2 posts today to IAP Updates
Systematic review and meta-analysis of the associations between indoor air pollution and tuberculosis<http://blogs.washplus.org/iaqupdates/2012/11/systematic-review-and-me...>
NOVEMBER 8, 2012 · 0 COMMENTS<http://blogs.washplus.org/iaqupdates/2012/11/systematic-review-and-me...>
Trop Med Int Health. 2012 Nov 6. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12013.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of the associations between indoor air pollution and tuberculosis.
Sumpter C, Chandramohan D. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
OBJECTIVE: Half the world’s population uses biomass fuel for their daily needs but the resultant emissions and indoor air pollution (IAP) are harmful to health. So far, evidence for a link between IAP and tuberculosis (TB) was insufficient. We report an updated systematic review due to recent increase in the evidence and growing interest in testing interventions.
METHODS: Systematic search of PubMed (including Medline), CAB abstracts (through Ovid SP) and Web of Knowledge using the following search terms: ‘IAP or biomass or cooking smoke’ and ‘TB’. 452 abstracts were reviewed, and only 12 articles were deemed to be reporting the effects of IAP on TB and were taken forward to full review, and one study was added through hand search of references. Data on measures of effect of IAP on TB were extracted, and meta-analysis was carried out to estimate pooled measures of effect.
RESULTS: Thirteen studies have reported investigating association between IAP and TB since 1996. TB cases are more likely to be exposed to IAP than healthy controls (pooled OR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.04-1.62; P = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: There is increasingly strong evidence for an association between IAP and TB. Further studies are needed to understand the burden of TB attributable to IAP. Interventions such as clean cook stoves to reduce the adverse effects of IAP merit rigorous evaluation, particularly in Africa and India where the prevalence of IAP and TB is high.
Household air pollution is a major avoidable risk factor for cardiorespiratory disease<http://blogs.washplus.org/iaqupdates/2012/11/household-air-pollution-...>
NOVEMBER 8, 2012 · 0 COMMENTS<http://blogs.washplus.org/iaqupdates/2012/11/household-air-pollution-...>
Chest. 2012 Nov 1;142(5):1308-15. doi: 10.1378/chest.12-1596.
Household air pollution is a major avoidable risk factor for cardiorespiratory disease.
Mortimer K, Gordon SB, Jindal SK, Accinelli RA, Balmes J, Martin WJ.
Household air pollution (HAP) from biomass fuels, coal, and kerosene burned in open fires, primitive stoves, and lamps causes at least 2 million deaths per year. Many of these deaths occur in children <5 years of age with pneumonia and in women with COPD, lung cancer, and cardiovascular disease. HAP is inextricably linked to poverty, with activities to obtain fuel consuming a large proportion of the time and financial resources of poor households.
Thus, fewer resources used in this way means less is available for basic needs like food, education, and health care. The burden of work and the exposure to smoke, particularly during cooking, are predominantly borne by women and children. Although historically HAP has not received sufficient attention from the scientific, medical, public health, development, and policy-making communities, the tide has clearly changed with the broad-based support and launch of the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves in 2010.
There is now considerable reason for optimism that this substantial cause of cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality will be addressed comprehensively and definitively. Drawing on our experience from four continents, we provide background information on the problem of HAP, health impacts of HAP, opportunities for research, and the current best solutions.