Message from discussion BMJ: The only way to eradicate paralytic poliomyelitis is to stop vaccinating [with polio vaccines]
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From: "John H. Gohde" <john.h.go...@gmail.com>
Subject: Re: BMJ: The only way to eradicate paralytic poliomyelitis is to stop
vaccinating [with polio vaccines]
Date: Wed, 18 Apr 2012 07:17:26 -0700 (PDT)
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Polio eradication by vaccination?
Let me quote some original seminal medical research.
Anderson et al. (1951) in his article =93Poliomyelitis occurring after
antigen injections=94 (Pediatrics; 7(6): 741-759) wrote =93During the last
year several investigators have reported the occurrence poliomyelitis
within a few weeks after injection of some antigen. Martin in England
noted 25 cases in which paralysis of as single limb occurred within 28
days of injection of antigen into that limb, and two cases following
penicillin injections. In Australia, McCloskey, during a study of the
1949 outbreak, recorded 38 cases that developed within 30 days of an
antigen injection, finding an association between the site of
paralysis and that of the recently antecedent injection. His findings,
contrary to Martin=92s suggested a greater association with pertussis
vaccine than with other antigens. Geffen, studying the 1949
poliomyelitis cases in London, observed 30 patients who had received
an antigen within four weeks, noting also that the paralysis involved
especially the extremity into which the injection had been given. In a
subsequent survey of 33 administrative areas in England, Hill and
Knowelden found 42 children who had been immunized within a month [of
injections]=85Banks and Beale3 observed 14 cases that followed within
two months after immunization noting also a correlation between site
of injection and location of paralysis, as well as increased severity
of residual paralysis=85In the discussion of this problem during the
April 1950 meeting of the Royal Society of medicine, Burnett and
others stressed the apparent relationship to multiple antigens
containing a pertussis component=94. [undoubtedly reflecting the
increasing use of pertussis-containing vaccines].
Peterson et al. (1955) reported on vaccination induced poliomyelitis
in Idaho as part of the trial of the Salk (injectable) vaccine
(Vaccination-induced poliomyelitis in Idaho. Preliminary report of
experience with Salk poliomyelitis vaccine. JAMA; 159 (4): 241-244).
The Cutter laboratories were accused of distributing vaccines
containing live polioviruses, and singled out, even though vaccines
produced by other manufacturers also caused paralysis (Nathanson and
Langmuir 1963. The Cutter incident: poliomyelitis following
formaldehyde-inactivated poliovirus vaccination in the United States
during the spring of 1955 III. Am. J Hyg; 78: 61-81
Wyatt (1981) summarised cases of provocation poliomyelitis caused by
multiple injections in his article =93Provocation poliomyelitis:
neglected clinical observations from 1914 to 1950=94 (Bull Hist Med; 55:
Wyatt et al. (1992) and Wyatt (1993) warned against the unnecessary
injections causing paralytic poliomyelitis in India (Trans Roy Soc
Trop Med Hyg; 86: 546-549 and Lancet 341: 61-62, respectively).
Sutter et al. (1992) published an article =93Attributable risk of DTP
(Diphtheria and Tetanus toxoids and Pertussis toxoid vaccine injection
in provoking paralytic poliomyelitis during a large outbreak in Oman=94.
(J Infec Dis; 165: 444-449).
According to Strebel et al. (1994. Paralytic poliomyelitis in Romania,
1984-1992. Am J Epidemiology; 140 (12: 111-124) ) although
poliomyelitis due to wild virus had virtually disappeared from Romania
(no cases reported between 1984-1989), the vaccine-associated
paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) was reported at very high rates for
over two decades. The overall risk of VAPP in Romania was up to 17
times higher than the reported risk in the USA.
In November 1990, to decrease the risk of VAPP, oral poliomyelitis
vaccine produced in Romania was replaced by imported OPV produced by
=93Western European manufacturer=94. However, the risk of PAPP continued
unabated with that vaccine.
The history continued repeating itself all over the world wherever the
poliomyelitis vaccines were used. Paralysis developed after both
injectable and oral polio vaccines.
It comes as no surprise that the most recent mass polio vaccination
programs fuelled by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation resulted in
increased cases of VAPP. In India, two paediatricians, Dr Neetu
Vashisht and Dr Jacob Pulliel of the Department of Paediatrics of St
Stephens Hospital in Delhi noted that another major ethical issue
raised by the campaign is the failure to thoroughly investigate the
increase in incidence =93of non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (NPAFP)=94
in areas where many doses of vaccine were used, while noting that
these cases are clinically indistinguishable from polio paralysis and
twice as deadly.
They also noted that while India was declared polio-free in 2011, at
the same time there were 47500 cases of NPAFP, which increased in
direct proportion to the number of polio vaccine doses received.
Independent studies showed that children identified with NPAFP =93were
at more than twice the risk of dying than those with wild polio
According to their report, nationally, the NPAFP rate is now twelve
times higher than expected. In the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar =96
which have pulse polio vaccination every month =96 the NPAFP rate is 25
and 35 fold higher than the international norms (Ramesh Shankar,
Ron Law (Assaulting alternative medicine: worthwhile or witch hunt?
BMJ.com 10 March 2012) recently addressed the polio situation in
India: eradication has been achieved by re-naming the disease.
Poliomyelitis paralysis which occurs even after 30+ vaccination doses,
is now called acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) or polio-like paralysis;
hardly a great success of vaccination or comfort to the parents of the
more than 60 000 affected children.
Earlier redefinition of poliomyelitis had been introduced in the US: a
disease with residual paralysis which resolves within 60 days changed
into a disease with residual paralysis which persists for more than 60
days. Cases of paralysis which resolve within 60 days (99% of cases)
are diagnosed as viral or aseptic meningitis.
According to MMWR (1997; 32: 384-385), there are 30 000 to 50 000
cases of viral/aseptic meningitis per year in the US. Considering that
in the pre-vaccine era the vast majority (99%) of the reported cases
were non-paralytic (corresponding to aseptic or viral meningitis),
vaccination has actually increased the incidence of poliomyelitis.
Before mass vaccination there were a few hundred or few thousand cases
of polio in some outbreaks, while now it is up to 50 000 cases every
Figure 1 in Schonberger et al. (1984. Control of poliomyelitis in the
United States. Rev infect dis; 6 (Suppl 2: S424-S426) shows the steady
downward trend in the incidence of poliomyelitis stopping, and indeed
increasing, when DPT and P vaccination became mandatory in the US in
The experience in northern Namibia showed that with no polio
vaccination children developed natural immunity to the wild polio
virus without developing paralysis (Biellik et al. 1994. Poliomyelitis
in Namibia. Lancet 344: 1776).
The vaccine viruses inactivation by a 14-day treatment with 1:4000
formaldehyde solution is the subject to asymptotic factor making the
inactivation incomplete (Gerber et al. 1961. Inactivation of
vacuolating virus (SV 40) by formaldehyde, Proc Soc Exp Biol & Med;
108: 205-209), and, Fenner (1962. The reactivation of animal viruses.
BMJ; July 21: 135-142) showed that the process is also reversible.
Evans et al. (1985. Nature ; 314: 548-550) demonstrated =93Increased
neurovirulence associated with a single nucleotide change in a
noncoding region of the Sabin type 3 poliovirus genome=94.
The only way to eradicate paralytic poliomyelitis is to stop