brūyāṃ tvām

3. Are all brahmans men of stabilized mind? How should I know? It is not known to me whether they are all sages or not (yat and na vā and iti)– api sarve brāhmaṇāḥ sthiramanāḥ | kathaṃ jānīyām | tat na jñāyate mayā yat sarve te munayaḥ santi na vā iti

4. Having done what, might men attain liberation? A man should do what is written in the śāstras. Thereby he may become liberated. – kiṃ kṛtvā puruṣā upalabheran mokṣam | puruṣaḥ kuryād yacchāstre likhitamiti | evaṃ so mukto bhavet

5. If I should not see the faces of Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa again, I should surely be afflicted by great sorrow. – yadyahaṃ rāmalakṣmaṇayor mukhe na paśyeyaṃ tarhyahaṃ niścitaṃ mahate śokeṇa pīḍito bhaveyam

6. Let Lakṣmaṇa go with Sītā and Rama if he wishes to fulfill truth and duty – lakṣmaṇaḥ sītārāmābhyāṃ saha gacched yadi saḥ satyadharmau kuryāt

7. If they were not afflicted by birth, old age, and fear of death, men might be happy. Moreover, having experienced disease, poverty, sorrow, and disasterters they would be of agitated minds. – yadi te janmajarāmṛtyubhītibhiḥ pīḍitā nābhavaṃs tarhi puruṣās tuṣṭā bhaveyuḥ  | api ca rogadāridryaduḥkhavyasanāni anubhūya ta ākulamanāḥ syus

Konstantin I.

unread,
May 22, 2022, 10:10:00 AMMay 22
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
Урок 15

A

ahamapi vanaṃ gacchāmīti vadantaṃ lakṣmaṇaṃ pariṣvajamāno rāmo ‘manyata – [While] embracing Lakṣmaṇa who were speaking, “I also go to the forest”, Rāma thought:
priyāṃ vanagamanātpūrvaṃ paśyāmīti – I will see my dear before going to the forest.
evaṃ cintayitvā sītāpatiḥ sītāṃ draṣṭuṃ gataḥ - So having thought Sītā’s husband went to see Sītā.
sītāpyāgacchantaṃ vivarṇavadanaṃ bhartāraṃ dṛṣṭvā cintayā bādhyamānaivamabravīt – Sītā, having seen his husband coming with a pale face, thus said being oppressed by anxiety:
etādṛśasya śokasya kāraṇamucyatāmiti – Let it be said reason of such a grief.
evamukto daśarathatanayo ‘bravīt – Addressed thus Daśaratha’s son said:
purā rājñā satyapratijñena daśarathena kaikeyyai mahāvarau dattau – Long ago the two great boons were given to Kaikeyī by the honest king Daśaratha.
adya mamābhiṣeke kriyamāṇe sā vadati – Today she say during my coronation:
prathamavareṇa caturdaśavarṣāṇi rāmeṇa daṇḍakāraṇya uṣyatām – Let the first boon be for Rāma to live in Daṇḍaka forest for fourteen years.
dvitīyena bharato yauvarājye ‘bhiṣicyatāmiti – Let the second be Bharata consecrated in the state of being heir apparent.
tato ‘hamadyaiva pitṛpratijñāmanusṛtyāyodhyāṃ parityajanvanaṃ gaccheyam – Then today I am abandoning Ayodhya and should go to the forest, having followed father’s vow.
tvayātraiva sthīyatām – You should stay here.
devapūjāṃ yathāvidhi sarvadā kurvatī bharataśatrughnau sevasveti – Always be making worship of lord in accordance with custom and serve to Bharata and Śatrugha.

B

ahamapi vanaṃ gacchāmīti vadantaṃ lakṣmaṇaṃ pariṣvajamāno rāmo ‘manyata – [While] embracing Lakṣmaṇa who were speaking, “I also go to the forest”, Rāma thought:
>>> ahamapi vanaṃ gacchāmīti yo lakṣmaṇo ‘vadat taṃ rāmaḥ pariṣvajyāmanyata ca
– [While] embracing Lakṣmaṇa who were speaking, “I also go to the forest”, Rāma thought:
aham I | prathamā
api (ind) also, too, even; question marker indefinitiser (with interrogative pronouns)
vanam forest | saptamī
gam (1P) go | ekavacana, uttamapuruṣa
iti quotation mark
lakṣmaṇaḥ (prop) | dvitīyā
vad (1P) speak | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa, laṅ
tat (pr) he | dvitīyā
rāmaḥ (prop) | prathamā
pari+svaj(1Ā) embrace | lyabanta
man (4Ā) think | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa, laṅ
ca (ind) and

sītāpyāgacchantaṃ vivarṇavadanaṃ bhartāraṃ dṛṣṭvā cintayā bādhyamānaivamabravīt – Sītā, having seen his husband coming with a pale face, thus said being oppressed by anxiety:
>>> yo ‘gacchad vivarṇavadano bhartā taṃ dṛṣṭvā cintayā bādhyate sītāpyevamabravīt
gam (1P) go | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa, laṅ
vivarṇa devoid of color + vadanam face = vivarṇavadanaḥ he who has a face devoid of color (bahuvrīhi) | prathamā | vigraha: vivarnaṃ vadanaṃ yasya saḥ (vivarṇavadanaḥ)
bhartṛ husband, lord | prathamā
tat (pr) he | dvitīyā
dṛś (4P) see, seem, appear (non-present form of paś) | tvānta
cintā care, worry, anxiety | tṛtīyā
bādh(1Ā) harass | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa, karmaṇi prayoga
sītā (prop) | prathamā
api (ind) also, too, even; question marker indefinitiser (with interrogative pronouns)
evam(ind) thus, in this way
brū(2Ā) speak, tell | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa, laṅ

adya mamābhiṣeke kriyamāṇe sā vadati – Today she say during my coronation:
>>> yadādya mamābhiṣekaḥ arkiyata tadā sā vadati
adya (ind) today
aham I | ṣaṣṭhī
abhiṣekaḥ consecration, coronation | prathamā
kṛ (8P) do, make | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa, karmaṇi prayoga, loṭ
tat (pr) he | strīliṅga, prathamā
vad (1P) speak | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa

tato ‘hamadyaiva pitṛpratijñāmanusṛtyāyodhyāṃ parityajanvanaṃ gaccheyam – Then today I am abandoning Ayodhya and should go to the forest, having followed father’s vow.
>>> tato ‘hamadyaiva pitṛpratijñāmanusṛtyāyodhyāṃ parityajeyaṃ vanaṃ gaccheyaṃ ca
tataḥ (ind) hence, then
aham I | prathamā
adya (ind) today
eva (ind) emphatic particle, emphasizes preceding word
pitṛ father + pratijñā vow, promise = pitṛpratijñā father’s promise (tatpuruṣa) | dvitīyā | vigraha: pituḥ pratijñā
anu+sṛ(1P) follow | lyabanta
ayodhyā (prop) Daśaratha's capital city | dvitīyā
pari+tyaj(1P) abandon | ekavacana, uttamapuruṣa, vidhiliṅ
vanam forest | dvitīyā
gam (1P) go | ekavacana, uttamapuruṣa, vidhiliṅ
ca (ind) and

