HOME ESPRESSO MACHINE FAQ v6.1 (12-98)
A document by David Bogie (bogie...
@aol.com) that is submitted to the coffee
newsgroups on Usenet on or around the first of each month. This document is
usually posted in two parts due to the limitations of America Online's Internet
Historical update: After about a year of constant use and superb espresso,
my Rialto died. The boiler's Teflon lining started to flake off and this
apparently exposed the heating element causing a short. The importer replaced
the boiler under warranty,repaired it at a premium charge, and I paid the
shipping both directions. The total came to about $85.00 and would have been
closer to $160 if it had died a few weeks later and been out of warranty.
Would I buy another Rancilio machine? Yes, without hesitation. I might buy
a premium Gaggia next time. Or one of those Pasquini semi- professional
machines. Or try to locate a used Marzoco single group. I dunno.
* D-7. Look, I'm on a budget. Isn't there anything cheaper?
Yes. There are some pump machines available for less than $100. Some opf
these models are stripped down versions of their more costly cousins. Careful
research will also turn up “factory refurbished” units at temptingly deep
discounts. Looking at costs alone, you could buy two or three refurbished
Gaggia model "Espresso" units for what a Rancilio Silvia would set you back.
With these economics, you can start to think of espresso machines as
Don't buy one of these things based on cost alone. Don't buy one because
someone on the coffee newsgroups happens to be totally nuts over theirs and is
posting glowing "reviews." Buy a less expensive home espresso machine only
because you have done your homework and some serious shopping.
Look carefully at several different models and brands of equipment in a
broad range of prices so you get an idea of what differentiates the low end
from the better machines. Establish what the "gold standard" is ... to what are
you comparing all of your choices?Settle for one of those cheap units because
you like the espresso it makes. But, hey, let's be serious. Do you really
expect a $100 unit to perform as well as -- or last as long as -- a machine
that costs three or six times as much? I do not.
* D-8. Fine. You're not just serious about your coffee, you're a bit of a snob
about this espresso thing, aren't you?
Absolutely. I've played with dozens of machines. I've tasted hundreds of
espresso roasts. I've been served utterly horrible espresso by louts at fine
coffee establishments all over the country and I'm not afraid to ask someone to
make it for me again.
Making bad espresso is effortless. It's a no-brainer. Anyone can over- or
under-extract espresso. Most people do. They do it without realizing how awful
the stuff is because they do not know how to drink it straight. Even those who
should know better, people in the specialty coffee and food service industries,
will pass off any slop as espresso to an ignorant public. They get away with it
because 6 ounces of hot milk will hide almost anyting.
It ain't the machine's fault. Well, could be ... It is my experience that
poorly trained baristas all over the world are using the finest technologies
and the best coffees to serve up the worst possible drek to their best
customers. "Put the coffee in the filter thingy, push the button, get the
Making superb espresso requires no more effort or time than making bad
espresso. It takes a little practice, yes. And some attitude. Superb espresso
requires a passion for everything about fresh coffee and at least a passing
interest in how your machine works.
Anyone who tells you espresso is "Quick And Easy" is under suspicion,
they're lying to you for one reason or another. Avoid these people and hang
onto your wallet when in their presence.
If you have easy access to a well trained, highly skilled, and
quality-conscious barista who makes beautiful espresso for you consider
yourself truly blessed. Tip this person often and be bountiful because he or
she has spoiled you rotten.
I serve myself and my guests only the finest espresso I can make. I throw
away gallons of bad coffee.
David Schomer of Seattle's Espresso Vivace, even after almost a decade in
the business and working with the finest professional quality tools he can
find, says he only creates “perfect espresso” about 20% of the time. What is
“perfect espresso?” To Schomer, that means it tastes just like his freshly
roasted coffee smells. Sadly, this quality is almost impossible to
accomplishwith even the best home unit with any level of consistency.
* D-9. What else do I need to know?
There's much more to making espresso at home than just buying a machine,
plugging it into the wall, and filling it with water. Most of what you need,
including a large amount of storage space, is not in the box nor is it included
in the purchase price. Heed these words of advice from the School Of The Hard
Knockbox (this experience cost me plenty but for you, such a deal):
Everything you know about brewing coffee is wrong.
