Message from discussion Yusuf Estes - Science proves Quran is from Allah
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Subject: Re: Yusuf Estes - Science proves Quran is from Allah
From: Dick Cheney <andrewrobinson...@gmail.com>
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On Nov 13, 12:22=A0pm, Guitarzan <dewachen1...@gmail.com> wrote:
> On Nov 13, 8:28=A0am, Slogoin <la...@deack.net> wrote:
> > On Nov 13, 7:07=A0am, Guitarzan <dewachen1...@gmail.com> wrote:
> > > Science is like a religion these days,
> > > to believe in half the crap
> > >they come up with you must believe.
> > =A0 =A0Only to those who can't do the math.
> Einstein's theories, as well as Quantum Mechanics, have produced
> tangible and real results in the world. =A0Larry do the math, and tell
> me what the theory of evolution has produced that's real.
The first entry on a google search:
Evolutionary theory is the framework tying together all of
biology. It explains similarities and differences between organisms,
fossils, biogeography, drug resistance, extreme features such as the
peacock's tail, relative virulence of parasites, and much more
besides. Without the theory of evolution, it would still be possible
to know much about biology, but not to understand it.
This explanatory framework is useful in a practical sense. First,
a unified theory is easier to learn, because the facts connect
together rather than being so many isolated bits of trivia. Second,
having a theory makes it possible to see gaps in the theory,
suggesting productive areas for new research.
Evolutionary theory has been put to practical use in several areas
(Futuyma 1995; Bull and Wichman 2001). For example:
Bioinformatics, a multi-billion-dollar industry, consists
largely of the comparison of genetic sequences. Descent with
modification is one of its most basic assumptions.
Diseases and pests evolve resistance to the drugs and
pesticides we use against them. Evolutionary theory is used in the
field of resistance management in both medicine and agriculture (Bull
and Wichman 2001).
Evolutionary theory is used to manage fisheries for greater
yields (Conover and Munch 2002).
Artificial selection has been used since prehistory, but it
has become much more efficient with the addition of quantitative trait
Knowledge of the evolution of parasite virulence in human
populations can help guide public health policy (Galvani 2003).
Sex allocation theory, based on evolution theory, was used to
predict conditions under which the highly endangered kakapo bird would
produce more female offspring, which retrieved it from the brink of
extinction (Sutherland 2002).
Evolutionary theory is being applied to and has potential
applications in may other areas, from evaluating the threats of
genetically modified crops to human psychology. Additional
applications are sure to come.
Phylogenetic analysis, which uses the evolutionary principle of
common descent, has proven its usefulness:
Tracing genes of known function and comparing how they are
related to unknown genes helps one to predict unknown gene function,
which is foundational for drug discovery (Branca 2002; Eisen and Wu
2002; Searls 2003).
Phylogenetic analysis is a standard part of epidemiology,
since it allows the identification of disease reservoirs and sometimes
the tracking of step-by-step transmission of disease. For example,
phylogenetic analysis confirmed that a Florida dentist was infecting
his patients with HIV, that HIV-1 and HIV-2 were transmitted to humans
from chimpanzees and mangabey monkeys in the twentieth century, and,
when polio was being eradicated from the Americas, that new cases were
not coming from hidden reservoirs (Bull and Wichman 2001). It was used
in 2002 to help convict a man of intentionally infecting someone with
HIV (Vogel 1998). The same principle can be used to trace the source
of bioweapons (Cummings and Relman 2002).
Phylogenetic analysis to track the diversity of a pathogen can
be used to select an appropriate vaccine for a particular region
(Gaschen et al. 2002).
Ribotyping is a technique for identifying an organism or at
least finding its closest known relative by mapping its ribosomal RNA
onto the tree of life. It can be used even when the organisms cannot
be cultured or recognized by other methods. Ribotyping and other
genotyping methods have been used to find previously unknown
infectious agents of human disease (Bull and Wichman 2001; Relman
Phylogenetic analysis helps in determining protein folds,
since proteins diverging from a common ancestor tend to conserve their
folds (Benner 2001).
Directed evolution allows the "breeding" of molecules or molecular
pathways to create or enhance products, including:
enzymes (Arnold 2001)
pigments (Arnold 2001)
bacterial strains to decompose hazardous materials.
Directed evolution can also be used to study the folding and
function of natural enzymes (Taylor et al. 2001).
The evolutionary principles of natural selection, variation, and
recombination are the basis for genetic algorithms, an engineering
technique that has many practical applications, including aerospace
engineering, architecture, astrophysics, data mining, drug discovery
and design, electrical engineering, finance, geophysics, materials
engineering, military strategy, pattern recognition, robotics,
scheduling, and systems engineering (Marczyk 2004).
Tools developed for evolutionary science have been put to other
uses. For example:
Many statistical techniques, including analysis of variance
and linear regression, were developed by evolutionary biologists,
especially Ronald Fisher and Karl Pearson. These statistical
techniques have much wider application today.
The same techniques of phylogenetic analysis developed for
biology can also trace the history of multiple copies of a manuscript
(Barbrook et al. 1998; Howe et al. 2001) and the history of languages
(Dunn et al. 2005).
Good science need not have any application beyond satisfying
curiosity. Much of astronomy, geology, paleontology, natural history,
and other sciences have no practical application. For many people,
knowledge is a worthy end in itself.
Science with little or no application now may find application in
the future, especially as the field matures and our knowledge of it
becomes more complete. Practical applications are often built upon
ideas that did not look applicable originally. Furthermore, advances
in one area of science can help illuminate other areas. Evolution
provides a framework for biology, a framework which can support other
useful biological advances.
Anti-evolutionary ideas have been around for millennia and have
not yet contributed anything with any practical application.