devapūjāṃ yathāvidhi sarvadā kurvatī bharataśatrughnau sevasveti – Always make a worship of lord in accordance with custom and serve to Bharata and Śatrugha. 
>>> devapūjāṃ yathāvidhi sarvadā kuru bharataśatrughnau sevasveti
devaḥ god + pūjā worship, reverence = devapūjā worship of god (tatpuruṣa) | dvitīyā | vigraha: devāya pūjā
yathāvidhi (ind) in accordance with custom
sarvadā (ind) always
kṛ (8P) do, make | ekavacana, madhyamapuruṣa, loṭ
bharataḥ (prop) + bharataḥ (prop) = bharataśatrughnau (dvandva) | dvitīyā
sev(1Ā) attend to, serve | ekavacana, madhyamapuruṣa, loṭ
iti quotation mark

C.1

evaṃ vadati rāme janakatanayā saṃkruddhā satyupahāsamakarot – While Rāma were speaking that, angry Janaka’s daughter were doing a satirical laughter.
āryaputra kiṃ bhāṣase – My lord, what are you talking about?
īdṛśaṃ vacanam na kadāpi tvādṛśā vīrā vaktumarhanti – Heroes like you should never say such words.
bharturvanaṃ gacchataḥ kathaṃ bhāryā nagare tiṣṭhediti – How can a wife stay in the city while husband goes to the forest?
evaṃ bruvatīṃ sītāṃ na netumaicchadrāmo vanaduḥkhāni cintayan – Rāma, who was thinking about forest’s sorrows did’n want to take Sītā who was speaking thus.
so ‘vadat – He said:
śṛṇu sīte – Listen, o Sītā.
vane vasatā janena bahuduḥkhānyanubhūyante – One experinces many sufferings while living in the forest.
vane siṃhādayo hiṃsrajantavaścaranti yathākāmam – Evil creatures, beginning with the lions wander in the forest in accordance with desire.
tatra ca santi bahūnyanyāni mārgaśramādīni duḥkhānīti – There are many other sorrows there, having a hard road for a beginning.
tadvacanaṃ śrutvā duḥkhitā sītāśrupūrṇanayanā punarabravīt – Having heard that words unhappy Sītā again said with eye full of tears.
he rāma – O, Rāma!
tvayā nirūpyamāṇāni duḥkhāni sukhānyeva bhaveyustvayā saha saṃcarantyā mama – Sorrows were describing by you may become joys when I go with you.
tvayi vanaṃ gate kathamiha jīveyam – How should I live here when you go to the forest?
tvayā tyaktāhaṃ viṣaṃ pibeyamaghinaṃ vā praviśeyam – Abandoned by you I will drink poison or enter in fire.
alamanena vacanena – Enough of this talk!
daṇḍakāraṇyaṃ gacchatā tvayā sahāhamāgacchāmīti – When you’ll go to the Daṇḍaka-forest I’ll come with you.
rāmo ‘pi tāṃ śocantīṃ pariṣvajya sāntvayannevāvadat – Having embraced and pacifying her grieving Rāma said:
sādhu priye sādhu – Wonderful, dear, wonderful!
yadi mayā sahāgantumicchasi tarhyāgaccheti – If you want to go with me then come.

C.2

evaṃ vadati rāme janakatanayā saṃkruddhā satyupahāsamakarot – While Rāma were speaking that, angry Janaka’s daughter were doing a satirical laughter.
>>> yadā rāma evaṃ avadat tadā janakatanayā saṃkruddhā upahāsamakarot – When Rāma were speaking that, angry Janaka’s daughter were doing a satirical laughter.
evam(ind) thus, in this way
vad(1P) speak | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa, laṅ
rāmaḥ (prop) | saptamī, sati saptamī
janakaḥ (prop) name of Sītā’s father + tanayā daughter + janakatanayā Janaka’s daughter (tatpuruṣa) | prathamā | vigraha: janakasya tanayā
saṃkruddha angry | prathamā, strīliṅga
upahāsaḥ satirical laughter, ridicule | dvitīyā
kṛ (8P) do, make | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa, laṅ

bharturvanaṃ gacchataḥ kathaṃ bhāryā nagare tiṣṭhediti – How can a wife stay in the city while husband goes to the forest?
>>> yadā bhartā vanaṃ gacchati kathaṃ tadā bhāryā nagare tiṣṭhediti – How can a wife stay in the city while husband goes to the forest?
bhartṛ husband, lord | prathamā
vanam forest | dvitīyā
gam (1P) go | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa
katham (ind) how? How is it...?
bhāryā wife | prathamā
nagaram city | saptamī
sthā(1P) remain | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa, vidhiliṅ
iti quotation mark

evaṃ bruvatīṃ sītāṃ na netumaicchadrāmo vanaduḥkhāni cintayan – Rāma, who was thinking about forest’s sorrows did’n want to take Sītā who was speaking thus.
>>> yā evaṃ abravīt sītāṃ tām na netumaicchadrāmo vanaduḥkhāni cintayitvā – Rāma, having thought about forest’s sorrows, did’n want to take Sītā who was speaking thus.
evam(ind) thus, in this way
brū(2Ā) speak, tell | vartamāne kṛdanta, strīliṅga, dvitīyā
sītā (prop) | dvitīyā
tat (pr) he | strīliṅga, dvitīyā
na (ind) negative particle
nī(1P) lead | tumannata
iṣ (6P) desire, wish want | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa, laṅ
vanam forest + duḥkham sorrow, misery = vanaduḥkham sorrows of the forest live (tatpuruṣa) | dvitīyā, bahuvacana | vigraha: vanād duḥkham
cint (10P) think, consider | tvānta

vane vasatā janena bahuduḥkhānyanubhūyante – One experinces many sufferings while living in the forest.
>>> yo vane vasati janena so bahuduḥkhānyanubhūyante – He, who lives in the forest experinces many sufferings.
vanam forest | saptamī
vas (1P) dwell | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa
janaḥ person; as collective noun – people; plural – folk | prathamā
tat (pr) he | prathamā
bahu many + duḥkham sorrow, misery = bahuduḥkham big sorrow (karmadhāraya) | bahuvacana, dvitīyā | vigraha: bahūni duḥkhāni
anu+bhū (1P) experience, feel | bahuvacana, prathamapuruṣa, karmaṇi prayoga