Espresso is messy. Unbelievably disorderly. Seriously sloppy. Good and
Espresso involves many important and subtle steps. Compared to making
simple brewed coffee, espresso is a serious chore. It's not brain surgery; it’s
more like a nightmare. I call it magic.
The finely ground espresso coffee is like talcum powder and, man, it gets
Liquid espresso is likely to stain anything it touches.
Espresso machines are fussy, squirty, noisy, and drippy.
The miraculous elixir known as espresso dribbles into your demitasse
because the machine is a collection of pumps, switches, valves, gaskets, tubes,
soldered joints, flare fittings, and filters. These operate under tremendous
pressure and at high temperature. These mechanical parts and fittings will
eventually get tired, burn out, get clogged, bend, wear thin, or break. While
not a Universal Truth, the life expectancy of your machine is directly
proportional to its initial cost.
Residual coffee oils will turn rancid in a few hours on a warm machine.
The filter, showerhead disk, gasket, and all other parts that contact the
coffee must be kept reasonably clean or your espresso will taste awful. Keeping
your machine clean is strictly a manual job. Nothing on a home espresso machine
can safely be put in a dishwasher. Leaving soap on your equipment is just as
bad as leaving it dirty. Umm, no, it's much worse.
A spotlessly glistening steaming wand is the first thing I look for in a
coffee bar. It's a definite clue that the barista is well trained. The steaming
wand will get crusty with hardened milk residue the instant you remove your
steaming pitcher. The temperature of a steam wand that is in constant use at
acoffee bar is sufficient to keep it sterilized. Your wand, on the other hand,
will play host to an unspeakable slime of lower life forms if not kept
absolutely spotless, sanitary, and utterly clean. How do you do that? A quick
wipe with a clean towel and a quick burst of steam to blow out the milk will
keep your wand hygienic but be careful. That little wand is incredibly hot! A
wet rag can generate flash steam and burn your hand in seconds. Watch it, steam
burns deep tissue quickly. The cloth must be CLEAN. Do not use a cloth that has
been used to mop up spilled milk or to dry your hands.
Additional quip: A new espresso machine is like bringing home a new baby:
Lots of weird noises, new types of messes, unfamiliar smells, many additional
and unplanned expenses.
Beware of marketing scams like milk frothing doohickeys, overstated
pressure ratings, crema production or crema enhancement doodads, and worthless
accessories meant to trick you into thinking you are getting something for
nothing. The people who design the packaging, write the brochures, and craft
the directions for home machines don't know squat. See the rest of this
* D-10. There's more? Sheesh. Like what?
Can you say, “Accessorize?”
The toys listed below will add fun, flair, and class to your home coffee
bar. Naturally, you can get by without these accoutrements and, with a little
imagination, lower cost substitutes can be found.
D-10-a. Demitasse cups, miniature saucers, and itty bitty spoons.
Lovely white china doesn't necessarily make your espresso taste better but
these cute little cups are way cooler than serving espresso to guests in your
Dunkin Donuts Coffee Club mugs. Traditional demitasse belie the diminutive
appelation; these rascals are massive. The thick china will sustain years of
heavy use but they must be preheated before receiving your espresso so run a
shot of hot water into the cups before brewing. The teeny spoons are no mere
affectation, espresso should be lightly stirred before drinking. The finest 2
oz. demitasse by far are sold by Illycafe. The handle is disk-shaped so it
feels secure and looks very cool. The best 3 oz cappuccino cups are probably
$20 to $50 for set of four
D-10-b. Knock box (for your used coffee grounds)
Plastic works fine, stainless steel is better. The best have a cushioned
bar across the middle upon which to bang your gruppo. Obviously, the bar should
be resilient to prevent damage to your filter group.
Ideally, used grounds will pop out in a nicely formed cookie or biscuit.
You might need a small plastic spatula to help clear your gruppo. Don't use
metal tools that could scratch or pit the filter gruppo. Don't wash your
espresso grounds down your kitchen drain or flush them down your toilet. You're
only setting a date with a professional plumbing-type person in the very near
future to have your drains unceremoniously unclogged. Just put them in the
trash. Feeling politically correct? Espresso makes a great compost ingredient.
$5 to $40
D-10-c. Burr (not blade) grinder (Available in flat or conical burr styles.)
