Assuming you want to send a trusted
click event, chrome.debugger is indeed the only solution. It's weird though because usually non-banking sites don't check the isTrusted property of an event.
As for the problem, it sounds like a known bug in Chrome caused by the presence of the built-in hosted apps for Google Drive, Docs, Sheets. These apps are completely useless on all desktop platforms, their only purpose IIRC is to provide a click button in the ChromeOS launcher. The solution/workaround is to open chrome://apps page and remove everything you didn't install yourself except for the non-removable Chrome Web Store app, specifically YouTube, Google Drive, Docs, Sheets.
Another problem may be yet another bug if you try to attach to a freshly created tab (chrome.tabs.create or chrome.windows.create). It can be solved by creating an empty about:blank tab, attaching to it, then navigating to the real URL.