tvayā nirūpyamāṇāni duḥkhāni sukhānyeva bhaveyustvayā saha saṃcarantyā mama – Sorrows describing by you may become joys when I go with you.
>>> yāni duḥkhāni tvaṃ nirūpayasi tāni sukhānyeva bhaveyur yadyahaṃ tvayā saha saṃcarāmi – Sorrows you are describing may become joys if I go with you.
duḥkham sorrow, misery | bahuvacana, prathamā
tvam you | prathamā
niḥ+rūp(10P) see, perceive, foresee, describe | ekavacana, madhyamapuruṣa
sukham happiness, joy; (ind) happily | bahuvacana, prathamā
eva (ind) emphatic particle, emphasizes preceding word
bhū (1P) be, become | bahuvacana, prathamapuruṣa, vidhiliṅ
yadi (ind) if
aham I | prathamā
tvam you | tṛtīyā
saha (ind) with (used after tṛtīyā as marker of accompaniment)    
saṃ+car(1P) go, walk | ekavacana, uttamapuruṣa

daṇḍakāraṇyaṃ gacchatā tvayā sahāhamāgacchāmīti – When you’ll go to the Daṇḍaka-forest I’ll come with you.
>>> yadi daṇḍakāraṇyaṃ gacchasi tvaṃ tarhi tvayā sahāhamāgacchāmīti – When you’ll go to the Daṇḍaka-forest I’ll come with you.
yadi (ind) if
daṇḍakam, daṇḍakaḥ (prop) name of a forest + araṇyam forest = daṇḍakāraṇyam Daṇḍaka-forest (karmadhāraya) | dvitīyā | vigraha: daṇḍakam araṇyam
gam(1P) go | ekavacana, madhyamapuruṣa
tvam you | prathamā
tarhi (ind) then
tvam you | tṛtīyā
saha (ind) with (used after tṛtīyā as marker of accompaniment)
aham I | prathamā
ā+gam (1P) come | ekavacana, uttamapuruṣa
iti quotation mark

rāmo ‘pi tāṃ śocantīṃ pariṣvajya sāntvayannevāvadat – Having embraced and pacifying her grieving Rāma said:
>>> yā śocati rāmastām api pariṣvajya asāntvayat avadad eva ca – She who grieve, Rāma having embraced her, pacified and said:
śuc(1P) grieve | vartamāne kṛdanta, strīliṅga, dvitīyā
rāmaḥ (prop) | prathamā
tat (pr) he | strīliṅga, dvitīyā
api (ind) also, too, even; question marker indefinitiser (with interrogative pronouns)
pari+svaj(1Ā) embrace | lyabanta
sāntv(10P) pacify, appease | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa, laṅ
vad(1P) speak | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa, laṅ
eva (ind) emphatic particle, emphasizes preceding word
ca (ind) and

D

1. Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa killed rākṣasa-s in the forest while (despite the fact that) the king of the rākṣasa-s was watching – paśyato rākṣasarājño rāmalakṣmaṇau vane rākṣasān ahatām
paś (4P) see | vartamāne kṛdanta, ṣaṣṭhī, anādaraṣaṣṭhī
rākṣasaḥ demon + rājan(m) king = rākṣasarājaḥ king of the demons (tatpuruṣa) | ṣaṣṭhī, anādaraṣaṣṭhī | vigraha: rākṣasāṇāṃ rājā
rāmaḥ (prop) + lakṣmaṇaḥ (prop) = rāmalakṣmaṇau Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa (dvandva) | dvivacana, ṣaṣṭhī | vigraha: rāmaścalakṣmaṇaśca
vanam forest | saptamī
rākṣasaḥ demon | bahuvacana, dvitīyā
han (2P) kill, strike | dvivacana, prathamapuruṣa, laṅ

2. When the king speaks, everyone stands listening – vadati rājani sarve tiṣṭhanti śṛṇvantaḥ
rājan(m) king | ekavacana, saptamī, sati saptamī
vad(1P) speak | vartamāne kṛdanta, saptamī, sati saptamī
sarva each, all, every | bahuvacana, prathamā
sthā(1P) remain | bahuvacana, prathamapuruṣa
śru (5P) hear, hear about | vartamāne kṛdanta, bahuvacana, prathamā

3. The guru stands among the students who are reading books – gurus tiṣṭhati paṭhatsu pustakāni śiṣyeṣu
guru heavy; (m) teacher | prathamā
sthā(1P) remain | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa
paṭh(1P) read | vartamāne kṛdanta, bahuvacana, saptamī
pustakam book | bahuvacana, dvitīyā
śiṣyaḥ student | bahuvacana, saptamī

4. I cannot see the book that is being read by you – ahaṃ na paśyāmi pustakaṃ tvayā paṭhyat
aham I | prathamā
na (ind) negative particle
dṛś (4P) see, seem, appear (non-present form of paś) | ekavacana, uttamapuruṣa
pustakam book | dvitīyā
paṭh | vartamāne kṛdanta, napuṃsakaliṅga, prathamā, karmaṇi prayoga

5. When who is slain, do the people become free from fear? – hate ‘pi jano bhayamukto bhavati
hate
hata killed | dvivacana, dvitīyā
janaḥ person; as collective noun – people; plural – folk | bahuvacana, dvitīyā
bhayam fear + mukta free = bhayamuktaḥ one who is free from fear (bahuvrīhi) | prathamā | vigraha: bhayāt mukta yasya saḥ (bhayamuktaḥ)???
api (ind) also, too, even; question marker indefinitiser (with interrogative pronouns)
bhū (1P) be, become | bahuvacana, uttamapuruṣa

E

1. Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa killed rākṣasa-s in the forest while (despite the fact that) the king of the rākṣasa-s was watching – paśyato rākṣasarājño rāmalakṣmaṇau vane rākṣasān ahatām
>>> yadā rāmalakṣmaṇau vane rākṣasān ahatām tadā rākṣasarājā apaśyat – When Rāma and Lakṣmana killed the demons in the forest demon’s king saw it.
yadā (ind) when, whenever
rāmaḥ (prop) + lakṣmaṇaḥ (prop) = rāmalakṣmaṇau Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa (dvandva) | dvivacana, ṣaṣṭhī | vigraha: rāmaścalakṣmaṇaśca
vanam forest | saptamī
rākṣasaḥ demon | bahuvacana, dvitīyā
han (2P) kill, strike | dvivacana, prathamapuruṣa, laṅ
tadā then (ind)
rākṣasaḥ demon + rājan(m) king = rākṣasarājaḥ king of the demons (tatpuruṣa) | ṣaṣṭhī, anādaraṣaṣṭhī | vigraha: rākṣasāṇāṃ rājā
paś (4P) see | vartamāne kṛdanta, ṣaṣṭhī, anādaraṣaṣṭhī