Once you've painstakingly tuned your expensive burr grinder for espresso
you must never use it for regular coffee. You must never use it for "flavored"
coffees. Sorry, did I sound obsessed? Well, I put much thought and energy into
tweaking my Rocky grinder for the perfect pour. I do not want to readjust it or
remove the beans every time someone else wants to make coffee "their way."
Listen, fitting a new espresso machineinto your life will be easier if you
simply invest in two grinders. Get one very good burr grinder for your
exclusive use for espresso and buy one of those cheap little blade grinders for
your other coffee brewing needs.
Some espresso enthusiasts swear by their hand-cranked grinders. I dunno,
sounds too Neanderthal-ish to be efficient.
$100 to $500
D-10-d. Airtight storage for fresh beans
You can get special stainless steel, glass, or ceramic coffee storage
containers at any specialty coffee emporium. Spend what you want or strive to
maintain your decor.
Inexpensive, wide mouth, half liter glass canning jars are great. They
have a secure metal closing system and a large rubber gasket. Umm, don't drop
one of these on a tile countertop, it will ex-freaking-plode! Mine are made by
Arc of France, each holds about a half pound of roasted espresso beans. If I've
got two or three different blends on hand I cut the label off the bag and tape
it to the top of the jar.
$5 to $40
D-10-e. Tamping tool (turned wood, molded plastic, cast aluminum or machined
stainless steel, brass, or aluminum)
For reasons that will only become clear to you much later, your tamper is
no rudimentary tool. It's a statement, your testimonial, avowing your
commitment to the espresso lifestyle. If anyone else could decipher the
message, they wouldtake one look at your tamper and know exactly how you feel
about your coffee.
I can save you lots of research here. I’ve tried them all. My tamper is
machined stainless steel. It fits my Rancilio’s filter cup precisely. It is joy
Reg Barber Enterprises in Canada will sell you one or make one to fit your
oddball machine's filter basket. Reg's compact yet massive stainless steel
tampers are precision machined on a metalworking lathe and then highly
polished. They are atttached to a beautiful hardwood handle that has an
ingenious nylon tapping button on the other end. Ask anyone who owns one. It is
the only choice for the hopelessly obsessed. You can email Reg for his product
list and pricing: tam...@coolcom.com (Please say “Hello” from Bogie.)
$5 to $50.
D-10-f. Lots of bad coffee to practice with while you learn how to use your new
For god's sake, don't drink this stuff! Just use it to learn how to tune
up your new grinder, experiment with different tamping pressure, and watch for
D-10-g Lots of superb coffees to learn how to enjoy your espresso the way it
was meant to be drunk: as a double ristretto.
$10 to $20 a week for the rest of your life
D-10-h. Stainless steel steaming pitcher
Do not use plastic, you can melt right through it. Porcelain and glass are
okay but they can break if dropped on your counter or floor. I find the smaller
sizes more practical. Look for complex cross sections rather than simple
cylinders. The voluptuous compound curves of these little pitchers helps keep
the milk from sloshing over the rim.
$10 to $50
D-10-i. Sweetened Flavor Syrups
Use these colorful liquids for caffe latte for your uninitiated friends
and guests. They make refreshing iced drinks, too. They are excellent for
milkshakes, "Italian sodas," and other cooking chores. Do not confuse flavor
syrups with "flavored" coffees. Do not use flavored coffees to make espresso.
Do not EVER put flavored coffee in your espresso grinder.
$5 bottle, get two or three if you like this sort of thing, or buy by the
D-10-j. Decalcifying and cleaning supplies
Towels and sponges for mopping up espresso can't be used for much else
because of the brown stains so maintain a dedicated collection that can be
Water is rarely “pure.” It’s loaded with all kinds of chemicals and
minerals. When water boils some of these dissolved substances precipitate out
and cling to the insides of your machine as a calcine deposit. Vinegar is
acceptable for some -- but not all -- machines as a decalcifying agent. (Urgent
warning: Carefully follow your manufacturer's instructions for decalcifying
your machine's boiler. You can cause all kinds of damage to your system that
may or may not be covered by your warranty. Umm, I know what I'm talking about
Chemical compounds specifically designed to safely clean espresso machines
are available from restaurant suppliers and specialty coffee suppliers. Most
are based around trisodium phosphate (TSP), a cleaning agent powerful enough to
clean walls. The TSP is cut with inert ingredients to bring down the
concentration and buffers are added so it will not attack the rubber gasket.
