If the landings were faked, any idea why Russians/Chinese didn’t spill the
Apollo Lunar Module Lack Of Flame And Exhaust And Other Anomalies
"Not everyone around the world is prepared to take the word of the United States
on faith." - Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien in a speech to the Chicago
Council on Foreign Relations, February 13, 2003
This is an image of a Reaction Control System thruster firing on the space
shuttle, taken from Joseph P. Allen's book Entering Space.
Another image from Allen's book <http://ocii.com/~dpwozney/oms3d100.jpg> also
shows flame and visible exhaust from the Orbital Maneuvering Subsystem.
from a single 26400 N (6000 lb) OMS firing, is caused by the oxidizer, nitrogen
However, images and video of the lunar ascent and descent modules (LM),
allegedly taken from the surface of the moon and from the Apollo Command/Service
Module (C/SM), do not show flame or exhaust.
For the Apollo lunar ascent and descent module single main engine and sixteen
attitude control thrusters, the fuel and oxidizer were, respectively, hydrazine
and nitrogen tetroxide. The space shuttle orbiter also uses hydrazine and
nitrogen tetroxide in its Orbital Maneuvering Subsystem and Reaction Control
In Entering Space, Allen describes the shuttle thrusters: "The forward primary
thrusters sound like exploding cannons at thrust onset; and during their firing,
jets of flame shoot out from the orbiter's nose. ...The orbiter reacts to the
primaries' shove by shaking slightly and moving very noticeably. For the crew on
board, a series of attitude changes using primaries resembles a World War I sea
battle, with cannons and mortars firing, flashes of flame shooting in all
directions, and the ship's shuddering and shaking in reaction to the salvos."
Images from a surface camera pan the lunar ascent module as it lifts off the
surface. The background is a pitch black sky. In this image
showing the Apollo 17 lunar ascent module
"Challenger" supposedly lifting off from the Taurus-Littrow landing site there
is no flame, exhaust, or even engine exhaust shroud visible from the bottom of
the lunar ascent module.
The lunar ascent module engine had a 15000 N (3500 lb) thrust. The attitude
control thrusters for the Apollo C/SM and LM (which had four sets of quadruple
thrusters) had 490 N (110 lb) of thrust each. In comparison, the 38 thrusters
for shuttle orbit control each have a nominal thrust of 3870 N (880 lb), with a
range from 3114 N to 5338 N. Why is the exhaust visible from the 3870 N shuttle
thruster but not from the 15000 N lunar ascent module engine?
I have been unable to find any images or video footage of any visible flame or
exhaust coming from any of the four quadruple clusters used for attitude control
of the lunar module, or from the main engines of the ascent and descent modules.
However, official NASA artists' drawings
<http://www.ksc.nasa.gov/mirrors/images/images/pao/AS11/10075184.jpg> do show a
considerable amount of flame and exhaust
from the main engine.
In the films To The Edge And Back covering Apollo 13 and Apollo 13, animation
shows the LM main engine emitting a bright flame for the various burns between
the earth and the moon. In Apollo 13, animation shows visible flame from the LM
thrusters during SM separation from the CM and LM.
None of the Apollo images and video show any water vapour being emitted from all
the heat-exchanging cooling equipment. Images and reports
<http://www.satobs.org/h2o_dump.html> demonstrate, however, the visibility of
clouds of ice crystals, formed from liquid water vented into the vacuum of space
from the shuttle.
In addition, of all the photographs I have viewed of the Apollo missions, I have
yet to find any photographs taken for the purpose of imaging the star and planet
formations. This would have been a useful, valuable, and interesting scientific
In the 30-minute documentary Houston, We've Got A Problem covering Apollo 13, an
image of the service module
<http://www.ksc.nasa.gov/mirrors/images/images/pao/AS13/10075514.jpg> shows the
panel blown off. The SM is bright and takes up a good portion of the screen. On
the remainder of the screen stars appear to be indistiguishable from debris.
Photographs taken from the surface of the moon do not show stars in the sky.
In For All Mankind by the National Geographic Society, astronauts are shown
suiting up. In their launch suits, the astronauts do arm exercises and wave to
the crowd. From these scenes the Apollo suits do not appear to have bearings at
the joints like the space shuttle extra vehicular suits, which do have bearings
at the elbow, shoulder, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle joints. How were the Apollo
astronauts able to bend their joints, especially their finger joints, on the
moon if their suits were pressurized?