2. When the king speaks, everyone stands listening – vadati rājani sarve tiṣṭhanti śṛṇvantaḥ
>>> yadi rājā vadati tarhi sarve tiṣḥtanti śṛṇvanti ca - When the king speaks, everyone stands and listens
yadi (ind) if
rājan(m) king | ekavacana, saptamī, sati saptamī
vad(1P) speak | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa
tarhi (ind) then
sarva each, all, every | bahuvacana, prathamā
sthā(1P) remain | bahuvacana, prathamapuruṣa
śru (5P) hear, hear about | bahuvacana, prathamapuruṣa
ca (ind) and

3. The guru stands among the students who are reading books – gurus tiṣṭhati paṭhatsu pustakāni śiṣyeṣu
>>> ye paṭhanti pustakāni teṣu śiṣyeṣu gurus tiṣṭhati – Teacher stands among of those students who are readind the books.
paṭh(1P) read | bahuvacana, prathamapuruṣa
pustakam book | bahuvacana, dvitīyā
śiṣyaḥ student | bahuvacana, saptamī
guru heavy; (m) teacher | prathamā
sthā(1P) remain | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa

4. I cannot see the book that is being read by you – ahaṃ na paśyāmi pustakaṃ tvayā paṭhyat
>>> ahaṃ na paśyāmi pustakaṃ tvayā paṭhyate - I cannot see the book that is being read by you.
aham I | prathamā
na (ind) negative particle
dṛś (4P) see, seem, appear (non-present form of paś) | ekavacana, uttamapuruṣa
pustakam book | dvitīyā
paṭh | ekavacana, prathamapuruṣa, karmaṇi prayoga


Konstantin I.

unread,
Jun 30, 2022, 4:21:09 AMJun 30
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
Урок 16

A

hā rāmalakṣmaṇau vanaṃ gantārau – Ah, Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa will go to the forest.

tābhyāṃ saha vaidehyapi gamiṣyati – Sītā also will go with them.

bhayaśokapīḍitarājo ‘pyanujñārthamāgacchantaṃ sutaṃ dṛṣṭvā putrarahito ‘cirānmariṣyāmīti cintayannavadatsthātavyaṃ vatsa na tvayā gantavyam – The king, oppressed by grief and fear, having seen son who was coming for the sake of permission, also thougt: “Without son I will die soon”, and said: “My dear child you must stay and not go away”.

he rāghava mama vākyaṃ na kevalaṃ tvayā śrotavyaṃ hṛdaye ‘pi dhātavyam – O, Rāma, you should not only hear my world, but also place them into your heart.

ahaṃ nigrahaṇīya iti – I should be imprisoned.

tacchrutvā satyavādī rāmo ‘ñjaliṃ kṛtvāvadat – Truthful Rāma Having heard this placed his palms together and said:

na vaktavyamidaṃ vacanaṃ na mantavyamapi – This words should not be said and not even be thoungt.

rājyaṃ karotu bharataḥ - Let Bharata rule the kingdom.

ahaṃ vanavāsamācariṣyāmi – I will dwell in the forest.

api ca yānguṇānadya prāpsyāmi kaḥ śvo mahyaṃ dāsyati tān – And who will give me those qualities tomorrow I will get today?

ato ‘haṃ sarāṣṭrajanadhanadhānyāṃ pṛthivīṃ visraṣṭāsmi – Since then I will give up the land with kingdom, people, wealth and grain.

adya vanaṃ gantāsmīti – Today I will go to the forest.

tataḥ pitaraṃ tyaktvā sasītālakṣmaṇo rāmastyaktabhogasya me vane vanyena jīvataḥ kiṃ kāryaṃ dhaneneti cintayansarvaṃ dhanaṃ brāhmaṇebhyo dattvā munivastraṃ gṛhitvā vanaṃ gantuṃ prārabhata – Then, having abandoned his father, he, accompanied Sītā and Lakṣmaṇa, thought: ”What I have to do with wealth, when I’m living in the forest with abandoned sensual enjoyment and eating forest-food?”, and he having gave wealth to the brāhmaṇas and grasped sage’s clothing started to go to the forest.

tato vigatānandā janā rāmavirahitanagaraṃ candrahīnamivākāśaṃ toyahīnamivārṇavamapaśyan – Then people with departed joy had seen the city abandoned by Rāma, that was like a sky with no moon or sea with no water.

daśaratho ‘pi priyaputraṃ vanagataṃ vijñāya śokaśalyahatamanā muneḥ śāpamanusmṛtya hā hā labhe ‘haṃ muniśāpaphalamiti vadanneva mahārājaḥ prāṇānatyajat – Killed by sorrow, Daśaratha, having realized that his beloved son had gone to the forest, said: “ Oh, oh, I gain fruit of sage’s curse”, and then he dead.

B

1. rāmeṇāhaṃ tyājyeti cintayitvā sītā bhītā bhaviṣyatītyevaṃ manye ‘ham – I think,  that Sītā will be afraid having thought: “I am to be abandoned by Rāma”.

2. rāmaścedrākṣasānnāhaniṣyadvayaṃ sarve naṣṭā abhaviṣyāma | tatastasmai lokarakṣakāya rāmacandrāya namaḥ - If Rāma had not killed demons we all would be destroyed, then we’re making a bow to Rāmacandra, world’s protector.

3. paśyata | tyaktarājyau rāghavau munibhyaḥ sarvaṃ dhanaṃ dātārau | sādhu sādhu | ahamapi sarvaṃ tyaktāsmi | tatastāpasavastraṃ gṛhītvā vane vatsyāmi – Look! They both will abandone the kingdom and give all wealth to the sages. Very well! I also will abandone all. I then having seize ascetic clothing will dwell in the forest.

4. daśarathabhāryā kasmādakartavyaṃ karma karoti | tatpāpakarmaṇaḥ kāraṇaṃ durvijñeyam | kaikeyī praṣṭavyā – Why Daśaratha’s wife does activity that should not be done? Reason of that evil act is hard to realize. Kaikeyi should be asked.

5. hā hā nagarasukhāni kathaṃ komalabālakābhyāmatikomalayā sītayā ca tyājyāni | kiṃ taiḥ kāryaṃ karkaśavaneṣu – Ah, ah, how two tender boys and the Sītā will abandone city’s joys? What they should do in rought forests?

