currently, no. we have very coarse knobs (allow/disallow Crostini), but that's it atm.
we're kicking around different ideas & approaches, but there's nothing available right now or "soon" that would help you here.
i'd note that, once you have a command line shell, even if you didn't have root access, nothing is stopping you from downloading code into your $HOME and just running it from there. pip and npm and similar tools make this very trivial to do.
(i'm ignoring noexec $HOME and SELinux and IMA style enforcement mechanisms on the assumption that you'd be doing local development already e.g. `make && ./hello-world` stuff.)