Some of the compounds on the market these days are phosphate-free.
To keep your drains clear of espresso grounds, professional strength drain
cleaning chemicals and enzyme products can be found at plumbing suppliers. Use
these compounds with extreme caution and follow the label directions absolutely
to the letter. (Urgent warning: Your plumber is the only person qualified to
tell you what compounds can safely be used on YOUR household drains. Save
yourself lots of trouble. Ask.)
$10 to $25
D-10-k. Treat yourself to a couple o' three good coffee books
The available literature is a rich source of coffee lore and science. Most
coffee books include the standard milk and-espresso beverage recipes, lots of
coffee history, coffee tasting instructions and blending guidance, facts about
coffee and the people who produce it for our enjoyment, oddball baking recipes,
and advice on how to shop for your next (better) machine.
$40 to $100
D-10-l. Clear glass shot glasses (Most are 2 ounces and these can encourage
careless overextraction. Most shot glasses are improperly marked. Chekc them
against a known measure.)
The preferred method for espresso preparation is to let the machine
dispense directly into preheated demitasse, bypassing shot glasses entirely. If
you are creating mixed espresso beverages, shot glasses will help you transfer
the espresso and maintain your accuracy. Use only clear glass shots because you
want to see the crema developing. This visual feedback will tell you much about
how your system is performing. Preheat the shot glass with hot water before
$2 to $10
D-10-m. Thermometer (rapid-read digital or fast-reacting analog dial)
Use this to check your machine's water temperature accuracy and to monitor
your milk while foaming and steaming. Milk shouldn't get much higher than 145
to 160 F or you run the risk of scorching or boiling it. Ick.
$10 to $50
D-10-n. Water Filtration System
Your water supply might be soft, hard, or laden with all kinds of trace
chemicals that affect the taste (or possibly threaten your health), but let’s
not get paranoid. You might not notice the presence of these invisible "taste
enhancers" but -- I guarantee -- you will notice when they have been removed
from your espresso.
There are many kinds of water purifying and softening systems on the
market ranging from giant reverse osmosis tanks and sodium cylinders that sit
in your garage to beer bottle-sized canisters that go under your sink or
replaceable podlets you put on your kitchen faucet. Look, I don't know anything
about these things. This FAQ is about espresso machines. I just know that I
clean my machine less often and I like the flavor of my espresso more when I
carefully filter my water. I once used a simple charcoal filter disk in a drip
funnel but I have recently installed an OmniFilter on the kitchen faucet. The
cartridges are replaced three times a year for about $10.00 each. I also have a
"Brita" filtration jug in the fridge for drinking water cuz that's my sister's
$5 to $10,000
* D-11. Whew! Got it. Expensive hobby. Not a toy. Anything else you wanna tell
Professional baristas make espresso look fun, easy, fast, and, above all,
profitable. A good barista is hard to find. Cultivate the relationship if you
know a talented espresso craftsperson. Patronize their shop. Tip them well.
Tell their boss about their performance and mastery.
Only after you have tweaked and fiddled and crouched in front of your
machine and watched several thousand shots dribble into your demitasse will you
recognize the horrible truth: You are hopelessly obsessed with this pungent
brew. Seek counseling if your behavior threatens your marriage or job.
(Ah, I can hear you laughing ... "seek counseling." Sure. As if. We'll see
who laughs later. Go ahead, buy your little espresso machine. It's just an
appliance afterall. It's not like it's going to change your life or anything
weird. Yes, well, check back here on the coffee newsgroups in a few months and
read this document again. Yes, we'll see who's laughing then.)
Home-style espresso machines will not necessarily allow you to play
"Pretend Espresso Cart." A phenomenon known as “dwell time” requires some
machines to recover operating temperature between servings and pressure must
bleed off the brewing head before you can remove the filter to reload for
another shot. (Just try to reload before the machine drains off the pressure in
the head. Barry Jarrett, coffee newsgroup junky and professional coffee
roaster, calls these explosive events "sneezes.")
The Rancilio Rialto features a solenoid activated pressure bypass valve
that eliminates the pressure relief problem completely. This bypass valve is
standard equipment on professional machines. It's a nice thing to look for in
your better home machines but I know of only one other manufacturer that offers
this nifty feature, Gaggia.