C

1. If I do not see the moon-face of the beloved son of the king, I shall abandon my body – yadyahaṃ rājñaḥ priyaputrasya candramukhaṃ na paśyāmi tarhi me śarīraṃ tyakṣyāmi

2. Who gives what is to be given, who says what is to be said, he is one whose duty (i.e., what is to be done) is done. – yo dātavyaṃ dadāti yo vaktavyaṃ vakti so dharmakṛtyaḥ

3. Listen! I shall go wherever the son of the king goes. If I have to go (use a gerundive) to the dreadful forest, the abode of deer, monkeys, and rākṣasa-s, then I shall not stay in Ayodhyā. – śṛṇu | yatra yatra rājaputro gacchati tatra tatrāhaṃ gamiṣyāmi | yadi mayā ghoravanaṃ mṛgavānararākṣasavāsanaṃ gantavyaṃ tarhyahaṃ ayodhyāyāṃ na sthāsyāmi

D


han – tvaṃ rākṣasaṃ haniṣyasi
kṛ - ahaṃ rājyaṃ kariṣyāmi
bhū - tad na bhaviṣyati
gam - rāmalakṣmanau vanaṃ gamiṣyataḥ
dṛś – so mṛgaṃ drakṣyati

han – tvaṃ rākṣasaṃ hantāsi
kṛ - ahaṃ rājyaṃ kartāsmi
bhū - tad na bhavitā
gam - rāmalakṣmanau vanaṃ gantārau
dṛś – so mṛgaṃ draṣṭā

han – prajā na hantavyā
kṛ - tad na kṛtyam
bhū – putreṇa pitrā bhavitavyam
gam – vanaṃ mayā gantavyam
dṛś – mayā tad draṣṭavyam

Konstantin I.

unread,
Jul 25, 2022, 10:57:21 AMJul 25
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
A

sasītālakṣmaṇe śrīrāmacandre daṇḍakāraṇyaṃ gacchati kaikeyīputro bharato rājagṛhe mātulabhavane kaṃcitkālamuṣitvā sarvaṃ vṛttamavijñāya punarayodhyāṃ pratyāyayau – When Rāma with Sītā and Lakṣmaṇa went to the Daṇḍaka-forest, Bharata, son of Kaikeyī having dwelled in uncle’s palace in the capital city of Kekayas, not having realized all the news, again returned in Ayodhyā.

sa rathasthaḥ saṃllakṣmīhīnaṃ nagaraṃ paśyanduḥkhitamanā rājamandiraṃ rājahīnaṃ siṃhahīnaṃ kandaramiva praviveśa – Standing in his charion and seeing the city, devoid of truth and fortune, he, unhappy, entered in king’s palace abandoned by lion-king, that was like cave.

ādito vṛttāntaṃ kaikeyīvadanādeva śrutvā pitaraṃ mṛtaṃ bhrātarau nirvāsitau ca jñātvā daśarathātmajo ‘tīva śuśoca cukopa ca – Having heard the news from the face of Kaikeyī from the beginning, and having knew about dead father and exiled brothers, Daśaratha’s son very grieved and become angry.

bharata uvāca – Bharata said:

dhik tvāṃ pāpe – “Damn you in sin!”

kiṃ kṛtavatī tvam – What have you done?

kutaḥ puruṣavyāghrau vanaṃ jagmatuḥ - Why tigers of the men have gone to the forest?

brūhi brūhi kimakriyata tvayā – Tell me what’s done by you?

evamuktā svaputreṇa sā raghukulāśaniruttaraṃ dadau – Thus addressed she, destroyer of Raghu’s family give a reply:

B

pratyāyayau > pratyāyayuḥ
praviveśa > praviviśuḥ
śuśoca > śuśucuḥ
cukopa > cukupuḥ
uvāca > ūcuḥ
jagmatuḥ > jagmuḥ
dadau > daduḥ

C

he putraka tvatkṛta eva mayā sarvametatkṛtam – “Oh, son, all of this is done by me on account of you”.

mā sokamāśraya vīra – Don't be angry.

adyaprabhṛti rājyaṃ tvayā kartavyamiti – From today onward you should rule the kingdom.

sa śokapīḍitamanāstasyā viparītavacanaṃ śuśrāva sakopaśca babhāṣe – Oppressed with sorrow he heard her perverse words and said in anger:

kiṃ mayā kāryaṃ rājyena – What's the use of my reign which I should do?

jyeṣṭhaputro rāmo yathāvidhyabhiṣicyatām – Let eldest son Rāma be consecrated in accordance with custom.

ahamadya vanaṃ gantāsmi rāmacandravadanaṃ draṣṭum – Today I’ll go to the forest to see Rāma’s face.

mayā saha punarāgamiṣyatyayodhyāṃ raghukulanandanaḥ - Rāma come with me in Ayodhya again.

raghuḥ (m prop) Raghu, ancestor of Rāma + kulam family + nandanaḥ causer of joy = raghukulanandanaḥ causer of joy of Raghu’s family (tatpuruṣa) | prathamā | vigraha: raghoḥ kulasya nandanaḥ

tvaṃ tāvadvanaṃ gaccha – Meanwhile you go to the forest!

agniṃ praviśya rajjuḥ kaṇṭhe baddhvā vā narakaṃ prāpnuhi – Having entered in fire or bound the neck go to the hell!

tavānyā gatirnāstīti – You have no other way.

yadi rāmaṃ vanādānetuṃ na śaknomi tarhi lakṣmaṇavattatraiva sthāsyāmīti cintayāmāsa – If I cannot bring Rāma from forest then I will stay there like Lakṣmaṇa, I decided so.

antataḥ so rāmānujo daśarathasya caturthaputreṇa śatrughnena saha mahatyā senayā parivṛto daṇḍakāraṇyagamanamārebhe – Finally, he, Rāmānuja surrounded by great army, begin going to the Daṇḍaka-forest with Śatrughna, the fourth son of Daśaratha.

śuśrāva >śuśruvuḥ
babhāṣe >babhāṣire
cintayāmāsa > cintayāmāsuḥ
ārebhe > ārebhire

D-E

śap(1P) curse > śaśāpa, śepuḥ | aśapat, aśapan
kṛ(8p) do > cakāra, cakruḥ | akarot, akurvan
as(2P) be > babhūva, babhūvuḥ | āsīt, āsan
edh(1A) grow > edhāñcakre, edhāñcakrire | aidhata, aidhanta
āp(5P) obtain > āpa, āpuḥ | āpnot, āpnuvan
krudh(4P) be angry > cukrodha, cukrudhuḥ | akrudhyat, akrudhyan
bhū(1P) be > babhūva, babhūvuḥ | abhavat, abhavan
vas(1P) dwell > uvāsa, ūḥuḥ | avasat, avasan
yaj(1P) sacrifice > iyāja, ījuḥ | ayajat, ayajan
cint(10P) think > cintayāmāsa, cintayāmāsuḥ | acintayat, acintayan
labh(1A) obtain > lebhe, lebhire | alabhata, alabhanta
gam(1P) go > jagāma, jagmuḥ | agacchat, agacchan
dhā(3P) place > dadhau, dadhuḥ | adadhāt, adadhuḥ
han(2P) kill > jaghāna, jaghnuḥ | ahan, aghan