Pressurized suits give a rigid balloon-like appearance which the moon astronauts
did not appear to have. This image
<http://images.spaceref.com/iss/wardrobe.for.space.gif> illustrates the
balloon-like appearance of the shuttle EVA spacesuit compared to the Apollo
The For All Mankind video shows the ground when the lunar module is landing. As
dust is being kicked up from the main engine, a dark shadow of the module
appears. The ground in the lunar module shadow does not show any reflection or
brightness from any main engine exhaust flame.
Why were there were no emergencies or problems from the temperature extremes of
-100 to -150 degrees Fahrenheit to +215F? A study paper for a proposed moonbase
uses a noon-time worst case of 375 K (102 C, or 215 F) for a lunar surface
When the sun is low in the moon's sky, vertical objects on the moon's surface,
such as alleged standing astronauts and LM spacecraft walls, would have been
nearly perpendicular to the sun's rays and would have been receiving nearly the
full brunt of these rays. The altitude of the sun above the local lunar horizon
at landing for the Apollo program varied between about 5 degrees and 24 degrees,
with the sun between 12 and 15 degrees above the horizon for most of the
flights. After one earth day of sunrise on the moon, the sun is at an altitude
of 13 degrees above the lunar horizon. So, with a fourteen-earth-day-long moon
day, even when the sun is low in the moon sky, the sun would have already had
considerable time to heat moon surface objects up to very high unbearable
temperatures. For the longer missions, such as Apollo 17, by the time the LM
would have ascended from the moon's surface, several days of nearly
perpendicular constant sunlight bombardment to moon surface equipment would have
In For All Mankind, ground control announced that the temperature in the shade
was -100 to -150 degrees Fahrenheit. Were the batteries of the lunar rover in
the shade, and if so, how were they protected against these temperature
At temperatures less than -40F (-40C) a lot of materials start becoming very
brittle. Electrical items do not work as well. Batteries produce less current.
The extreme temperature variations from shadow to sunlight would cause
significant material contraction and expansion and would make equipment
breakdown and failure very likely.
Why did the one-sixth gravity cause the astronauts to alternate between hopping
and walking? I saw one sequence where an astronaut looked like he was flexing
his knees pretty good to jump but he did not travel any higher than a couple of
feet. Why? The astronauts were not hopping any farther than what the typical
person could hop here on Earth.
There a number of times in Apollo footage when the astronauts were landing
pretty hard on their knees. Were they not running a huge risk of puncturing
their pressurized suits? According to an article in the Dec. 1, 1969 issue of
Aviation Week and Space Technology, Apollo mission planners were worried about
suit puncture and cutting.
Why was video quality so poor for Apollo 11, when more people were watching,
compared to later Apollo missions, when less people would have been watching and
would have been less skeptical? In the NASA film The Eagle Has Landed, why can
you see the Apollo 11 LM and flag through the astronaut walking on the surface
of the moon?
After an Apollo 14 astronaut sets up and lets go of the flag, the flag flutters,
is still, and then flutters again. This may be viewed on the Apollo Interactive
CD-ROM by Simitar Entertainment.
After watching these films, I have decided to study the lunar ascent and descent
modules more closely. One of the areas that I am looking at is the stability of
the lunar module in flight. Only a single engine is provided, for both the
ascent and descent phases, right in the centre with the potential for a rapidly
shifting centre of gravity to be off considerably from the thrust vector due to
the design. Shifting centre of gravity due to fuel consumption and astronaut
movement, and eccentric loading due to weight of rover or moon rocks, would
result in an unstable and unbalanced craft. The ascent and descent modules have
a significantly different centre of gravity yet they both use the same four sets
of quadruple thrusters, giving different flight characteristics and handling.
How can the quadruple thrusters fire quickly enough and sufficiently enough to
counteract a quickly changing and significantly changing thrust vector? How can
the system remain stable and not loop uncontrollably? The ascent stage engine
was not gimballed, and the inherently off-center, large torquing thrust would
have to have been constantly and very immediately counteracted by the small,
low-thrust, quadruple thrusters. The craft has good potential to fly like a
balloon you let go of and let deflate. I am currently attempting to obtain
actual engineering drawings to perform detailed calculations.
Apollo Oxygen and Two-Gas Environment Problems
Apollo Internet Images and Videos with Anomalies and Inconsistencies
Various Other Apollo Image Anomalies <http://ocii.com/~dpwozney/apollo4.htm>
Deadly Radiation At and Beyond the Van Allen Shields
Back To Main Index Page <http://ocii.com/~dpwozney/index.htm>
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