You cannot make espresso in advance. Dwell time, dancing with your
machine, swabbing the steam wand, and numerous trips to the fridge, the sink,
your grinder, and your knockbox all add up. It can take you half an hour to
serve six complicated espresso and steamed milk drinks to six dinner guests
because you must make them one at a time. As your skill level and familiarity
with your equipment increase you'll be able to crank out lattes and cappuccinos
*almost* like a pro.
Frothing milk is another technique you will need to practice privately
prior to performing in public. Most home machines just can't put out the volume
of dry steam that professional machines effortlessly spew so you may never
achieve stardom as a cappuccino master. The chemical changes milk's elemental
parts undergo during steaming are topics for someone else's FAQ but I think you
will find steamed milk tastes much better than milk that has been microwaved or
heated in a pan. You can steam milk for hot chocolate and other beverages with
your espresso machine. After each use be sure to jet some steam to clear the
tube of residual milk and to wipe the wand carefully with a clean towel.
Never immerse the wand in a pitcher that is filled with a liquid, whether
it is milk or water, unless you’re actively using the machine. Once the steam
system begins to cool, the lower pressure will suck stuff up into the wand and
possibly all the way into the boiler. This can utterly destroy your machine.
North Americans tend to want their milk foamed until it forms dry peaks
and that's tough to do with home machines. Personally, I prefer a softer and
gooey froth. It tastes better and insulates the drink just as well.
Then there is “milk chiffon,” the velvety thick micro-bubbly foam that
is so difficult to prepare at home. The remarkable mouth sensation of
delicately chiffoned milk makes cappuccino an unbelievably elegant drink. Takes
practice. I can only get it to work one out of every ten tries. Get a copy of
Schomer’s book or videos to learn the details.
D-11-a. Cleaning the machine
Here’s a scary topic ... You thought all you had to do was buy the thing
and plug it in? An espresso machine is not maintenance-free. To ignore it is to
invite a disease-ridden slime to take up residence and to allow an internal
encrustation to prematurely clog the waterways. Gross, dude.
Do you need to be compulsive about the cleanliness and sanitation of your
espresso hardware. Well, no. But it helps. Here’s my routine ...
The first thing I do is put the plug in the kitchen sink because I don’t
want anything falling down the drain or into the disposer. The second thing I
do is lay out all my tools, supplies, a couple of towels, and I pour myself a
tall cool beverage.
Once a week I disconnect or move all of the hoses and tubes that sluice or
slurp water through my Rialto and I remove the water reservoir. I scrub it with
a baby bottle brush and a mild vinegar solution. I place the unit’s tiny water
softener cartridge into a cup of salty water to recharge the resins. I use a
shorty screwdriver to remove the disperser screen (the showerhead) and I place
the parts in a 4-cup Pyrex glass measuring cup. I remove the double shot filter
basket and replace it with a “blind insert.” I fill the blind insert with 2
teaspoons of PuroCaff (TSP and some buffering agents) and run through a
backflush cycle that takes about five minutes. ** This backflushing can only be
performed on a unit that is equipped with a “triple action bypass” valve! **
Don’t try it on a conventional unit. ** Chekc with your manufacturer but be
forewarned, most espresso machine manufacturer's customer service people don't
know nuthin'' bout no espresso machines.
I dab a clean dishtowel in the diluted backflushing liquid that has filled
the drip tray and I carefully wipe down the outside of the machine, trying to
get into all of the nooks and crannies. I swab between the switches and in the
joints between pieces of the housing. I use a special stiff bristle brush for
stubborn stuff. Then I carefully wipe it down with a clean damp towel.
I place all of the filter group's parts in the large measuring cup with
the showerhead, add a teaspoon of PuroCaff and fill the measuring cup with very
hot water. I will then fill the reservoir with clear water at least three
times, running it through the main system and the steaming system. Then I let
everything cool down for an hour or two and carefully reassemble all the bits
This chore takes about an hour but the rewards are immediately tangible.
My espresso tastes great.
* D-12. What about caffeine? If I drink double shots of espresso regularly
won't I tend to be moving quite rapidly and won't my friends try to avoid me?
Just because you take your coffee as espresso doesn't mean you're a speed
freak. You won't be moving into the Folgers Wing of the Betty Ford Center. A
properly made shot of espresso contains significantly less of the bitter
alkaloid known as caffeine than an 8 ounce mug of your basic office or
supermarket swill. See the FAQ on Coffee and Caffeine for the exact milligram
measurements of caffeine in a curious collection of consumables including
coffee, colas, and candies.