F

1. When the sons of the aged king saw the students of the sages, they gave them fruits – yadā jīrṇarājasya putrā ṛṣīnāṃ śiṣyān dadṛśus tadā tān phalāni daduḥ

2. The leader of the army of the rākṣasas, his eyes red with anger, seized the trembling daughter of the yogi and said, “Today you will be my wife, O one of the beautiful face.” – rākṣasasenāyāḥ koparaktanayano nāyako yogina udvijamānāṃ duhitaraṃ jagrāhovāca cādya varānane mama bhāryā bhaviṣyasīti

3. When that supreme yogi, whose senses were subdued, heard the terrible news, he stood up and wept like a boy – yadā saḥ paramayogī jitendriyaḥ krūravṛttāntaṃ śusrāva sa uttasthau ca ruroda ca bālaka iva

Konstantin I.

unread,
Sep 8, 2022, 6:37:26 AMSep 8
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
A

tvamadya bhava no rājā putrātmānamabhiṣecaya – Having cause to cosecrate self, o son, be our king today.

pāhi cāsmānnararṣabhetyukto rājakartṛbhirdharmaṃ cikīrṣurbharataḥ sarvaṃ janaṃ pratyuvāca – “And save us”, so addressed best of men by the king-makers, Bharaha, desirous of doing the law said to all the people:

nāsmi sthāpayitavyo ‘haṃ siṃhāsane – I’m not sitting, nor I should be placed on lion’s seat.

sūryavaṃśe rājyaṃ sadā śāsanīyaṃ jyeṣṭhena – In the sun’s dynasty the kingdom should always be ruled by the eldest one.

ato ‘haṃ mahāsenāṃ yojayitvā jyeṣṭhabhrātaraṃ tejasvinaṃ sītāpatiṃ vanādāgamayiṣyāmīti – I, therefore, having caused to join the great army, will cause eldest brotger, glorious husbahd of Sītā to come from the forest.

evaṃ bhāṣamāṇe bharate sarveṣāṃ śṛṇvatāṃ vigataśokānāṃ janānāṃ nayanebhyaḥ praharṣajabāṣpabindavo nipetuḥ - While Bharata were speaking in this way, drops of tears, produced by a joy of all the listening people, who had a gone grief, had fallen from the eyes.

tadanantaraṃ bahūñchilpanaḥ samājñāpya rājamārgaṃ kārayitvā – After that having command to many artisans, having caused to do a king’s road.

yadi tvāryaṃ na śakṣyāmi vinivartayituṃ vanāt

vadansa vanagamanāya pratasthau – Saying so he departed to the forest.

ekadā daṇḍakāraṇyagate rāme sītayā vanaramaṇīyatāṃ darśayati saumitrirupagacchantyā bharatasenāyā reṇuśabdau nirūpya mahāśālamāruhya camūṃ didhakṣanniva vacanaṃ babhāṣe – Once, when Rāma was in the forest and Sītā was showing beauti of the forest, Saumitri, having noticed a dust of the approaching army of Bharata, having ascend to the tall tree, said the word as if he was wishing to burn the army:

vyaktaṃ yatsaṃprāptābhiṣeko bharata āvāṃ ghātayitumihāgataḥ - It’s clear, that Bharata, who got a crown, he came to kill us.

ehi bhrātaḥ - go, brother!

adya rājyamicchantī kaikeyī mayā hataṃ putraṃ drakṣyati gajabhagnaṃ drumamiveti – Today Kaikeyī who desires the kingdom, will see a son killed by me like a tree broken by an elephant.

abhiṣecaya > abhi+sic(6P) anoint, consecrate:
abhicecayati
abhisisikṣati
abhisesicyati

sthāpayitavyaḥ > sthā(1P) stand:
sthāpayati
tiṣṭhāsati
teṣṭhīyate

yojayitvā > yuj(7Ā) join:
yojayati
yuyukṣati
yoyujyate

āgamayiṣyāmi > ā+gam(1P) come:
āgamayati
ājigamiṣati
ājaṅgamyate

samājñāpya > sam+ā+jñā(9P) know:
samājñāpayati
samājñāsate
samājājñāyate

kārayitvā > kṛ(8P) do:
kārayati
cikīrṣati
carkarti/cekrīyate

vinivartayitum > vi+ni+vṛt(1Ā) turn back, return:
vartayati
vivṛtsati
varīvṛtyate

darśayati > dṛś(4P) see:
darśayati
didṛkṣate/didṛkṣati
darīdṛśyate

didhakṣan > dah(1P) burn:
dāhayati
didhakṣati
dandahyate

saṃśamayatu > saṃ+śam(4Ā) be extinguished:
saṃśamayati
saṃśiśamiṣati
saṃśaśamyate

ghātayitum > han(2P) kill:
ghātayati
jighāṃsati
jeghnīyate

B

rāmastu krodhamūrcchitaṃ lakṣmaṇaṃ parisāntvayanvākyamabravīt – But Rāma, pacifying anger Lakṣmaṇa, said the words:

māstu kopo lakṣmaṇa – Don’t be angry, o, Lakṣmaṇa

kimatra dhanuṣā kāryamasinā kavacena vā – What should do a bow, a sword, or  an armor?

bharataṃ bhrātaraṃ hatvā kiṃ kariṣyāmi rājyena – What will I do with the kingdom having killed my brother Bharata?

yaddravyaṃ bāndhavānāṃ vā mitrāṇāṃ vā kṣaye bhavet

bharataṃ didṛkṣāmi – I wanna see Bharata.

āvāṃ nyastaśastrāviha pratipālayāvaḥ - We stay here with set down weapons.

tadanantaramupagate saśatrughne bharate sarveṣāṃ daśarathaputrāṇāṃ sānandaṃ samāgamo 'bhavat – There was joyfully when after Bharata with Śatrughna had came and there was meeting with all the sons of Daśaratha.

bharato rāmaṃ vṛddharājamaraṇaṃ jñāpayāmāsa – Bharata had said Rāma about the death of the old king.

tato ‘yodhyāṃ punarāgatya sarvalokaṃ śāstvārya iti bahuvāramuktaḥ śrīrāmacandraḥ pituḥ pratijñāṃ hṛdaye sthāpayan yaduktaṃ jīvatā mama pitrā tanna lopayituṃ śakyate mayetyacintayat – Then Rāma, who was asked many times for rule the whole world, having returned to Ayodhya again, placing father’s vow in the heart had thought: “What has been said by my live father must not be neglected by me.”