Why is this so? Espresso's water-to-coffee contact time is short, leaving
some of the caffeine molecules locked into the plant fibers. Fine Arabica
coffees contain one half of the caffeine found naturally in the cheaper Robusta
beans that are used in supermarket coffees. (Using Robustas in espresso blends
is another controversy that tweaks the regulars around the coffee newsgroups.)
The results of chemical analysis performed by Lauk's Testing Labs in
Seattle were recently posted at the LucidCafe Web site by David Schomer. Check
out these numbers:
Espresso Ristretto (18.5 grams of finely ground coffee, 1 3/4 fluid ozs)
230 milligrams of caffeine.
Paper Filtered, Cone drip brewed coffee (18.5 grams of Arabica coffee,
about 16 fluid ozs) 340 milligrams of caffeine
Those are interesting numbers but I don't know anyone who makes a 16 oz
pot using only 18.5 grams of ground coffee. Seems to me that so little coffee
would produce only 6 to 8 ounces of brew worth drinking.
Espresso is the concentrated essence of superb coffees. The brewing process
is designed specifically to get the best out of the coffee and to leave all the
bad stuff behind.
Making espresso at home resembles only superficially brewing regular
coffee. Both products are "brown" but that's all they have in common.
Espresso is messy. Really. If your Significant Other likes a tidy kitchen
your relationship may not survive a home espresso machine.
One of your countertop appliances must die. A machine and a grinder take up
about two square feet of space and can draw from 10 to 20 amps of electricity.
Do you have the space and the circuitry to support your espresso compulsion?
* * E. Closing disclaimer:
It is my not-so-humble opinion, based on years of teaching other newbies
about coffee and espresso, that you will be happier if you do not rush out and
buy a machine for yourself or for your loved ones. Think of some of the other
appliances or tools in which you have invested and how carefully you researched
them before making your purchase decision ...
Did you buy the $150 dishwasher or the $400 model that heats its own
water and macerates food waste? Did you buy the $99 table saw or the $899 model
that is more accurate, comes with better accessories and will last two
lifetimes? The $149 "mountain bike" from K-Mart or the $3,000 dual suspension
monster from a real bike shop? Did you order your golf clubs from the back of a
comic book or did you have them custom fitted by an expert? How did you decide
which juice extractor to buy (just so you could end up hiding it in your
Hang out on the newsgroups for several weeks (or even several months)
before investing in your espresso machine. Send for catalogs, cruise the Web,
and watch for other people to post reviews of their machines. Watch the
baristas perform their jobs at your favorite coffee bar (don't be a cheapskate,
tip them!). If you know someone with an epresso machine rush over to their home
right now and insist on playing with it.
Hopeless espresso hound
After Effects/Media 100/double ristretto
Coffee and Espresso Bibliography:
"An Espresso Hound's Search For Crema At Home" by David Bogie, published in
Cafe' Ole' magazine, October, November, December, 1992.
"Espresso, Ultimate Coffee" by Kenneth Davids, 1993, published by the Cole
"Espresso, from Bean to Cup" by Nick Jurich, 1991, published by Missing Link
Press. (Rare these days)
"The Perfect Cup" by Timothy Castle, 1991, published by Aris Books.
"The Joy of Coffee" by Corby Kummer, 1995, published by Chapters. (Revised
"The Book Of Coffee" by Francesco and Ricardo Illy, 1992, published by
Arnoldo Mondadori Editore S.P.A., Milano, Italy.
Various issues of Fresh Cup magazine (the only editorial voice in the coffee
industry to challenge the Starbuck Way) email: fresh...@aol.com and on the Web
Various issues of Tea And Coffee Trade Journal, email: tea...@aol.com. (May
have changed, do a search on your own.)
Various issues of Coffee Journal magazine, on the Web at
http://www.tigeroak.com/coffeejournal/index.htm (May have changed, do a search
on your own.)
Tim Nemec's "Over The Coffee" Web site at www.cappuccino.com (back after a
Lucid Cafe`s Web site: www2.lucidcafe.com
> > > > end of document < < < < <
David Bogie, aspiring boxmaker
hopeless espresso hound
Keeper of the MiniFAQ on Home Espresso Machines