saṃpūrṇavanavāsānantaramayodhyāṃ mayā gamiṣyate lokaśāsanaṃ ca kariṣyate – I will go to Ayodhyā and be making world’s rule after dwelling in the forest.

didṛkṣāmi > dṛś(4P) see:
darśayati
didṛkṣate/didṛkṣati
darīdṛśyate

jñāpayāmāsa > jñā(9P) know:
jñāpayati
jñāsate
jājñāyate

sthāpayan > sthā(1P) stand:
sthāpayati
tiṣṭhāsati
teṣṭhīyate

lopayitum > lup(6Ā) break, destroy: ṇijanta neglect, violate:
lopayati
lulupsati
lolupyate

C

antato bharata evamuvāca – Bharata said this finally:

bhavatāṃ hemabhūṣite pāduke mahyaṃ dātavye – Give me your two gold-ornamented sandals. (or loṭ bhū bhavatām – let they be)

te bhavatsthāne rājyaṃ kariṣyata iti – They will rule the kingdom instead of you.

tathāstviti rāmeṇānujñāto bharato bhrātṛpāduke śirasi sthāpayitvābhāṣata – Ordered by Rāma and having placed brother’s sandals on the head, Bharata said: “Let it be so”.

ete pāduke rājyaṃ kurutām – Let these sandals rule the kingdom.

ahaṃ nagarādbahirbhavatpādau didṛkṣurvatsyāmi – I will dwell outside the city, I wanna see your foots.

saṃpūrṇe caturdaśe varṣe yadi tvāṃ na drakṣyāmi tarhyagniṃ pravekṣyāmīti – If I won’t see you at the end of forteenth year then I'll enter in the fire.

tato ‘yodhyāṃ ca śokārtaḥ pratinivavṛte – Then he afflicted with sorrow returned to Ayodhya.

sthāpayitvā > sthā(1P) remain:
sthāpayati
tiṣṭhāsati
teṣṭhīyate

didṛkṣu > dṛś(4P) see, seem, appear:
darśayati
didṛkṣate/didṛkṣati
darīdṛśyate

D

1. Having caused Rāma dwell in the forest, Kaikeyī will wish to make Bharata king. –

2. Thinking, “The prince wants to kill me,” Lakṣmaṇa was desirous of fighting. –

3. Bharata, the knower of dharma, had his army bathe in the Ganges. – bharataḥ dharmajñaḥ tasya senayā gaṅgāyāṃ snāpayāmāsa

4. Lakṣmaṇa wanted to fight Bharata but was unable to anger Rāma – lakṣmaṇo bharatam ayuyutsata tu nāśaknot kopituṃ rāmam

5. A donkey does not become a lion by a roar; a man does not become a hero by boasting – nādena gardabho nasiṃhāyate katthanena puruṣaḥ na vīrāyate

6. The boy places the fruit at his teacher's feet. – bālakaḥ phalaṃ gurupādayoḥ sthāpayati

7. The two boys should inform their mother and father of all that happened. –

8. Let the old sage teach us the Ṛgveda – jīrṇamuniḥ asmān ṛgvedaṃ śrāvayatu

9. Angering his father, the young child wanted to see his mother. – pitaraṃ kupyan bālako mātaraṃ didṛkṣāmāsa

10. His curiosity made him follow Rāma to the forest. – tasya kautūhalaṃ tena rāmaṃ vanam anuyāpayāmāsa

Konstantin I.

unread,
Oct 4, 2022, 2:53:55 AMOct 4
to Общество ревнителей санскрита (Sanscrit)
Урок 19

A

ayodhyāṃ gatayorbharataśatrughnayo rāmo godāvarīṃ nadīṃ prāpya devapitṝṃstarpayitvā snānamakārṣīt –
When Bharata and Śatrughna had gone to Ayodhya, Rāma, having come to the river Godāvarī and satisfied gods and ancestors, took a bath.

tataḥ -
after that

kṛtābhiṣekaḥ sa rarāja rāmaḥ sītādvitīyaḥ saha lakṣmaṇena
kṛtābhiṣeko girirājaputryā rudraḥ sanandirbhagavāniveśaḥ
Having made a bath Rāma, accompanied by Sītā and Lakṣmaṇa, was shining like the lord Śiva accompanied by Nandi and Pārvatī.

tadā pūjyamāno maharṣibhiḥ parṇaśālāyāṃ priyabhāryayā saha sukhamuvāsa –
Then Rāma worshiped by sages were dwelling happily in the leaf house with beloved wife.

athāmuṣminsamaye kācana mahatī rākṣasī śūrpaṇakhā nāma tasmindaṇḍakāraṇye 'vasat –
At that time rākṣasī Śūrpaṇakhā were living in the same forest.

sā ca krūrakarmā virūpā niśācarakanyā rākṣasādhirājasya trilokakaṇṭakasya daśagrīvasya rāvaṇanāmno bhaginyabhūt –
She was bad-doing ugly daughter of the rākṣasas king and sister of  Rāvaṇa.

ekadā sā vane yadṛcchayā bhramantī tau dvau sūryacandropamau vīrāvadrākṣīt –
One time shi were wandering in the forest and had seen those sun-moon-like heroes by chance.

sumukhaṃ durmukhī rāmaṃ vṛttamadhyaṃ mahodarī
priyarūpaṃ virūpā sā susvaraṃ bhairavasvanā
She, with ugly face, big belly, ugly, with terrible voice, him, handsome Rāma, with thin waist, beauty form and good voice…

dṛṣṭvā ca kāmamohitā satīdaṃ vacanamavocat –
having seen, and she, being deluded by desire said these words:

bho vīra –
Hey, hero!

ahaṃ śūrpaṇakhā nāma rākṣasī kāmarūpiṇī
rāvaṇo nāma me bhrātā rākṣaso rākṣasādhipaḥ
prakhyātavīryau ca raṇe bhrātarau kharadūṣaṇau
I’m demoness Śūrpaṇakhā, that can take any form by will, I have got brother Rāvaṇa, the king of the demons, and two more brothers, Khara and Dūṣaṇa who famous and valor in battle.

ato mayā sahāgantumarhati bhavān –
You should come with me.

iyaṃ virūpā na tava sadṛśī –
This ugly woman not suitable for you.

tyājyā sā –
She should be abandoned

anyathā mānuṣīmalpodarīṃ tava bhrātaraṃ cādya bhakṣayiṣyāmīti –
Otherwise I’ll eat today this small belly woman and your brother.

akārṣīt, luṅ, akarot, cakāra
rarāja, liṭ, arājat, arājīt
uvāsa, liṭ, avasat, avātsīt
avasat, laṅ, uvāsa, avātsīt
abhūt, luṅ, abhavat, babhūva
adrākṣīt, luṅ, apaśyat, dadarśa
avocat, luṅ, avak, uvāca

B

tāṃ kāmapāśabaddharākṣasīṃ śrīrāmaḥ smitapūrvamidaṃ vacanamabravīt –
Rāma with a smile said to this lustful demoness.

kṛtavivāho ‘smi –
I’m married.

bhrātā tu me ‘vivāhito vīro ‘nurūpo bhartā tava bhavediti –
Let my unmarried brother be your husband, he’s hero and he’s  suitable.

evaṃ proktā rāghaveṇa kāmavaśagateyaṃ rāmaṃ sahasā parityajya lakṣmaṇamavocat  –
Thus adressed by Rāma, this one, under influence of desire, having abandoned him, said to Lakṣmaṇa:

rūpeṇa yuktāhaṃ bhāryā tava bhaviṣyāmi –
I endowed with beauty and will be your wife.

mayā saha sukhaṃ daṇḍakānvicariṣyasīti –
??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

tadvacanaṃ hāsakāraṇaṃ śrutvā lakṣmaṇo hasannivovāca –
Having heard these words, that were the reason for laughter, Lakṣmaṇa almost laughing, said:

dāso ‘smi varānane ‘grajasya rāmasya –
O, beauty-faced, I’m a servant of the firstborn Rāma.

rāmaṃ sevasva viśālākṣi rāmapatnī bhaviṣyasi –
You should serve to Rāma, o having large eyes, then you you’ll be Rāma’s wife.

ko hi tavaitādṛśaṃ rūpaṃ prekṣyemāṃ vṛddhāṃ kurūpāṃ sītāṃ na tyajediti –
Who, having seen your beauty, would't abandon this ulgy old Sītā?

iyaṃ tu rākṣasī kāmadevasya paṅcabhiriṣubhirhatā lakṣmaṇoktaparihāsamavijānatī tadvacaḥ satyamamanyata –
This demoness, killed with five love arrows, not realizing Lakṣmaṇas joke had thought that his speech was true.

abravīt, laṅ, uvāca, avocat
avocat, luṅ, avak, uvāca
uvāca, liṭ, avak, avocat
amanyata, laṅ, mene, amaṃsta

C

he rāma – O, Rāma

adyemāṃ bhakṣayiṣyāmi paśyatastava mānuṣīm
tvayā saha cariṣyāmi niḥsapatnā yathāsukham
I’ll eat this woman while you’ll be looking at, and then I’ll have been walking with you happily without a rival.

ityuktvā sā susaṃkruddhā sītāmabhyagamad bubhukṣonmattavyāghrī komalamṛgaśāvakaṃ yathā –
Having said so, she furious had approached to Sītā like hunger tigress to young fawn.

rāmastu kupitastāṃ nivārayāmāsovāca ca –
But angry Rāma stopped her and said:

krūrairanāryaiḥ saumitre parihāso na kadācitkāryaḥ -
Terrible people shoud never joking.

imāṃ lambodarīṃ rākṣasīṃ virūpayitumarhasi puruṣavyāghreti –
You shoud disfigure this fat demoness, o, tiger among the people.

tacchrutvā bhayapīḍitāṃ vaidehīṃ ca dṛṣṭvā rāmānujaḥ svakhaḍgamuddhṛtya rākṣasyāḥ karṇanāsāściccheda –
Having heard this and seen frightened Sītā, Lakṣmaṇa having lifted his sword and cut off the demonesses ears and nose.

iyamapi vicchinnakarṇanāsā pratodahatakareṇuvannadantī sravacchoṇitācchāditānanā bhrātaraṃ kharaṃ tatsarvaṃ nivedayituṃ drudrāva –
She with no ears and nose, like a killed elephant, with no tooths, with bloody face went to the brother Khara to say all that.

janasthānaṃ prāpya mahābalaṃ kharaṃ caturdaśasahasreṇa dāruṇarākṣasānāṃ saṃvṛtamupaviṣṭaṃ sā virūpitā bhayamohakrodhamūrcchitā svavirūpaṇakathāṃ nivedayantī bhūmau nipapāta –
Having arrived to the Janasthāna where was sitting powerfull Khara surrounded by 14000 cruel demons, she stupefied by fear, delusion and anger had fell to the ground and told a story about her disfigurement.

abhyagamat, luṅ, abhijagāma, abhyagacchat
nivārayāmāsa, liṭ, nyavārayat, nyavārayiṣṭa
uvāca, liṭ, avak, avocat
ciccheda, liṭ, acchinat, acchidat
drudrāva, liṭ, adravat, adudruvat
nipapāta, liṭ, nyapapat, nyapaptat

D.

1. daśarathe mahāyajñaṃ kṛtavati kausalyādayo rājñastisro bhāryāścaturaḥ sundaraputrānajījanan –
When Daśaratha made great offering, Kausalyā and other three king’s wifes gave birth to four handsome sons.

2. āgacchataḥ susaṃkruddhānghorarākṣasānprekṣya śrīrāmo mā bhaiṣīrityuktvā munaye ‘bhayamadāt –
Having seen coming furious terrible demons and having said: “Don’t fear”, Rāma gave security to the sage.

3. yadā rājātmano bhāryāyāḥ sudāruṇavaco ‘śrauṣīttadā he pāpini kiṃ tvayākārītyavocat –
When king heard terrible speech of his wife, he said: “O, sinner, what have you done?”

4. caturṣu vedeṣu kaḥ prasiddha iti praśnaṃ śrutvā sarva ṛgveda iti vadeyuḥ -
Having heard this question: “What veda among the four is more famous?”, they all should say: “The Ṛgveda.”

5. vanagamanānantaraṃ rāghavaḥ kimakārṣīt | nāhaṃ praṣṭavyaḥ | sarvamidaṃ vṛttāntaṃ sarvaiḥ paṭhanīyaṃ vālmīkirāmāyaṇe | -
What did Rāma after going to the forest? I’m not should be asked. All this story should be read by all in the Rāmāyaṇa of Vālīki.

E.

1. There was a terrible rākṣasa in Laṅkā named Rāvaṇa, the equal of a hundred gogs in battle. –
devānāṃ śatopamo raṇe krūro rākṣaso rāvaṇo nāma laḥkāyāṃ abhūt (abhavat, babhūva)

2. In order to kill this enemy of the righteous, the gods caused Hari to be born among men –
dhārmikasya imaṃ śatruṃ hantuṃ devā hariṃ puruṣeṣvajanayiṣata (ajanayan, janayāmāsuḥ)

3. If a man should act like a rākṣasa, then, like a night-roamer, let him not see the glorious sun. –
yadi manuṣyo rākṣasāyeta tarhi so niśācara iva tejasvinaṃ sūryaṃ mā drākṣīt

Reply all
Reply to author
Forward
0 new messages